Εικόνες σελίδας
PDF

red in a district of red sandstone, grey in one of shales, black in one of coal, and white in one of chalk. Boulders of this description are easily accounted for. But all over Russia, Poland, Germany, Holland, England, Ireland, Canada, and North America, broad plains and the sides of mountains have boulders strewed over them, for which there is no parent rock within scores and even hundreds of miles. Boulders and stony fragments of this description abound in England. They are frequently met with, in fields, half buried in the soil, and are oftem turned up by excavations in roadmaking and railway cutting. Whenever you see a boulder, it suggests to you two questions: first, where has it come from ? and secondly, what brought it to the place it now occupies Geologists have examined these two questions with much attention and skill, but they could find no satisfactory answers, before they adopted the hypothesis of the transporting power of drifting icebergs and packed ice. To interest you in the solution of these two questions, it is necessary to mention some of the most remarkable facts connected with this boulder deposit, or, as it has been called, the NoFTHERN DRIFT. 1. There can be no doubt that all the boulders have come from the north; for their course, both in Europe and America, is found to be either due north and south, or varying a few degrees to north-west and south-east. The immense plains of Russia and Poland are covered with thousands of blocks of granite, all of which agree in mineralogical character with the

[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

now 100 feet above the level of the sea, in the Gulf of Bothnia. . On the summit of this ridge lie scattered numerous large boulders of gneiss, in size from nine to sixteen feet in diameter. The sand on which the boulders rest is full of shells which now inhabit the Baltic sea. Hence, the boulders were brought thither after the Baltic was formed, and were transported across the waters of that sea. . In Scotland, the Grampian Hills are from 3,000 to 4,000 feet high. To the south of these mountains lies the deep and wide Valley of Strathmore. To the south of Strathmore are the Sidlaw Hills, composed of sandstone and shales. On the flanks of these hills, at an elevation of 1,500 feet above the sea, are found large blocks of mica schist, some of them three, some of them fifteen feet, in diameter. Blocks of precisely the same character are strewed in the intervening valley of Strathmore, all of which have come from the Grampians, fifteen miles from the Sidlaws. To the South of the Sidlaws are the Pentland Hills, about 1,100 feet above the sea. On one side of these hills there is a huge block of mica schist, from eight to ten tons in Weight, which must have come from the Grampians fifty miles off, and which must have been borne over the Sidlaws about thirty miles distant. 3. The fragments which form these boulders have been removed to an immense distance from their parent rocks, or what geologists call rocks in situ. In the southern parts of Russia and Germany many of these boulders are found at the distance of 800 miles, and some even 1,000 miles, from the

zlountains of Lapland and Finland. In Denmark, Holstein, nearest rocks from which they could have been dislodged.

[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small]

and Pomerania, the sandy flats have, scattered over their whole extent, fragments of syenite, gneiss, and trap, exactly of the same description as the rocks of Sweden and Norway. Boulders, containing specimens of almost all known rocks, have been transported to the eastern counties of England. In Cambridgeshire, Huntingdonshire, Bedfordshire, Herts, Middlesex, Essex, Suffolk and Norfolk have been found fragments from Silurian rocks, carboniferous series, lias, oolite, chalk, trap, granite, and other crystalline rocks. Some of these boulders could have come only from Norway and Sweden, for Sir CHARLEs LYELL traced them from those two countries to Denmark across the Elbe, through Westphalia, to the borders of Holland. “We need not,” he says, “be surprised to find them reappear on our eastern coast, between the Tweed and the Thames, regions not half so remote from Norway as are many Russian erratics from the source whence they came.” On the western coast, and in the midland counties of England, similar facts are met with. On the coasts, in the plains, and on the sides of the hills, of Lancashire and Cheshire, and through Shropshire, Staffordshire, and Worcestershire, immense deposits of pebbles and a vast number of boulders are found scattered, which must have been transported thither from Cumberland and Dumfriesshire in Scotland. 2. Boulders have been transported across seas and lakes and lains, and over the ridges of high hills and mountains. Near psala, in Sweden, there is a ridge of sand and gravel that is

Boulders from Scandinavia are found on the declivities of the Alps. Instances of similar extent of transportation abound among the boulders scattered over the northern districts of the United States of America. 4. The most remarkable and the most puzzling circumstance in this formation, is the fact, that some of these boulders have evidently been transported from a lower to a higher level. Near Kirby Lonsdale, there are many large blocks of grauwacke scattered over the mountain limestone at an elevation of from 50 to 100 feet above the parent rock, and even almost to the top of the Fell, 500 feet above their original position. In that district there is another case in which boulders have been transported from the Vale of Eden, where the parent rock is 500 feet above the sea, to and over the pass of Stainmoor, at the height of 1,400 feet, so that these boulders lie now 900 feet above the level of the rock in situ. . Similar facts are found on Ben Erin on the western side of Glen Roy, on Arthur's Seat near Edinburgh, in the Isle of Man, and in North America. One of the most singular facts connected with the elevated position of boulders occurs in North Wales. As the traveller journeys westward on the Holyhead Road, he comes to Llyn Ogwen, and on his left rises a precipitous mountain called Moel Tryfaen, which attains the height of 1,392 feet above the level of the sea. On the summit of this rock are found chalk flints associated with boulders of various kinds. There is

[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic][graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]

good reason to believe that the chalk flints were transported from Ireland, and therefore from a considerably lower level. Facts of this description form one class of the difficulties which press upon the theory of icebergs as the agents of transporta£ion; for no floating ice could possibly transport boulders from a lower to a higher level. Mr. Darwin ascribes these results to the joint action of floating icebergs and of packed coast ice, He shows that on Moel Tryfaen the well-rounded pebbles of chalk flints and other boulders were, in all probability, transported by coast ice, though it is at the same time evident, from the extraordinary manner in which the laminae of the slate rocks have there been shattered, that icebergs have also been driven against them when under water; so that both actions seem to have concurred in that neighbourhood. You have now been informed of the remarkable positions of distance and elevation in which boulders are discovered. Our next business is to try to answer the question,-how they came there? The most skilful geologists found it almost impossible to account for the position of boulders, before they adopted the glacial, or rather the iceberg theory, called also the glacioaqueous. & & At first all inquirers were misled by the assumption that the boulders had been transported and deposited by the deluge of Noah, on which account they gave to this formation the name of Diluvium. Others, and some of them very distinguished geologists, like Mr. Hopkins of Cambridge, ascribed £heir removal to a series of diluvial waves that swept over the

land.

denly. This is proved from the general absence of organic remains in the clays and sands, which are found to cover the formation of the drift boulders, and from the complete preservation of the flesh and the hair of the elephants which were discoyered in the frozen mud of Siberia. 4. This great and sudden reduction of the temperature would fill the glens of the Polar mountains with immense glaciers, which, as explained in our last lesson, would stretch far into the waters of the Northern Sea. Even at the present day, many of the glaciers that descend the ravines of Spiztbergen project several hundred feet from the coast into the sea. Indeed, at this epoch, called the glacial period, it is probable that northern mountains of comparatively moderate height would have their valleys filled with glaciers, and that vast sheets of ice would stretch eastward, and westward, and southward, as far as the phenomena of boulders have been observed. 5. In other circumstances the icebergs detached from these glaciers that protruded into the Polar seas, would take up and convey to a distance huge masses of rock, which water alone, however impetuous, could never have moved, and would transport them hundreds of miles without wearing off the angularity oftheir edges. 6. As the lower surface of the icebergs would either be abraded by the action of the sea, or melted by the increased temperature in the south, the masses of clays, sands, gravels, and boulders, which they had brought down as glaciers, or imbedded as coast-ice, would drop down and we scattered at random over the bottom of the sea.

Though the iceberg theory has its difficulties, and does not

7. The bottom of this sea might be extensive plains, or high.

fully meet all the phenomena of the case, yet it seems to come | ridges of hills. When you consider that seven parts out of

[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small]

mearest to the vera causa, or the real agency that produced the result. * 1. It is certain that all the boulders come from the north. All the rocks, of which boulders are specimens, are in situ towards the north. All the shells which are frequently found in the clays associated with the boulders indicate a northern climate. There seems also an intimate connexion between a very cold or extreme northern climate, and the various geological appearances which have been called glacial. 2. In the neighbourhood of the Baltic, the course of the erratic blocks, and the grooving and the smoothing of rocks, have been traced from the level of the sea shore to elevations of above 3,000 feet. Nothing of this kind has been found either on the shores or on the sides of the rocks above the Mediterranean, nor in the equatorial parts of Asia, Africa, and America. 3. It can be proved that at an earlier age in the history of our globe, at the close of the tertiary period, the northern hemisphere was considerably colder than it is at present, and that this diminution in the temperature took place very sud

[ocr errors]

96.—Packing of the Sea in Polar Regions.

eight of a high iceberg are under water, it is obvious that such a deep body of ice, in moving southward, would strike against the crests or the flanks of these submarine ridges, and there deposit its clays and boulders. These submarine hills became, at another geological period, elevated, by volcanic acticn, to an elevation much higher than the sea, and bearing on their ridges or sides the boulders that had been imbedded in their surface of clay or sand. 8. The application of the iceberg theory to the elucidation of boulder phenomena is in full harmony with all that science has taught us about glaciers. What we know of terminal moraines corresponds with the accumulations of clay and gravel which are called the Drift, and which are found associated with the blocks or boulders. It also accounts for the smoothing and grooving of rocks, for the parallelisms in the markings or striae on the surface of rocks, and for the high and precipitous ledges on which the boulders have been lodged. Boulder phenomena, however, present three difficulties which the iceberg hypothesis does not seem to obviate. First, boulders are frequently found water-worn and rounded at the

[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic][graphic][graphic][graphic][graphic][graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic][graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]

edges, a result which would not be produced by transportal in icebergs. Secondly, the size of the boulders, as a general rule, diminishes as their course is traced southward, whereas an iceberg would easily have carried a block of twenty tons as far as a boulder of twenty pounds. Thirdly, floating icebergs could not have placed boulders on elevations many hundred feet higher than the rocks from which they are derived. To enable the iceberg hypothesis to meet these difficulties, Mr. Darwin has brought to its aid the agency of coast-ice, and especially the action which is called the packing of the ice, as witnessed in high latitudes. 1. It is possible that such boulders might have been worn and rounded while they were in charge of glaciers in polar valleys, and worn in their progress towards the coast, before they came far enough to form the constituents of an iceberg. The coast-ice, however, that is formed on shallow shores, even where no glaciers protrude, will take up and enclose the stones and pebbles that lie along the coast. When the ice melts, they drop, and the next winter's ice takes them up again; Or the coast-ice that imbeds them may strand them with violence on a different part of the shore; and such ice may become detached icefloes, which carry these fragments over rocky shoals, and thus wear and polish them. As such coast-ice is not very thick, it is likely to be landed in shallow places: then, by the action called the packing of the ice, the pebbles and boulders imbedded in it will be driven up the beach, and will eventually be left perched on ledges of rock. On the Supposition that such a coast would become submerged and again rise above the sea, it might be expected that boulders, which had thus been buoyed up by coast-ice during long-continued ages, would be well rounded. 2. The gradual decrease in the size of the boulders, the further we proceed from the parent-rocks, does not always hold good. Mr. Darwin says, that on the plains of Patagonia, the two largest boulders that he saw were near the outskirts of the deposit. When boulders are transported in sheets of ice, or fragments of coast-ice, called icefloes, the buoying and transporting agent is not of disproportionate power to its burden. As the icefloe decays, the heaviest fragments would naturally be apt to drop out first. The accounts of navigators intimate that the larger boulders taken up by coast-ice are, during some winters, not moved at all, while the smaller ones are drifting onwards. Hence the boulders that have travelled farthest, would, from having been repeatedly stranded every summer, be most worn, and therefore would be smaller than those which had travelled a shorter distance. The iceberg theory is itself almost sufficient to account for this sorting of the boulders. Icebergs float in a sea of variable depth. The heavier boulders require larger icebergs to buoy them up. The greater the volume of the iceberg, the sooner would it, in its southward course, strike against the shallower parts of the sea bottom, and deposit its clays and blocks; but the smaller and lighter icefloes, laden with finer gravel and smaller boulders, would pass over to a much greater distal) Ce. 3. As to the transportal of boulders from a lower to a higher level, it is not supposed that this takes place universally, but only in certain favourable situations, and which Inay be accounted for by the action called the “packing” of icefloes. Voyagers who have navigated polar regions have stated that the pack-ice frequently piles up and leaves blocks of stone at the height of thirty feet above high water-mark. In accounting for the erratic boulders and grooved rocks of Canada and North America, Sir CHARLEs LYELL supposes that the land thus circumstanced first subsided gradually into the sea, and then, by an agency from below, emerged and attained a higher level than before. While it was in the process of sinking, the sea that then bordered it was covered with icebergs floating from the north. As these bergs grounded on the shallow bottoms, or the sides of ridges in the sea, the force that propelled them pushed along also materials of sand, gravel, and pebbles, which then lay at the bottom of the sea. By the comined forces of the current and of the iceberg, the rugged and angular blocks which were embedded in the lower surface of the Iceberg, and which projected out of it, would have the power of marking or grooving the underlaying rocks. by which action the biocks onemselves would become warn and rounded.

Now, imagine such a coast, so covered with boulders, to be subsiding. As it gradually subsides, the coast-ice would, by the first powerful gale, be driven still higher up, and thus, as the subsidence continued and the gales repeated, the boulders would be impelled onwards and upwards. When this land would again emerge and appear above the waves, the boulders on its sides, or ledges would lie far above the neighbouring rock from which they were derived.

Sir Rod ERIC MURCHISON, in his “Geology of Russia,” has thrown considerable light upon the boulder and drift deposits. He thinks that when the granitic rocks of Norway and Sweden, &c., were emerging from the ocean, their rugged pinnacles were shattered into huge fragments by the expansive power of the severe frost of the period. Glaciers carried these enormous masses to the sea-coast, whence they were taken up by icefloes, which, by the force of subaquàecus currents, transported them hundreds of miles to the south, and them deposited them on the sea bottom. These submarine deposits were, in a subsequent period, upheaved above the ocean to form the districts which are now called Russia and Germany, where the boulders deposited by icebergs are the monuments of the

[merged small][ocr errors]

Abstenir (s’), to abstain
Accuser (s’), to accuse one’s self
Achever, to finish
Affecter, to affect
Affiliger (s'), to grieve
Agir (s’), unip., to be the question
Applaudir (S'), to rejoice
Appréhender, to apprehend
Avertir, to warm.
Aviser (s"), to bethink one's self
Avoir besoin, to want *
Avoir couturtle, to be accustomed
Avoir dessein, to-intend
Avoir envie, to wish
Avoir garde, to take care
Avoir honte, to be ashamed
Avoir intention, to intend
Avoir le temps, to have time
Avoir le courage, to have courage
Avoir peur, to be afraid
Avoir raison, to be right
A voir regret, to regret
Avoir tort, to be wrong
Avoir sujet, to have reason
Avoir soin, to take care
Blåmer, to blame
Brûler, to wish ardently
Censurer, to censure
Cesser, to cease
Chagriner (se), to grieve one's self
Charger, to desire, to intrust
Charger (se), to take on one’s self
Choistr, to choose
Cominander, to command
Conjurer, to beseech
Conseiller, to gqvise
Contenter (se). to be satisfied.
Convaincre, to convince
Couvenir, to become, suit
Curriger, to correct
Craindre, to scar
Décourager, to discourage
Dédaigner, to disdain
Défeudre, to fly, bid
Défendre (se), to derline
Desier, to challenge, to (litré
Depécher (se), so to stent
Désaccoutumer |
(Se), fo, , ,,,
Dointuer so few ye off

[ocr errors]

"espérer, to despair

NS IN FR EN C H.—No. LXXIX. By Professor LOUIS FASQUELLE, LL.D.

§ 132.-VERES REQUIRING THE PREPOSITION de BEFORE AN INFINITIVE.

Désolst (se), to pieve
Détourner, to dissuade
Lifférer, to put off
Dire, to say, tell
i)isconvenir, to deny
Discontinuer, to discontinue
Dispenser, to dispense
Dispenser (se), to for bear
Discuiper (se), to apologise
Dissuader, to dissuade
Douter, to doubt
Efforcer (s"), to endeavour
£ffrayer (s’), to be frightened
Finpécher, to prevent
Empresser (s'), to hasten
Epouvanter (s'), to be frightened
Entreprendre, to undertake
Enrager, to be ve.ced
Etonner (3'), to wonder
Eviter, to avoid
Excuser (8'), to eaccuse one's self
Féliciter, to congratulate
Féindre, to jčígut
Flatter (se), to flatter one’s self
Frémir, to shudder
Garder (se), to take can e
Gémir, to lament
Glorifier (se), toopride one's self
Hasārder (se), to venture
Håter (se), to hasten
Imputer, to impute
Pudgmer (s’), to be indignant
Ingérer (s), to take into one's head;
Inspirer, to inspire
Jurer, to swear
Manquer, to fail
Méditer, to think, to intentl
Méler (se), to meddle
Menacer, to threateh
Mériter, to deserve
Moquer (se), to laugh at
Mourir (figu. ), to long
Négliger, to twytect
Nier, to deny
3’ardon incr to occurse
l'arler, to spectic
s'asser (se) to do eithout :
Perinettre, to permit o
Y’ersuader, to pers to de
Piquer (se), to take pride à
Plaim dre, to pity
Plaindre (se), to complain

[ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small]

This sentence is correct, because aimer, instruiré, and louer, being active verbs, govern one and the same case, the direct regimen. s

(2.) But when the verbs require different regimens, they cannot govern one and the same noun; and therefore another form must be given to the sentence. We could not say in French,-Un grande nombre de vaisseaux entrent et sortent de ce port tous les mois, A great number of vessels enter and go out of ikis port every month, because the verb entrer reaches its regi: men by means of the preposition dans, and sortier by means of the preposition de. We should say :

{jn grand nombre de vaisseaux A large number of vessels enter entrent dans ce port et en sortent this port and leave it every month. tous les mois.

[blocks in formation]

l’âme est immortelle. BARTHéLEMY. Quant il vit Purne oil étaient renfermées les cendres d’Hippias, il versa un torrent de larmes. FéNeLon. (3.) The participle past, having avoir as its auxiliary, never agrees with the nominative — Wous riez 2 Ecrivez qu’elle a rē. You laugh? Put down that she RACINE. taughed. Mes amis ont pariés leurs coeurs : Asy friends have spoke?; sont attendris. VeLTAIRE. . . hearts are moved. Mes cousines out ot. My cowsins inace régd. Lescueñrule.

}When he perceived the urn in which were enclosed the ashes of Hippias, he shed a torrent of tears.

heir

We love, we instruct, and we

celles que le coeur a dictees. the heart has dictated. MARMONTEL.

Je les ai cherchés dans tous les coins, et je ne tes-ai pas trouvés.

M.M.E. DE GENLIS.

I have sought them in every corner, but have not found them.

(5.) But, if the direct regimen is placed after the participle, this participle remains invariable:— I have received your letter.

It is truth itself which has dictated to him, those fine words.

J’ai recu votre lettre,

C'est la vérité elle-même qui lui a dicte ces belles paroles.

'Bossu ET.

Les dieux ont attaché presque autant de malheurs à la liberté, qu'à la servitude.

MostESQUIEU.

The gods have attached almost as many misfortunes to liberty, as to servitude.

[ocr errors]

[We insert the following remarks “On Bathing when heated,” because we think them well worthy the attention of those of our readers who are fond of this exercise. Of course, we do not commit ourselves entirely to the accuracy of every point, because we . have not had sufficient personal experience ; but we consider that there is much truth in what our correspondent says.]

ON BATHING WHEN HEATED.

Sir, At the end of the article on Physical Education which has reference to bathing in your No. for August 27th, you place certain rules to be attended to by the bather before going into the water. I am well aware that it has been long a popular as well as professional axiom that sudden vicissitudes of temperature are dangerous, that a previous hot state of body augments the hurtful effects of cold however applied; but the proposition thus broadly, stated is not universally true. The inhabitants of Russia are in the habit, while reeking from vapour baths, of immediately rolling in the snow, or plunging into cold water without suffering from the change. Captain Scoresby, while in the Arctic Regions, often passed from his room where the temperature was from 55° to 60° to the mast head, where it was only 10°, without receiving any injury or inconvenience; and other instances may be brought forward. Thus it is plain that the proposition which assigns danger to extreme vicissitudes of temperature requires some limitation; the effect of a sudden descent from one point to another in the scale of temperature, varies according to the state of the body at the time. Man, together with the warm-blooded animals, you are aware, by the faculty of evolving heat, maintain the same degree of inward temperature under very different degrees of outward temperature. Now if this power of evolving heat be entire, active and persistent, no peril need attend even violent alterations of external temperature. Unusual heat of the body at the time when the cold is applied, so far from implying danger, is really the condition of safety, provided that heat is steady and persmanent; but if a person be exhausted and weakened by exercise, rapidly parting with his heat, if he remains-at rest after and during the application of cold, then it is highly perilous, and likely to produce mischief. Thus cold is dangerous not when the body is hot, but whén the body is cooling after having been heated. Thus those whose business it is to advise, may caution the public against the common mistake which has had its origin in the unqualified credit given to the maxim, that sudden vicissitudes of external temperature and exposure to cold while the body is hot are dangerous, whereas they are only dangerous under certain circumstances. Thus wet feet or a wet skin need cause no apprehension, so that active exercise is continued; but when that exercise ends, then it is that a change of clothes and a further avoidance of the application of cold is important, You may safely tell the bather, that after walking on a hot day to the river's side, he had better not wait to cool himself a little before he plunges into the stream. The point to be remembered is that the heat which is preternaturally accumulated by exercise is held with little tenacity, is dissipated by profuse perspiration, and is speed; W lost when to this perspiration is added a state of rest

after fatigue, and it is then that cold is most apt to be prejudicial. We have an easy criterion as to the propriety of cold bathing, in the feelings of the person afterwards,--if the bath is followed by a glow of warmth, &c., it will do good, but if the bather feels cold and chilly, &c., it should be discontinued as being useless and hazardous. In the former case cold bathing becomes a tonic, stimulating and invigorating both to mind and body. The time for bathing requires to be modified according to the health of the bather; if the powers are too languid to admit of the necessary reaction, much benefit is derived from mid-day bathing. Apologising for thus writing, but the interest which I take in your valuable paper, and also on the subject of bathing, which I consider a necessary of life, will I trust be a sufficient excuse— I am, &c., MEDICUs.

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS,

R. PINETAC : at is pronounced nearly like the English letter i in fine, though a little broader, like the English word aye. It is a compound of the sounds ah, and ee blended together. av is pronounced like the English a in water, et like the letter i in wine, ot like oy in boy, vi like wi in wise, and nu nearly like the word you, but with more stress upon the ce sound. There is a French expression, il y avact, for there was.

q's Nos: Your plan of study is excellent, and appears from your letter to answer well. Thanks for the hint you throw out. It shall not be lost sight of.

JAMEs Rob TNsoN (Burnopfield): We have already stated, in answer to other correspondents, that the capital Greek wysilon, though like the English Y in form, has no resemblance to it in sound. In writing Greek, it is only necessary to imitate the printed characters as nearly as possible, giving them a slope for the sake of convenience.

Mav6avo ; The Greek wysilon, when a capital letter, takes pretty nearly the form, but not the pronunciation, of the English Y. p has the same sound whether with a straight or a curly tail.

BLANDUs : EvrvXia means good fortune, prosperity; and Qught to have been given in the vocabulary. , theog is a misprint for iXéop We are obliged to discontinue the etymological vocabularies for want of room. Any good Greek lexicon will supply nearly the same information.

A CRIPPLE will find the pronunciation of the German word man, and the others he mentions, fully explained in the interlinear pronunciation of the lesson and the preceding directions. He has only to notice the figure placed over the a, and look in the directions to see what sound it indicates. He will also find it stated that an apostrophe after a vowel has the effect of lengthening it. The accent at the end of a syllable merely denotes that the stress is to be laid upon that syllable.

A Power-Looxy WEAVER’s parcel is forwarded to the Royal Society.— A Governess (Camden-town): The P. E. is published in New York.—W. LEwis (Manchester): Chemistry in full vigour in vol. iv.–MUSIC is postponed for the present.—T. H. (Cork): The best way to learn to express your ideas is to join a Debating Society.—FABER LIGNARIUS (Turriff): Mr. Cassell’s Classical Library, together with Dr. Beard’s Latin Dictionary, will contain the books best adapted for making progress in the Latin tongue.--SocIUs: In learning Bookkeeping there is no need to go to the expense of separate books; separate portions of one book may be carefully and neatly adapted to the purpose, by the student himself.-J. S. CHAPMAN (Manchester): The Lessons in Latin in the P. E. are the best we know.—J. T. BODNIS (Greenwich) is wrong as to the FACT of the letters inserted in the P. E., but right as to the IMPREssIon ; a change will be made for the better.—A WRAVER (Clackmannan): ONEs in the plural form, referring to a plural noun in a preceding sentence, is an adjective pronoun; see p. 211, vol. iii. P. E.—OPTICU's (London): The subject of Optics is announced for next volume.

MRS, SLIPSLoP (Perthshire) must put on her spectacles, and she will then find NAHOR in a line with ABRAHAM, p. 3, vol. i. P. E., Genesis xi. 26. It is not a mistake with Luke, for Moses has been misrepresented ; see the Septuagint.—S. J. R. (London): All right; the maps will be continued.— J. E. D. (Edinburgh): It will be done.—W. Rob ERTs: The memory is iluproved by exercising it. Say Chobham like Chatham, not like Kobham.— MARK, MATHETEs (Farnworth) and Q. E. D. : See vol. ii. P. E., p. 215, col. 2, line 34, for the Classical Subjects; the rest are never announced, the student being required to prepare himself to answer any questions that may be proposed on the other subjects; see page 137, vol. ii. P. E.-T. J.ENKINs (Cardiff}: See Literary Notices.—Book KEEPING STUDENT will have his difficulties solved in the course of the lessons.—GEORGE THE YOUNGEIt (Pimlico) : Buy the large edition of Webster.—A. Z. & Foyer de désordres, means a focus or centre of disorders.-A. Scott (Liverpool): Thanks for his note on the comet.

CARRICK (Ayr): We cannot tell ourselves.—W. HYMERs (Barnard Castle): The Boy's Own Book, Tegg, London.—R. W. GIBSON (Glasgow): If going into the water does you harm, the best precaution is to give it up.– W. F. Ston EHENGE (Whitehaven) should get the “Annales de Chimie.”— ARMACHANUs : Very well; go on and prosper.—S. T. M. (Brighton): French.-D. T. L. (Carmarthen): You are right.

e (Beiherbet): 1. We think not. 2. We can’t tell. 3. Yes. 4. Read Saa.only written books, such as “Gulliver’s Travels,” “Pilgrim’s Progress,” and Rowland till’s “Village Dialogues.”—ANGLAIS (Preston): Yes.— HEADBAND (Darlington): English.--qoxos (London): Write to Henry Moore, Esq., Secretary of the University of London.—EcoLIER FRANSA is: See our Literary Notices.—J. Wolt LEY (Reading) recominends to French stude...ts the French New Testament, published by the Bible Society at 6d., in roa”, gilt, good type ; and a French Weekly Newspaper, called Chronique de Jersey, published at is d. The Key to the French Lessons is published

Beparately ; see our Literary Notices.—T. C. (Barking): Your suggestions |

*

are good-Violino ( Bridport): Received, and under consideration.—J. CoRBY (Woodford): Yes, if in good condition, by paying the difference.

A PUPIL TEACHER’s lines are very good, and do credit to his head and heart; but we cannot insert, them in the P. E.-E. J. (Shelton) and A DR9q}{EDA, SUBSQRIBER will, by writing to Mr. Dunn, Secretary of the Training-School of the British and Foreign School Society, at Borough. road, London, obtain at once all the information he requires.—H. DuNKLEY (Plumstead): The Lizard Point, Cornwall, is the smart southerly point of England.-ZETA : Yes; r is not pronounced at the end of Frenčh. except under certain conditions; see the lessons again. Bills of Exchangé will be more fully explained.-W. J. : See Lessons in Geography, pp. 30, 61, 144, and 162, Yol. iii.-E. H. CookE (Kidderminster) : Under consideration.-T. G. B. (Ilchester): We fear that we cannot advise him; he should write to the Secretary of the Apothecaries’ Company for information.—A. M. GARDNER (Peasenhall): The French Lessons, reprinted from the P. D., parts, I. and II., will completely answer your purpose.—THoMAs Chop; (Hartland): We fear that his suggestion, though good, is not practicable.-CHARLEs W. (Islington): Read the papers on the University of London in vol. iii.-PHILOANTE (Bowling): If he has a special call, let him go on; if not, we would advise him to pause,

SEVERAL WHO WISH To BE ARTISTs: We are desirous 'o supply the wants of all our subscribers; but they will see from our advertisements and notices , that their wishes cannot consistently with these be intmediately gratified; the subject, however, will not be overlooked.

AN 9RPHAN (London): Apply to the London Orphan Asylum, Clapton.— R. J. L. (Littleport) should take C. W. li.’s advice, and write to the secretary of the Committee of the Council on Education, Downing-street, London.— YorksHIRE PROUGHBox can get No. 42, which is the one omitted, to buy in Sheffield; but he should return his copy of Part X. to the bookseller who Supplied him with it as incomplete, and get a complete one instead of it.— N. B. (Portsea): Not directly, but by the introduction of two or three Lemmas.-WRITING CLERK (Tralee): Under consideration.—R. B. N. Ross (Camberwell); Right; yes-PHILo: Many thanks; you are perfectly right in everything; the mistakes have arisen from careless prin ting; for instance, the multiplier 128 should be l?6, and the multiplier 196 should be 96; try these numbers, and you will find that the answers correspond.-AN UNDERGRADUATE OF THE UNIVERSITY of Lon Don : Thanks for his note.— Q.C. (Halifax.): D’Aubuisson, Traite Hydraulique, 9s.-A BRIcklayer (Manchester) : Nicholson’s works : Principles of Architecture; Architectural Dictionary; Student’s Instructor in the Five Orders; Practical Builder, &c.

VIVA L’ITALIA : Hutton's Course of Mathematics improved by Davies, or Christie's Course for the Cadets at Woolwich.-W. A. (Aberdeen) should study Writing, Arithmetic, and Bookkeeping, in order to fit himself for a clerkship.-A SUBSCRIBER (Bradford) and his friends had better not meet on Sunday morning for the studies they propose; any other morning will do better. God and his word, religion and a future state, are surely worth one day’s consideration out of the seven.—A LABouster IN THE WIN EYARD should not trouble himself with what might have happened had not things been as they are. Sin has come into the world, and God has appointed an easy way of escape from it; this is enough. Greek and Laufi may assist each other, but study Latin first.—E. BLURTON (Stourbridge): We regret that we cannot give the required information.

L IT E R A R Y N () TI C E S.
l'RENCH.

Now ready, price 4s. in stiff Wrapper, or 5s, strongly bound in cloth, the First Part complete, consisting of the French and English, of CAss ELL’s FRENCH DICTIONARY: the entire work will be completed in Twenty-six Threepenny Numbers, and will form one handsome Volume of eight Inundred, and thirty-two pages. Price 8s. 6d. bound in cloth, or the Two Divisions may be had separate.

A COMPLETE MANUAL OF THE FRENCH LANGUAge, by Professor De Lolme, just published, price 3s. neatly bound. This forms one of the most simple, practical, and complete Guides to a thorough knowledge of the French Language which has hither to been published. The plan upon which it is conduct"d is admirally calculated to accomplish the proposed object. In the first place, the Grammatical Principles of the Language are clearly laid down, and, secondly, these I’rinciples are copiously illustrated by suitable Exercises of Euglish to be turned into French.

CASSELL’s LEsso NS IN FRENCH, in a neat volume, price 2s. in stiff covers, or 2s. 6d. neatly bound in cloth.

A KRY TO CASSELL’s LEssons IN FRENCH, containing Translations of all the Exercises, with numerous reserences to the Grammatical Rules, price ls. paper covers, or ls. 6d. cloth.

GERMAN . CASSELL’s GERMAN DICTlon ARY is now issuing in Numbers, at 3d. eact: ; Monthly Parts, 1s, each. CASSELL’s LEssons IN GERMAN, price 2s. in stiff covers, or 2s. 6d

cloth. LATIN.

CASSELL's LEsso NS IN LATIN, price 2s. in stiff covers, or 2s. 6d. cloth. CASSELL's KEY TO THE LAT IN EXERCISEs, now ready, price is. GREEIX.

The Third Volume of CASS ELL S CLAssic AL LIBRARY will contain the Acts of the Apostles in the original Greek, according to the text of Augustus Hahn; with grammatical, historical, and expository Notes ; lollow cul by a Lexicon, explaining the meanung of every word—the whole carefu.]y revised and corrected. This work is well adapted for the use of Schools, Colleges, and Theological Seminaries, and will supply our Greek stude ts with excellent materials for practice in translation.

« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »