Εικόνες σελίδας
Ηλεκτρ. έκδοση

size, very sensible, and remarkable for its very great simplicity of Ali gases which do not act chemically upon each other, when construction,

subjected to the same experiment, give the same result; and it is Laws of the Micture of Gases. When two or more gases are remarked that the mixture acts more rapidly in proportion to the inclosed in the same vessel, their mixture, when not effected by greater difference of densities between the gases. The second ehemical combination, is regulated by the following laws : law is proved experimentally by the help of the manometer. 18

[blocks in formation]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

1st. The mixture, which always takes place rapidly, is continuous and homogeneous, so that all the parts of the whole mass contain the same proportions of each gas.

Ind. The sides of the vessel where the mixture takes place is found also that if the gases are mixed at the same pressure, being inextensible, and the temperature constant, the elastic force before and after the mixture, the volume of the mixture is equal of the mixture is equal to the sum of the elastic forces to the sum of the volume mixed, it being of course understood of the gases contrined in the mixture, when each is referred to that the mixture takes place in a vessel whose sides are inextenthe whole mass, a: cording to the law of Mariotte. The first law is a consequence of the extreme porosity and Mariotte, in the same manner as simple gases; that is a fact

Lastly, gaseous mixtures are subject to the law of expansive force of gases. It was first proved by the French which has been already proved in the case of air, which is a chemist Berthollet, by means of the apparatus shown in fig. 87, mixture of oxygen and nitrogen.

Fig. 87.



Consideration of the Results of Combustion in Oxygen Gas.--The experiments performed in our last lesson require that we should now investigate the theory of combustion.

We have seen every instance of combustion which has hitherto come under our notice to have been the result, or at all events the concomitant, of the union of the combustible with oxygen as the supporter. In point of fact, almost all instances of combustion are the result of the powerful action of oxygen upon combustibles : not all, however, as was formerly supposed; hence the definition of combustion, formerly accepted, namely, “rapid union of a combustible with oxygen,is not strictly true. Chlorine, iodine, bromine, sulphur, and perhaps certain other elements, may in some cases take the place of oxygen as supporters of combustion. The only definition of combustion justified by known facts is, “rapid chemical action attended by the crolution of light and heat.'

The result of the combustion of substances in oxygen gas may be an oxide, an acid, or an alkali, according to the nature of the combustible. The first and second we have generated

in the course of our preceding experiments; the third we shall which is composed of two glass globes, each furnished with a neck form hereafter. and stop-cock, and screwed to each other. The upper globe was Returning now to a consideration of the contents of the jars filled with hydrogen, of which the density is .0692, and the other or bottles in which our various substances were deflagrated, globe with carbonic acid, of which the density is 1.529 or 22 let us begin with that vessel in which the iron was burned. simes greater than the former. The apparatus was placed in the You will observe, scattered all over its sides and base, various cellars of the Observatory at Paris, in order to keep them from little globules of a material not unlike iron to look at. If you being shaken, and from every variation of temperature. The remove these globules from the vessel, you will find them to stop-cocks being then opened, as in fig. 88, the carbonic acid be heavy and hard; not unlike the originál iron in appearance, in ihe lower globe i, notwithstanding its greater weight, passed but more dull. In reality, they are a compound of oxygen partly into the upper globe A, and, at the end of a little time, it with iron, or, in other words, the oxide of iron, “the black was observed that the two globes contained equal proportions of oxide,” as we may call it, by way of contradistinction to iron hydrogen and carbunic acid.

rust, or "red oxide" of that metal.

[ocr errors]



If you now take one of these little globules, break it on removed for use, they require no stopper, the thumb being all an anvil or stone with a hammer, and strew the particles on that is required, fig. 3. litmus paper moistened with a little distilled water, not the

Fig. S. alightest effect of redness will be developed on the blue litmus paper. We will therefore take the fact for granted, that the powdered material in question is not an acid-I say, we will take

July the fact for granted, because, although the reddening of blue litmus paper is a general-it is not a universal test of acidity. There exist certain acids, neither soluble (in ordinary language) nor sour, nor capable of reddening litmus paper ; but these are exceptions to a rule. The result of the combustion of iron, then, in oxygen gas is not an acid, neither is it an alkali, as you may demonstrate by comminuting another portion, and strewing it on moistened yellow turmeric paper, or moistened litmus paper previously reddened by contact with an acid. Ilad the substance operated with been alkaline, the turmeric paper would have been affected with a brown stain, and the reddene litmus paper would have been restored to its original blue tint. Meaning of the teron Oxide.--Inasmuch as the result of burn

I scarcely know whether it be necessary to observe that supposing iron in oxygen gas

is neither acid nor alkaline, but is never- ing a test tube containing gas to be standing in a little water upon theless a compound of oxygen with the iron burned, we call it a plate as represented in fig. 2. (the depth of water being an oxide of iron. And here you may remember, as a rule of necessarily inconsiderable, otherwise the tube would fall), it is chemical nomenclature, that the term oxide is given to such under these circumstances impossible to remove the" tube compounds of bodies with oxygen as are

neither acid nor alka- directly from the saucer or plate, without spilling some of tije line. Occasionally the result is of such anbiguous character gas. The proper course to be adopted is this : Steadying the that one hardly knows what to call it. For example, the sub

Fig. to stance white arsenic, which has already come under our consideration, was formerly termed oxide of arsenic; it is now terned arsenious acid, because its acid characteristics, although slight, are nevertheless evident. More ambiguous is the socalled oxide of tin, or stannic acid, according to the view we choose to take of it. I allude to the white powder resulting from the action of nitric acid upon tin. Again, in the oxides of alkaline earths we have certain ambiguous results. Lime is the product of the oxidation of a metal termed calciu). Lime is, therefore, treated of as the oxide of calcium; but the oxide is so distinctly alkaline, that chemists also denominate lime alkaline earth.You inay readily demonstrate this alkalinity of lime by touching a slip of turmeric paper, or reddened litmus paper, with a portion of lime water. The distinctive change of colourdue to alkalinere-action will be immediately recognisable.

Having examined the solid result of the combustion of fron in oxygen, let us next see whether the gaseous contents of the jar manifest any peculiarity. For this purpose, portions of the gas may be transferred by means of the pneumatic tro

tube with the right hand, support the plate by means of the Fig. 1.

left; immerse 'plate and tube in the pneumatic trough, allow the plate to sink, secure the mouth of the tube with the thumb, and withdraw it, fig. 4.

On testing successive tubes filled with the air remaining in the vessel used for the combustion of iron, you will find that it contains no new principle; it has neither taste nor smell, does not whiten lime-water, or but faintly whitens it, does not turn blue litmus paper red, red litmus paper blue, nor yellow turmeric paper brown. An ignited taper burns in it without any peculiarity. The gas demeans itself like atmospheric air, Atmospheric air indeed it is; consequently we arrive at the final deduction, that the sole result of the combustion of iron in oxygen gas is a solid, nothing but a solid-the black oxide of iron.

Examination of the Results of Charcoal burned in Oxygen.--The first point deserving your attention as regards this result is the

total absence of solid products. Iron generated heary, as represented in fig. 1, into small test tubes, which may be these. The products of its combustion are tot«liy invisible, so

hard-metallic-looking globules ; charcoal generated none of allowed to remain standing mouth downwards in a saucer containing a little water until wanted, fig. 2; and when that if one piece of charcoal had been sufficiently small in comFig. 2.

parison with the amount of oxygen employed, and sufficiently free from all impure contaminations, it wouid have entirely disappeared. Do not think, huwerer, that the charcoal has been destroyed-lost by this combustive energy. No element is ever lost. All the tires which hare burned since the creation of our glu.be, all the waters that have ever flowed, all the manifold agencies of death and decay, have not altered by the sınallest fraction of a grain the original weight of the world's material elements. Under the three forms of solid, liquid, and gas, they still exist, and must continue to exist to the end of time

The sole result of the combustion of charcoal in oxygen is, then, a gas. Now, consider well the consequences of its gaseous

. Carbon, you are aware, is especialiy the combustible of man; either as wood or coal, or charcoal, or oil, or coal gas,




I am,



carbon, alone or in combination with hydrogen, I repeat,

LESSONS IN GREEK.-No, XXI. is our chief combustible. Only contemplate what the result would have been, is the product of the combustion of charcoal

By JOAN R. BEARD, D.D. had been a solid! Just picture to yourself, if you can, the appearance of our world at this late epoch in its history. Every The Verb. General Explanations.

The Substantive Vero part of it where fire had been frequently lighted would have

Elle, been covered with a vast heap of stone-like cinders, The product oy the combustion of charcoal in oxygen being soldier is good. Soldier is what is termed the subject of the

LET us examine the proposition ο στρατιωτης εστι αγαθος, the a gas, we must collect a little of this.gas in tubes or bottles, proposition ; that is, it is that of which something is asserted and test it methodically. The gas is colourless.

or declared. Good is the attribute, or that quality which is Possesses a taste.

ascribed to the subject soldier. And is bears the name of verb; Possesses a smell,

the essential function of which is, you see, to declare or affirm

The verb is, in union with the attribute, forms Does not support combustion (try by means of an ignited the predicate, and makes a declaration respecting the subject.

something. taper or chip.) Does not burn,

The sentence or proposition thus composed may be desigIs heavier than the atmosphere.

nated in this manner:

(Demonstrate by two comparative experiments. Fill one bottle and allow it to


Predicate. stand mouth upward unstopped; fill another bottle and allow it to stand mouth downward unstopped ; examine both

Terb. for the presence of carbonic acid gas). Fig. 5.

ο στρατιωτης

αγαθος. .

the soldier Fig. 5.

good. Instead of a noun, the subject may be a pronoun, viz. eyw, I, ημεις, ue, &c. As the personal pronoun is not used in Greek, except for emphasis, since the person intended is marked by the termination of the verb, the subject may be involved in and expressed by the verb itself, as Avw, I loose. The verb may also form the predicate of a proposition, and so contain the verb and the attribute ; that is, the vero may of itself make the affirmation. Such is the office performed by Ava, I Loose. Accordingly, in Greek as in Latin, a verb may contain in itself the subject, the verb, and the attribute ; in other

words, it may comprise both predicate and subjeci, as ypaow, It reddens blue litmus, and is therefore an acid.

I write. It whitens lime-water,

VOICES. Now any colourless invisible gas which reddens blue litmus paper, whitens lime-water, and does not smell like burning sulphur,

Again, let us compare together these propositionsmust be carbonic acid.

1. λυω, ,
I loose,

active. You will by this time begin to see the reason of our previous

2, λυομαι,
I loose myself,

middle. employment of certain negative tests. We tested hydrogen

3. λυομαι, , I am loosell,

passive. gas with line water, with litmus and with turmeric; we in neither case developed any effect. But we proceeded on the

Here we have a verb in three forms; the first form is called assumption that the gases operated upon were unknown, and the active voice, the second form is called the middle voice, we were therefore bound to follow.one systematic undeviating the third form is called the passive voice. Those verbs are course of testing.

active which simply express action. Those verbs are middle

Those verbs Under the head of carbon, we shall have to take up carbonic of which the action comes back on the subject, acid systematically; at this time I merely treat of it collaterally. are passive in which the subject is acted upon. These varieties,

E.camination of the Results of the Combustion of Sulphur ina it will be noticed, are varieties in both form and meaning. Oxygen.--Here again we do not observe any solid result. If Thus ,vw, the active, differs in form from Ivoma: the middle. the combustion had been conducted in a perfectly dry vessel, It differs also in signification ; for while Avw signifies I loose, or even in a vessel containing water, provided the results of com- ivouai signifies I loose myself. This active voice may be bustion were examined speedily after the occurrence of that transitive or intransitive in import; thus, we may say low, I phenomenon, we should have demonstrated the existence of a loose, using the verb generally without any specific object; peculiar gas. In the present instance the gas may be absent here the verb is intransitive; the intransitive form is seen inasmuch as it is readily soluble in water. If present you will better indallw, I blossom. We may also say Avw Tov av pw Tov, smell it, if absent the water will be found to contain it; at any I loose the man, when yow has a definite object, and is rate some will be found absorbed by the water, to which there transitive, fore we may. first apply our tests.

Observe in relation to numbers two and three, as given It is sour to the taste,

above, thał the English I loose iyself, and. Iam loosed, are very Smells like burning brimstone.

nearly related in meaning. If I loose mysélf, clearly I am Reddens litmus paper, then bleaches the paper.

loosed. The chief difference between the two is, that in the It may or may not whiten lime water: dependent on the former the action is restricted to one person, namely, the mutual quantities of the two.

subject; while, in the latter, it extends to a second person, You will now do well to prepare another portion of this gas, the person, that is, by whom the subject is wrought upon. and transfer it into a bottle over the pneumatic trough; although The difference, in consequence, is rather in the person than the the gas be absorbable by water, nevertheless by avoiding act. Accordingly, you see that the form remains the same, unnecessary agitation a sufficient amount may be collected. being in both cases ,vouam. In other words, avouamay have You will find that it neither burns nor supports combustiva. a reflex (or middle) import, as I loose myself, or a passive imIt is called sulphurous acid, and under the head of sulphur will port, as I am loosed. Strictly speaking, ihere is but one form come before us in further detail.

in the present tense. Grammarians differ as to the name which Examination of the Results of the Combustion of Phosphorus in they give to that form, some calling it a middle, others a Oxygen Gas. After agitating well the contents of the jar in passive voice. Very fe, if any verbs, are known to possess question, with a little water, you will find that the liquid thus all the tenses of the three voices, as they night be formed produced is sour, and reddens litmus paper; hence it is an analogically, What forms really exist will appear as we acid. You will also find that the air contained in the bottle is proceed. atmospheric air, neither more nor less, Hence the sole result of the

TENSES. combustion of phosphorusis a white solid, exceedingly soluble in water. The solid in quesiion is denominaied phosphoric acid. Again, study the following furns, whic!:, for ihe sake of ,

brevity, I at once present arranged, and to which I append | so called because it merely indicates or declares the act; this the meanings :

is the mood of independence and reality.

If I describe an act as dependent on some other act, as 4. Principal tenses, that is

dependent on a conjunction or a verb, I employ
1. Present Avw, I loose.

2. The Subjunctive, as Avy, he may loosen.
2. Future vow, I shall loose.
3. Perfect leluka, I have loosed.

This is the mood of dependence, or of conception; so called

because it implies dependence on another act expressed or B. Historical tenses, that is

understood; that is, an act really performed or conceived of 1. Imperfect elvov, I was loosing, I loosed,

in the mind, 2. Aorist ελυσα, Ιιοο8ed.

The subjunctive of the historical tenges is, in Greek 3. Pluperfect eleRUKELV, I had loosed.

Grammar, called Each of the historical tenses is formed from its corresponding 3. The Optative, as volje, I might (or would) loose. principal, thus

If I express an act in the way of command, I use
λυω λυσω λελυκα. .

4. The Imperative, as Ave, loose thou.
Historical ελυον ελυσα ' ελελυκειν. .
The exact manner of their formation will be explained

by limited, because they all express the act under certain limita

These four moods are called finite, that is, definite or and by. At present observe that an action may be considered

tions or modifications, as now proceeding, hence the present tense; as proceeding in past time, hence the imperfect tense; as proceeding in time to disconnected, that is, with person or number, I then employ

But if I express an act indefinitely, or in its abstract form, come, hence the future tense; as actually done in past time, the mood termed hence the aorist tense; as having proceeded in past time, hence the perfect tense; and as having proceeded previously 5. The Infinitive, as Avelv, to loose. to some other past act, hence the pluperfect tense. Accord. Another modification of the verb is found in ingly the present tense properly signifies, as in Avw, I am loosening; and the passive, dvouai, I am being loosened. Mark,

The Verbal Adjective, also, that the imperfect denotes both an act going on in the

Aureos, he must be loosed, past, and a continual and repeated act. The aorist, as the word signifies, denotės an action as simply past, without any exact which resembles the Latin participle passive in dus, as aman. limitation; and so is called the indefinite (such is the meaning dus, he arust be loved; and accordingly has a passive force. of the term) tense, or the tense of historical narrative. The

THE PARTICIPLE, perfect denotes a past act which, in itself or in its consequences, comes down to or near the present time. The pluperfect denotes an act done and past

, when another past of the verb and the adjective; as expressive of the quality of

Participles are so called because they partake of the qualities act was proceeding, or was completed. There are some the verb they denote action, as expressive of the quality of the

adjective they denote modification, e.g. Boulevwv avng, a counselling. man, that is, a Counsellor.


Third future passive

Future passive

Aorist active

Perfeat active


Pluperfect active


[ocr errors]

In Greek, as in English, there are three persons; Ist, the speaker, I; 2nd, the person spoken to, thou; 3rd, the person spoken of, he. The persons in Greek are in general indicated by personal-endings, that is, changes in the termination of the verb; as, 1st, person lv-w; 2nd, lv-ELS ; 3rd, lv-El.

I loose,

thou loosest, he looses. In the English termination e, est, es, you have an example of these person-endings.


[ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

forms. The second perfect is sometiines erroneously called a perfect
verbs, or verbs having a vowel for their characteristic, have only the first
form their tenses according to either the first or the sccond forms. Pure

Only few verbs have both the first and the second forms; most verbs


A third future, or perfect passive future, is also found, as

TETvouai, 1 shall have been

Double forms of the Tenses, as

[ocr errors][merged small]

With characteristic superabundance, the Greek has three numbers, the singular, the plural, and the dual. The singular number denotes one single object; the plural denotes more objects than one; and the duai denotes precisely two objects. The dual, however, is comparatively little used. For the first person of the dual there is in the active and passive aorists no special form ; their place is supplied by the form of the first person plural.




[blocks in formation]



TUTyOouai I shall be struck.

I was struck.

[ocr errors]
[blocks in formation]

The term conjugation denotes peculiarities of formation in
number, person, tense, mood, and voice. These peculiarities
in Greek have been brought under two heads, and so two con-
jugations have arisen: these are, the first conjugation, con-
sisting of verbs of which the first person singular ends in w-
this class comprehends the great bulk of the Greek verbs; and
the second conjugation, comprising the verbs of which the
first person singular ends in ui; e. g. :-
First conjugation


I loose.
Second conjugation ιστημι

I place.

Some grammarians admit only one conjugation, that of the Mood is a grammatical term employed to point out the

verbs in w. These regard the verbs in pi, whose peculiarities manner of an action. If I describe an act as simply taking extend to only three tenses, as exceptional forms The dif. place, I use

ference is merely a matter of arrangement. In either view the 1. The Indicative, as low, I loose,

facts remain the same.

I have struck.


[ocr errors]




Glascovia, Glasgow.

Andrò, I shall go.

E' uscito, he has gone. In order to represent the two ideas, namely, existence (or

Lui, him,

E' venet, le game. affirmation) and attribute, which enter into the signification of Sono stato, I have been. the verb, three essential elements are employed; first, the Oggi, to-day,

Stamattina (for qué-sta mat-tím stem ; second, the suffix or inflexions; and, third, the prefix

Pranzeró, I shall dine.

na), this morning. Mercante, merchant.

Me, me. or augment, e.g. :

Dopo, after.

Egli abita, alloggia, sta, he lives


Pranzo, dinner (dopo pranzo, or resides.

after dinner; in the after- Presso, near, close to, with, I have loosed.


about The stem is variable. Thus we have the stem or root of the verb; the stem of the verb may in most verbs be found by


the personal-ending; thus, low, dv. Besides the stem of the verb, there is the tense stem, thus, | In, in

Di qué-sto giar-di-no, of this alvoa; the first aorist, by dropping the personal-ending a, Nel, in the (m.)

garden gives elvo, the tense stem of the first aorist active; of this | Nél-la, in the (f.)

Di mi-o -dre, of my father form, elvo, the ε is the augment or prefix, the force of which is com, with

Da mi-o -dre, from my to denote past time.

Col, with the (m.)

father Of the form elvoa, the oa is the inflexion or suffix of the Col-la, with the (f.)

A, to first aorist; and of the oa, the a is the ending of the first Su, on, upon

A qué-sto giar-di-no, to this person singular. Full particulars will be given in our next Sul, on or upon the (m.)

garden lesson.

Súl-la, on or upon the (f.) A mi-o -dre, to my father
La chie-sa, the church

I'-o c-mo, I love
La scuo-la, the school

E'-gli d-ma, he loves

Il cor-ti-le, yard, court-yard I'-o pén-so, I think, direct my LESSONS IN ITALIAN GRAMMAR. No. XVIII.

La stanza, room, chamber, thoughts to


E'-gli pén-sa, he thinks, directs Of the University of Pavia, and Professor of the Italian and German

La -vo-la, the table

his thoughts to Languages at the Kensington Proprietary Grainmar School.

Il lét-to, the bed

-to, given
Da, from, by

Pre-std-to, lent

E'-gli è ri-tor-na-to dal bô-sco. Vên-go da Lôn-dra, da
cá-sa mí-a. E' gia par-ti-to da Ná-pu-li. I'-o só-no tra-di-

Dó-re a-ré-te voi per-du-to il vô-stro 11-bro? In qué-sto to da voi, da tút-ti. Di-scen-de da ú-na schit-ta nô-bi-le.giar-di-no. A-ve-te voi ve-du-to vô-stra zi-a in ú-na.car-10ZLon-ta-no dai miê-ige-ni-to-ri, Lui-gi da Fi-ren-ze. Da chi | La > Dog e vô-stra má-dre ? E1-la e nel su-o giay-di-no con di-pen-dé-te voi? Non si di-stín-gue l'ú-no dall' ál-tro. Ri- mí-o pa-dre. Col lí-bro e col-la pén-na. La ta-bac-chiê-ra è tor-na-re dál-la Ger-má-nia, dall' I-tá-lia, dál-la Rús-sia, da súl-la tá-vo-la, e l'a-nel-lo è sul lệt-to. Il mi-o pic-co-lo fraTo-rí-no. Non • al-có-a 4-sc- to díl-la cit-tà. Por-tá-istol-lo è nél-la stán-2a e mí-a so-rel-la è nel cor-:1-le. Col qué-ste cár-te dal giú-di-ce al no-lá-jo. Scér-de, cá-de dal mí-o cap-pêl-lo e col-la iní-a, om-brêl-la. Dóv' è tú-o pa-dre? tét-to. L' a-cqua scór-re giù món-te. Da per tút-to. Da E-gli è nel nô.stro giar-dí-110. Ab-biá-mu tro-vk-to uu lí-bro un cán-to, da un lá-to. Non vo-lé-va-no u-sci-re di quà. E' in qué-sta chić-sa. Il mí-o píc-co-lv fra-têl-lo è nél-la scuo. Ti-tor-ná-ta pôc' an-zị di Prús-sia. E'-gli è di Gla-scô-via. la. * Dóv'è la ruí-a om-brêl-laE's-sa è nél-la car-rô-za. Il E u-sci-to di cú-sa, di teá-tro, di cor-te, di pa-láz-zo, di cit- tem-pe-rí-110 di mi-o fra-têl-lo è buô-no. La pén-na di mi-a tà, di chić-sa. Só-no stá-to da mi-a so-rêl-la. Og-gi pran- so-rôl-la è án-che buû-na. A-ré-te voi ve-dú-io l'om-brêl-la ze-rò dal mer-cán-te. Dó-po prún-zo an-drò da lui. E' ve- di mí-o pá-dre? La scuô-la di mí-o zí-o è gran-dís-si-ma. Hô nú-to sta-mat-ti-na da me. E-gli a-bi-ta, al-lôg-gia, sta da | ve-du-to la ta-bac-chiê-ra di vô-stro pa-dre. A-ve-te voi persú-o pá-dre (or in cá-sa di sú-o pá-dre; or prês-so sú-o pá- 1 dú-to il tem-pe-rí-no di mi-a so-rel-la ? Qué-sto fan-ciúl-lo è dre*).

il fi-glio di mi-a zi-a. Hai tu ve-dú-to il pá-dre di qué-sto VOCABULARY.

fan-ciúl-lo? Qué-sto fan-ciúl-lo ha per-dú-to la ta-bac-chiêE'gli è ritornato, he has re- Non è ancora uscito, he has not

ra di sú-o pa-dre. Hô ri-ce-vu-to un man-tel-lo da nô-stro turned.

fra-t-1-lo. Ab-bia-mori-ce-vu-to un ca-val-lo da vô-stro zi-a.

yet gone. Bosco, forest, wood. Portai, I carried,

Mí-o pá-dre ha ri-ce-vu-to ú-na lêc-te-ra da nô-stra zí-a Hai E' gia partito, he has already Carta, f., paper,

tu ri-ce-vu-to qué-sto re-gá-lo da tú-a so-rêl-la! Mi-a ma-dre departed. Giudice, judge.

ha com-prá-to qué-sta cúf-fia da vô-stra so-rêl-la. Il tem-pe. Napoli, Naples. Notajo, notary.

Tí-no che ab-bia-mo ri-oe-vu-to da nostro zi-o è buô-no e bel Io sono tradito, I am betrayed. Scende, he descends.

lo. A-mo mi-a so-ről-la. Qué-sta má-dre a-ma sú-o fí-glio. Discende, he is descended. Cade, he falls.

Pên-so a mi-o fra-têl-lo. Mi-a zi-a pên-sa a sú-o fí-glio ed a Schiatta, race, family. Tetto, roof,

sú-a fi-glia. Qué-sto fan-ciúl-lo ha scrít-to) ú-na lêl-te-ra a Nobile, noble. Scorre giù, flows down,

sú-à má-dre. Mí-o zí-o ha ven-dú-to il sú-o bêl ca-vál-lo a Lontano, distant, far, Monte, mountain.

mí-o pá-dre. Hô dá-to il mí-o tem-pe-rí-no a mí-a so-rel-la. Miei, my (pl. m.).

A-ré-te voi pre-stá-to la vô-stra om-brêl-la a mi-o fra-têl-lo? Per tutto, da per tutto, every. Il fi-ylio di nô-stra zi-a è gran-dís-si-mo. Ab-bia-mo scrít-to Genitore, father, i genitori, pl., where, in all places, all over. parents. Canto, lato, side.

ú-na grán-de lêt-te-ra a nô-stro pá-dre. Mí-a zí-a ha ri-ceLungi, distant, far.

Non volevano uscire, they did vú-to qué-sta cúf-fia da sú-a fi-glia. A-vé-te voi ven-dú-to la Chi? who?

not want to go.

rô-stra ta-bac-chiê-ra a mí-o pá-dre? Hô pre-sta-to a tú-o Dipendete voi, do you depend. Quù, here, di qua, from here fra-têl-lo il tern-pe-rí-no che i-o hô ri-ce-vu-to da mí-o zi-o. Non si distingue, one does not (also, on this side; through Ab-biá-mo dá-to un man-têl-lo a qué-sto fan-ciúl-lo. Hai tu distinguish.

this place, through here; pre-stá-to il tú-o lí-bro a qué-sto buôn fan-ciúl-lo? A-vé-te U120, one.

in this world or life).

voi tro-vá-to qué-sta pén-na nél-la scuô-la ? Pên-so a qué-sto Altro, other.

E' ritornata, she has returned. fi-glio ed a qué-sta fi-glia. Ritornare, to return,

Poc' anzi (for -co án-zi), a Germania, Germany. little while or time before ;


lately, the other day.

He comes from the riding-school and rot from the garden,

He has received the goods from the merchants of Hamburgh. * To live or reside with one, may also be translated by a-bi--ze Has Mr. Baring returned from the fair? The letters which I {al-log-giá-re, stá-re), in -sa di qual-cu-110 (to live or reside in the have received from France speak much of a great theft. Does house of one), or prés-so qual-cu-110 (near or about one).

the brother-in-law import the goods from England or from

« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »