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from the point o are drawn two straight lines GB, GP, and pro- going from it, being understood the diminution or increase of the longed to an infinite length, the distance between them will become perpendicular from one to the other. greater than any assigned magnitude, and consequently than that The objection to all these is, that no information has been given which may be the distance between the parallels; when, therefore. I on the subject of the things termed straight lines, which points to they are distant from each other by more than this, G F will cut any reason why the distance's growing smaller should be necesCD."* Without disputing that the distance between the straight sarily followed by the meeting of the lines. It may be true; but lines which make the angle will become greater than any assigned the reason why, is not upon the record. On the contrary, it is magnitude--(though the reason given appears to be founded on weil known that there exist lines (as for instance the neighbouring ignorance of the fact that a magnitude may perpetually increase sides of two conjugate byperbolas) where the distance perpetually and still be always less than an assigned magnitude),—the defect decreases and yet the lines never meet. It is open therefore to is in begging the question, that the distance between the paral- ask, what property of the lines called straight bas been promullels is constant or at all events finite. For the very point in dispute gated, which proves they may not do the like. is, whether the parallels (as for instance two perpendiculars to a 11. Varignon, Bezout, and others propose to define parallels to common straight line, both of them prolonged both ways) may not be "straight lines which are equally inclined to a third straight open out or grow more distant as they are prolunged, and to do line,” or in other words, make the exterior angle equal to the this so rapidly, that a straight line making some very small angle interior and opposite on the same side of ihe line. By which they with one of them, shall never orertake the other, but chase it either intend to take for granted the principal fact at issue, which unsuccessfully through infinite space, after the manner of a line is whether no straight lines but those that make such angles car and its asymptote.
fail 10 meet; or if their preject is to admit none to be parallel 4. Clavius announces that “a line every point in which is equally lines of which it shall not be predicated that they make equal angles distant from a straight line in the same place, is a straigat line;" as above with some one straight line either expressed or underupon taking which for granted, he finds himself able to infer the stood, then they intend to take for granted that because they make properties of Parallel Lines. And he supports it on the ground equal apgles with one straight line, they shall also do it with any that because the acknowledged straight line is one which lies other that shall in any way be drawn across them,-a thing uiterly evenly sex æquo between its extreme points, the other line must do unestablished by any previous proof. the same, or it would be impossible that it should be everywhere! 12. Professor Piayfair proposes to employ as an Axiom, that equidistant from the first.t Which is only settling one unknown “two straight lines, which cut one another, cannot be both parallei by a reference to another unknown.
to the same straight line;" in which he had been preceded by 5 and 6. In a tract printed in 1604 by Dr. Thomas Oliver, of Bury, Ludlam and others, and which he says " is a proposition readily entitled, De rectarum linearum parallelismo et concursu doctrina enough admitted as self-evident." The misfortune of which is, Geometrica (Mus. Brit.), two demonstrations are proposed; both that instead of being self-evident, a man cannot see it if he tries. of them depending on taking for granted, that if a perpendicular What he sees is, that he does not see it. He sees that a straight of fixed length moves along a straight line, its extremity line's making certain angles with one of the parallels, causes it to describes a straight line. Which is Člavius's asiom a little meet the other; and he sees that by increasing the distance of the altered.
point of meeting, he can cause the angle with the first parallel to 7. Wolfius, Boscovich, Thomas Simpson in the first edition of grow less and less. But if he feels a curiosity to know whether he his “ Elements," and Bonnycastle, alter the definitions of parallels, can go on thus reducing the angle till he makes it less than any and substitute in substance, “that straight lines are parallel which magnitude that shall have been assigned (or in other words preserve always the same distance from one another; by distance whether there may not possibly be some angle so small that a being understood the length of the perpendicular drawn from a straight line drawn to any point however remote in the other parallel point in one of the straight lines to the other. Attempts to get spall fail to make so small a one), he discovers that this is the very rid of a difficulty by throwing it into the definition, are always to thing nature has denied to his sight; an odd thing, certainly, to be suspected of introducing a theorem in disguise; and in the call self-erident, present instances, it is only the introduction of the proposition of 13. The same objections appear to lie against Professor Leslie's Clavius. No proof is adduced that straight lines in any assignable proposed demonstration in p. 4+ of his “Rudiments of Plane position, will always preserve the same distance from one another; Geometry;" which consists in supposing a straight line of unlimited or that if a perpendicular of fixed length travels along a straight iength both ways, to turn about a point situate in one of the line keeping always at right angles to it, what mathematicians call parallels, which straight line, it is argued, will attain a certain the locus of the distant extremity is necessarily a straight line at position in which it does not meet the other straight line either way, all.
while the slightest deviation from that precise direction woui 8. D'Alembert proposed to define parallels as being straight occasion a meeting. lines “one of which has two of its points equally distant from the 14. Professor Playfair, in the Notes to his “Elements of Geoother line;" but acknowledged the difficulty of proving, that all the metry,” p. 409, has proposed another demonstration, founded on a other points would be equally distant in consequence
remarkable non causa pro causa. It purports to collect the fact* 9. Thomas Simpson, in the second edition of his * Elements,” that (on the sides being prolonged consecutively) the intercepted proposed that the Axiom should be, that “If two points in a straight or exterior angles of a rectilinear triangle are together equal to four line are posited at unequal distances from another straight line in right angles, from the circumstance that a straight line carried the same plane, those two lines being indefinitely produced on the round the perimeter of a triangle by being applied to all the sides side of the least distance will meet one another."
in succession, is brought into its old situation again; the argu10. Robert Simpson proposes that the Axiom should be, “that a ment being, that because this line has made the sort of somerset it straight line cannot first come nearer to another straight line, and would do by being turned through four right angles about a fixed then go further from it, before it cuts it.”. By coming nearer or point, the exterior angles of the triangle have necessarily been
equal to four right angles. The answer to which is, that there is
no connexiou between the things at all, and that the result will + " Nam si omnia puncta lineæ A B,æqualiter distant à rectâ 26, es, in quo equal to four right angles. Take, for example, the plane triangle
Nam si omnia puncta linea a Bæqualiter distant à rectâ D C, ex æquo just as much take place where the exterior angles are avorvedly not tremis sursam, aut deorsum, vel huc, atque illuc deflectendo subsultabit, formed by three sipall arcs of the same or equal circles, as in the nihilque in eå flexuosum reperietur, sed æquabiliter semper inter sua pancta figure; and it is manifest that an arc of ihis circle may be carried extendetur, quemadmodum recta Do. Alioquin non omnia ejus puncta round in the way described and return to its old situation, and yet æqualem a reeta D D, distantiam haberent, quod est contra hypothesin. there be no pretence for inferring that the exterior angies were Neque verd cogitatione apprehendi potest allam lineam præter rectam, posse equal to four right angles. And if it is urged that these are curved habere omnia sua puncta à rectâ lineâ, quæ in eodem cum illâ
plano existat, lines and the statement made was of straight; then the answer is æqualiter distautia.'--Cladii Operu. In Euclidis Lib. I. p. 50.
* We omit the Greek,
I--"la vraie définition, ce me semble, et la plus nette qu'on puisse by demanding to know, what property of straight lines has been donner d'une parallèle, est de dire que c'est une ligne qui a deux de ses laid down or established, which determines that what is not true in points également éloignés d'une autre ligne.-il faut ensuite démontrer (et the case of other lines is true in theirs. It has been shown that, as c'est-là le plus difficile), que tous les autres points de cette seconde, seront également éloignées de la ligne droite, donnée.”—ENOLYCLOPEDIE. Art. Paralldle.
plane, if they are subject to an increase of distance on one side, will not be || This and most of what has preceded, is in the Arabic. In a manuscript subject to a diminution of distance on that same side, and the contrary; but
of Euclid in Arabic but in a Persian hand, bought at Ahmedabad in will cut one another. And in the demonstration of this I shall employ 1811, the editor on the introduction of Euclid's Axiom comments as another proposition, which Euclid has employed in the Tenth Book and
elsewhere, which is, that of any two finite magnitudes of the same kind, the “And this is what is said in the text. I maintain that the last proposi- smallest by being doubled over and over will become greater than the kion is not of the universally-acknowledged truths, nor of anything that is de greatest. And it vill further require to be laid down, that one straight line monstrated in any other part of the science of geometry. The best way there cannot be in the same straight live with straight lines more than one that do fore would be, that if it should be put among the questions instead of the not coincide with one another; and that the angle which is equal to a right principles; and I shall demonstrate it in a suitable place. And I lay down angle, is a right angle.” We omit the Arabic. for this purpose another proposition, which is, that straight lines in the same * I. 32, Cor. x.
a general proposition, the connexion between a line returning to he died in 1300; im-ınêr-ge-re ú-ro nell' d-cqua, to plunge one its place and the exterior angles having been oquul to four right in the water ; é-gli e-ra qui in quest' i-stán-te, he was here (in) angles, is a nori su msitur; that it is a thing that may be or may not this moment; egli è in a-go-ni-a, he lies in the agonies of be; that the notion that it returns to its place because the exterior death; és-se-re in côz-le-ra, in gió-ja, in af-fi-zió-ne (i. e. nél.lo
stá-to di côl-le-ra, di gió-ja, di af-flz-zió-ne), to be angry, cheerful, sad (i, e. in a state of anger, joy, affiliction); a-vér qudl-che cô. sa in bóc-ca, in má-no, to have something in one's mouth, in one's hand; es-se-re, stá-re in cam-pa-gna, to be, reside in the country; an-dd-re, en-trá-re in u-na chiê-sa, to go into, enter a church; ca-scá-re in u-na fós-sa, to fall into a pit or hole; mêtte-re le ind-ni in tû-sca, to stick or thrust one's
hands into one's pocket; me-nd-re il ca-val-lo in e-stál-la, to lead a horse into the stable; sa-li-re in cá-me-ra, to go up into the room; oi-veva in un sé-co-lo di bar-bá-rie, he lived in an age of barbarity.
I have already remarked that the proper names of towns and similar localities are exceptions to the above-stated rule, for they have the preposition a as well as in placed before them, whenever a stay or arrival in them is expressed; e. g. é-gli stèt-te per tre anni in (or a) Róma, he lived for three years in Rome ; la sta-te pas-sd-ta ko stêt-tô đi-e messẽ d (or im) Fi-rê-ge, last summer I lived two months in Florence. There is, however, a shade of difference between the employment of a and in in such cases, which will be at once understood by the following examples ; è in Lôn-dra, in the strictest sense of the word, means a person being or an occurrence taking place within the precincts properly called London ; while è a Lôn-dra, in the more enlarged or general meaning of the word, means & person not necessarily being in, or an occurrence not necessarily
taking place within, those precincts, but perhaps in the neighangles have been equal to four right angles, is a mistake. From bourhood of London ; e. g. at Kensington. which it is a legitimate conclusion, that if nature had contrived to
The motion to or towards a town or village, conformably to make the exterior angles of a rectilinear triangle greater or less than four right angles, this would not have created the smallest the nature of the preposition, is always expressed by cho impediment to the line's returning to its old situation after being Motion to or towards (and, naturally, being or staying in) carried round the sides ; and conséquently the line's returning parts of the world, countries, provinces, and islands, requires is no proof of the angles not being greater or less than four right the preposition in. The reason of this appears to be, that angles.
to the 15. Franceschini, Professor of Mathematics in the University interior of these more extended localities prevails, though, of Bologna, in an Essay entitled La Teoria delle parallele rigorosa. strictly and logically speaking, the idea of going to or into mente dimostrata, printed in his Opuscoli Matematichi at Bassano
a town amounts to the same thing; e. g. an-dió-mo con lui a in 1787, offers a proof which may be reduced to the statement, Pie-tro-búr-go, let us go with him to St. Petersburgh; é-gli that if two straight lines make with a third the interior angles on par-ti da Mô-na-co per re-cár-si a Viên-na, he departed from the same side one a right angle and the other an acute; perpen- Munich to go to Vienna; e-gli si por-tò a Cel-sê-a, he repaired diculars drawn to the third line from points in the line which makes the acute angle, will cut off successively greater and greater por
to Chelsea ; e-gli è an-da-to à Pa-gi-gi e pôi an-drà a Cel-te-nám, tions of the line they fall on. From which it is inferred, that he is gone to Paris, and after that he will go to Cheltenham; because the portions so cut off go on increasing, they must increase quán-do an-dré-te in Frán-cía? when will you go to France till they reach the other of the two first straight lines, which implies fa-ré-mo un viág-gio in Mo-scô-via, a Mo-scô-via, we shall go on that these two straight lines will meet. Being a conclusion founded a journey to Russia, to Moscow; 2-o vá-do in I-sco-zia, in 1-sveon neglect of the very early mathematical truth, that continually zia, I go to Scotland, to Sweden; il Ba-scià fu e-si-li-d-to nella increasing is no evidence of ever arriving at a magnitude assigned. é-so-la di Cí-pri, the pasha was exiled to (the island of) Cyprus;
è-gli è in Frán-cia, nél-la Chi-na, he is in France, in China ; ná-cque nell'í-so-la di Lê-sbo, he was born in the island of Lesbos.
Usage allows the omission of the article after in before many LESSONS IN ITALIAN GRAMMAR.-No. XIX.
nouns familiarly known and constantly recurring in conversaBy CHARLES TAUSENAU, M.D.,
tion; e. g. é-gli va nél-la cá-me-ra, nél-la cit-tà, nél-la chiê-sa,
nél-la can-ti-na, &c.; or, é-gli va in cá-me-ra, in cit-tà, in chiê-sa, of the University of Pavia, and Professor of the German and Italian in can-ti-na, &c., he goes to the room, to town, to church, to Languages at the Kensington Proprietary Grammar School.
the cellar, &c. In.
Before the words day, week, month, year, morning, evening,
when time is the subject, it is customary to omit the The preposition in denotes being, continuance, or motion preposition in; e. g. l' án-no che mo-ri il Ga-li-lê-0, ná-cque il in the interior of a thing. It also denotes any kind Newion, in the year in which Galileo died, Newton was born; of motion or penetration into it. The idea of existence il mé-se ven-tu-ro, (in the next month ; la set-ti-md-na scór-sa, in a time or in a certain condition, particularly in a certain (in the last week; le next month ; la set-ti-md-na scór-sa,
c state or disposition of the mind, likewise requires the use of instead of: nell dn-no, nel mé-se, &c. in. The preposition a, on the contrary, merely expresses The words cá-sa, cór-te, pa-láz-zo, toá-tro, lét-to, and scuola, presence near or about a thing or motion, approach, and have a proper or original and a figurative signification. In the tendency to it; e. g. é-gli è nel giar-di-no, in quél-la cd-me-ra, former case, they demand the preposition in; in the latter, the in cit-ta, in piaz-za, he is in the garden, in that room, in the preposition a (without an article) before them; e. g. town, in the square; é-gli an-drd in In-ghil-têr-ra, in I-spá-gna, he will go to England, to Spain; nélt án-no mil-le sêt-te cên-to,
E'-gli è nél-la cór-te, nel pa- He is in the court-yard, in in the year 1700 ; sog-gior-nò al-quán-to in Ró-ma, he staid a láz-80, in ted-tro, in lêt-to, in the palace, in the play-house, while in Rome; Ge-sů Cri-sto na-cque in Be-te-têm-me, Jesus i-scuola, in cá-sa.
in the bed, in the school, z. e. Christ was born in Bethlehem;é-gli mo-ri nel mil-le tre cên-to,
(building), in the house.
E'-gli è a cór-te, a pa-láz-zo, He is at court, at Guildhall, * See the Notes to Playfair's Elements of Geometry, p. 406; where there
a teá-tro, a lét-to, a scuola, a at the play, ' sick in bed at 18 a figure.
school, at home.
I'-o od-do nél-la cór-te, nel I go into the court-yard, 1 tre vol-te. Il sú-o a-vé-re con-si-ste par-te in da-ná-ro, e para pa-ld2-80, nel tori-tro, nel lét-to, into the palace, into the play- te in bê-ni stá-bi-li. E' ve-nu-to in per-só-na. Dó-ve-va nél-la scuola, nél-la cá-8a. house, into the bed, into the stá-re in pie-di. E'-gli si mi-se in gi-no-chió-ni. Es-se-re in
school, i. e. (building), into buô-na sa-lu-te. An-da-re in bár-ca. In no-me di Di-o.
the house. I'-o vá-do a cór-te, a pa-láz- I go to court, to Guildhall,
VOCABULARY. zo, a ted=tro, a let-to, a scuô-la, & to the play, to bed, ¿., e. (to cá-8. sleep), to school, home. Stanza, f., room, chamber.
Se ne stamperanno, will be In addition to these uses, in has some indefinite meanings, į Vicino, m., vicina, f., neigh- printed. which will admit of several prepositions or adverbial expres.
bouring, contiguous, adjoin- Carta, f., paper (carta velina, sions for the purpose of translating them into English ; e. g. in:
vellum-paper). no-mi-na-re, di-re qual-che cô-sa in la-ti-no, to name, say some- Sono, I am.
Voi siete, you are. thing in Latin ; spe-ra-re in Di-o, to hope in Gud ; in ma-nie- uast, almost, nearly, well Fiore, flower, bloom, prime. ra tá-le, in such a manner ;--on or upon : por-tu-re qual-che
Anno, year (il fior degli anni or cô-sa in dôs-so, in tê-sta, in cór-po, to carry something on one's Porto, port, harbour.
dell' età, the bloom of youth, back or shoulders, or about one's self, on the head, on the Campagna, country,
flower of life, prime of one's body; por-tá-re scár-pe in piê-di, to wear shoes on one's feet; pié-di, to wear shoes on one's feet; Villegiatura, summer
age). la pá-squa è sém-pre in tuna Do-mé-ni-ca, Easter is always on a
for pleasure or recreation Avete avuto, you have had. Sunday; é-gti mi-se usi a-nél-Zo in di-to, he put or placed a ring
speatin the country; country Tempo, time, weather, on his finger; ab-bát-ter-si in u-no, to light on one, meet him
amusement, rural diversion viaggio, journey. by chance; di-stende-re qual-che cô-sa in cór-ta, to pen or note
or sport (essere in villegia- Scritto, writing (in iscritto, in something on paper ;-round: gli git-tò il brác-cio in cól-lo (for turc, to spend the summer writing, written, under one's in-tóy-no il côl-ló), he clasped him with the arm round his neck;
season in the country, to own hand). més-so-li ú-na ca-té-na in gola (for in-tor-no la gó-la), after having
enjoy the pleasures of the Stato, state, condition (in isteput a chain round his neck;-to: le cac-ciò di col-le in cól-le,
to, having it in one's power, he chased them from hill to hill; di têm-po in tém-po, from Egli va, he goes.
able). time to time; con-fic-cá-re in u-ná cró-ce, to fasten or nail Camera, chamber, room. Primo, first. something to a cross ;-towards : in me mo-vên-do de bê-gli Scozia, Scotland.
Luogo, space, spot, place (in ôc-chj i rá-i, turning towards me the rays of her beautiful eyes;
primo luogo, for the first, in -of against : ví-de in se ri-vol-to il pó-po-lo, he saw the people Morirono amendue, both died. the first place, firstly). rebelling against him ;-at: 'grar-da-re in u-no, to look at
Fondo, bottom, ground (in fonone; in place of : a-dot-tá-re ú-no in fi-gliuó-lo, to take one in Tu eri, thou wast.
do, at the bottom, in the place of a son, to adopt one ;--as: dá-re qualche cô-sa in dó-C è nissuno, is nobody.
main, after ali). no ad ús-no, to give one something as a present; di-re qudl-che Cortile, court-yard.
Paragone, comparison, paralcô-sa in sú-a scu-sa, to plead something as one's apology or Cucina, kitchen, .
lel (in paragone di, in comexcuse ; o Dino, non m' im-pr-tár-lo in pec-cd-to, O Lord, do not i Cantina, cellar.
parison with, when comimpute it to me as a sin; e-les-se-go in Pa-pa iz Car- E* andato, he is gone.
pared to). di-nál Ma-sta-z- Fer-rêt-ti nel mil-le ót-to-cên-to qua-rán-ta-se-i, Piazza, market-place, square. Noi, we, us, They elected Cardinal Mastai-Ferretti as pope in 1846 ;
Osteria, public-house, tavern, Ancora, again, still, even, yet.
inn, adverbial expressions : in av-ve-ni-re, in future, for the future,
Felice, happy. henceforth ; in fát-ti, indeed, in fact, in reality; in frét-ta, in Teatro, play-house, theatre. Mezzo, middle, midst (in mezzo, a hurry, hastily; in ó-gni con-to, at any rate, at all events;
Abitaoa, he lived.
in the middle or midst of). in fác-cia, to one's face.
Lo trovai, I found him.
Paese, land, region, country.
Di, than, El-la è nél-la stan-za vi-cí-na. Só-no quá-si in pôr-to. Collera, anger,
Seguito, suite, train, attendE'-gli è in A'u-stria, in I-tá-lia, in cam-pa-gna, in vil-leg-gia- Me, ms.
ance, retinue ; sequel, consetu-ra. E-gli va nel giar-di-no; in quél-la cá-me-ra; in se ne parla, they talk of it. quence, issue, result, effect. Frán-cia; in cam-pa-gna; in I-scô-zia; in Tur-chí-a. Mo. E' partito, he has departed. Dopo, after. 11-ro-no a-men-dú-e in un giór-no e in un' 6-ra. Tu ê-ri in Fretta, haste, hurry, precipi. Fatto, deed, fact, action, chiê-sa. C'è nis-sú-no in ca-sa? E'-gli è nel cor-ti-le, Dél-la
Poi, afterwards, after that (in cu-cí-na, nél-la can-ti-na. E' an-da-to in chiê-sa, in cit-tà, in vi è andato, he is gone there. seguito; dopo fatto; poi) piáz-za, in o-ste-ri-a, in teá-tro. A-bi-tá-Fa in quél-la cá-sa. Carrozza, coach, carriage. thereupon, afterwards, after Lo tro-va-i in lêt-to. An-tô-nio è in côl-le-ra con me. Se ne Potremo andar, we shall be that, thereafter, hereafter, par-la in tút-ta la cit- tà. E par-ti-to in free-ta. Vi è an-dá
in time to come). to in car-rôz-za. Do-má-ni po-tré-mo an-dar in i-slít-ta. E's Slitta, sledge.
Caso, case. siósó-no sor-ti-ti in qué-sto pún-to. A-des-so siê-te nelle Essi sono sortiti, they have gone Bisogno, need, want, the necesmí-e má-ni. Lo pre-vên-ni in pún-ta di piê-di e qui l' a-spêt
sary (in caso di bisogno or to. I'-o mi ri-pô-so nél-la ca-pa-ci-tà di mi-o fra-têl-lo. Al- Punto, point, point of time, al bisogno, in case of need or quán-te cô-pie se ne stam-pe-ran-no in car-ta ve-li-na. Voi
necessity, at the worst). siê-te nel fiór dé-gli án-ni. A-vé-te &-vú-to bêl têm-po nel Adesso, now.
Principio, beginning. vô-stro viág-gio. In i-scrít-to; in i-stá-to. In prí-mo luô-go; Siete, you are,
Avvenire, future. . in fon-do. In pa-ra-gó-ne di noi é-gli è an-có-ra fe-li-ce, In Mano, f., hand.
Stesso, m., stessa, f., myself, mêz-zo del (or âl) paé-se. In mé-no d' un' ó-ra. In sé-guia Lo prevenni, I came before thyself, &c.; the same, selfto (dó-po fát-to; pôi). In cá-so di bi-só-gno; in ó-gni ca-so. him. In prin-cí-pio. In av-ve-ní-re. Nell' ó-ra stés-sa. In fôr-za Punta, point (of anything). Forza, force, power, strength, (or in vir-tù) d'un trat-tá-to. Nel têm-po stés-so. In nis-sú- Piede, foot, leg (punta del piede, Virtù, virtue (in forza di, ix na ma-niê-ra. Nel cuor dél-la Rús-sia. Nel cuor dell' in- end or point of the foot, i. e.
virtù di, by or in virtue of, vêr-no. Nel cuor d'él-la stá-te, In ve-ri-tà ; in fat-ti (or di toe).
by, in conformity with, ac. fát-ti). Te lo dí-ce in fác-cia. In sú-a ré-ce, in sú-o luô-go. E qui l'aspetto, and here I
cording to, in consequence In qué-sto mô-do, in tai mô-do. Tutt in un trát-to, ad un wait till he comes.
of). trát-to. In tá-li cir-con-stán-ze. In ví-sta di ciò. In ór-di-Io mi riposo, I repose myself, Trattato, treaty. ne a ciò, che vi hô dét-to. In fa-vb-re dell'ac-cu-sa-to. In- sit down; I rely.
Nissuno, m., nissuna, f., not ci-só-re in rá-me. Pe-is-to in ár-te. Ca-stêl-li in á-ria. Dota Capacità, ability, talent, skill.
any, none. to-re in am-be le lég-gi. In têm-po di guer-ra. Nel têm-po siquanto, m., alquanta, f., some, Maniera, manner (in nissuna dell' al-ti-ma guêr-ra. Vi stá-va col-le brác-cia in cró-ce.
maniera or in nessun modo, in Tôr-to in ar-co. In o-no-re dél-la vir-tú. Come si dí-ce Copea, f., abundance, plenty; no banner, by no means, qué-sto in in-glé-se? in i-ta-lik-no? Vuo-tò il bic-chiê-re in occasion ; copy.
upon no account, not at all).
able to gu.
Cuore, heart, centre, middle, Castello, castle.
Agreeable company, ag-gra- | This note, qué-sto vi gliet-to, m. midst, summit. Aria, air,
de-vo-le com-pa-gni-a, f. Direction, in-di-rigna, m, Inverno, winter. Dottore, doctor. Time, têm-po, m.
Count, cón-te, m. State, summer.
Ambe, pl. f., both. (i.e.civil and Passes very quickly, pás-sa as- He hid, é-gli na-scó-84 Verità, truth.
Key, chid-ve, f. Te lo dice, he tells it you. Legge, f., law.
Is nobody? c'è nis-sú-no ? That sideboard, quell' ar-máFaccia, face (to lo dice in faccia, Guerra, f., war.
Castle, ca-stêl-lo, m.
dio, m. he tells you to your face). Ultimo, m., ultima, f., last. Steward, fat-tó-re (or ca-stul- Man, uó-m0, m. Vece, place, stead (in vece or a Vi stava, he stood there.
In some respects, per di-ver-si vece, instead of, in lieu of; Braccio, m. (pl. le braccia, f.), Has gone ont, è u-sci-to
ri-guir-di in the name of, by the
This moment, que-sto pin-to, Never is better known than, authority of; for, in vece inia, Croce, cross (braccia in proce,
non si co-ró-sce má-i mé-glio sua or in mia, sua vece, in
You have had, voi a-vé-ie a- che stead of me, of him, or in Torto, curved.
Play, giuô-co, m. my, his stead or place). Arco, arc, arch.
Fine weather, bel tim-po, m. Anger, col-le-ra, f. Modo, mode, way, manner. Onore, honour.
Your journey, il vo-stro viúg- Drunkenness, ub-bria-ches-44 Tale, such. Come si dice questo, how is that gio, m.
(ts), f. Tratie, draught, pull, throw, called?
You will have, él-la a-vrch touch, stroke; time (tutt' in Inglese, English. un tratto, in or ad un tratto, Vuotò, he emptied. on a sudden, all at once, in Bicchiere, glass.
CORRESPONDENCE. pull, wrench, jerk, Tre, three. effort). Volta, time.
TONIC SOL-FA ASSOCIATION. Circostanza, circumstance. Avere, property.
We have received the following notice, which we have much Vista, sight, appearance (in Consiste, consists.
pleasure in submitting to our readers. vista di, in or with respect Parte, partly.
" At a meeting of friends of the Tonic Solla Association held to, with regard to, in con- Danaro, money.
on Tuesday Evening, Dec. 20th, 1853, at 4, Grocer's Hall Court, sideration of).
Bene stabile, immoveable, real Poultry, Rev. J. TREVITT, M.A, Incumbent of St. Philip, Friar's Ciò, that.
Mount, in the chair, it was unanimously resolved: Ordine, order (in ordine a, in E venuto, he has come.
"That the generous and disinterested labours of the Rev. JOIN consideration or regard of, Persona, person.
CURWEn for the diffusion of a knowledge of Vocal Music, call for with respect to, as for, touch Doveva stare, he was obliged to a Testimonial of regard and esteem from the members and friends ing).
uf the Tonic Sol-fa Association, and the classes connected with it" Che vi hô detto, what I have Egli si mise, he fell.
A Sub-committee having been appointed for carrying out tha Ginocchioni ginocchione, arrangements for the above purpose, such of our readers as wish Favore, favour, grace, aid (in kneeling (inginocchioni or in- to testify their sense of the improvements in Music introduced to favore, in behalf of, in favour ginocchione, on the knees). public notice by Mr. Curwen, can communicate with the Secretary
of the Tonic Sol-la Association, ROBERT GRIFFITHS, Milton of, for). Essere, to be.
Cottage, Plaisio, Essex. Accusato, accused, defendant. Salute, health.
It is not considered necessary that the proposed Testimonial Incisore, engraver. Andare, to go.
should be of great pecuniary worth, but it is thought that all srbo Rame, copper, Barca, boat.
hare derived venefit from the valuable method of teaching to sing Perito, skilled, learned. Nome, name.
introduced by him, will be glad to unite in this expression of their Arte, art. Dio, God.
respect for him, and their earnest desire for his success in the
great work he has undertaken. Post Office orders for this object, COLLOQUIAL EXERCISES.–ENGLISH-ITALIAN.
made payable at the Chief Office, St. Martin's Le Grand, to Rev.
JAMES TREVITT, will be duly acknowledged.
Have you re
ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. ceived a book from this child? We have lent our umbrella to
LEHRLING has done both himself and us great credit by the progress he your brother,
Have you found this pen in your school? We have written a letter to our uncle and to our aunt. following journals, especially the first. The Morgenblatt, Stuttgart (Wur
We can confidently recommend lim either of the Your mother has given a cap to my sister. Have you seen a temberg), the Didascalia, 1'rankfort on the Maine; and the Dampf-boat, little child in our garden?
Dantzic. They inay be obtained through a London agent, or by writing to each town of publication, with the address, “The Expedition of the Morgen
blatt, &c." ENGLISH-ITALIAN.
R.S.T.: “Cassell's Lessons in German Pronunciation” will answer the pur
pose of a German Anthology for a beginner. After that, the student could The unfortunate find consolation in hope. In books we not have a better reading-book than * Cassell's Eclectic German Reader," find the means of becoming learned. Your sister is not in the which contains selections from the best authors of every class. Other works room, she must either have gone into the kitchen or into the dium of which may be had in one volume, and " Emelor's deutsches Leseuch,"
deserving of attention, are“ Wackernagel's deutsches Lesebuch," a compencellar. Shall we go to take our breakfast in the summer- which is extensively used both in France and this country, house! In an agreeable company, time passes very quickly.
A FATHERLESS SUBSCRIBER (Salop) : We feel both for him and his sister; Is nobody in the castle? No, the steward has gone out (in) P. E. in preference to any other, as we got them up ourselves, and know
and we can recommend the “ Lessons in Pennanship” contained in the this moment. You have had fine weather in your journey. I their value. It is true that we were grievously disappointed in the printing You will have in this note the count's direction. He hid the of them, for they are not so nicely printed as we expected; but they are key in that side-board.
good for all that. Next, our friend should advise his sister to study the
“Lessons in English” in the P. E., and after that the "Lessons in French," VOCABULARY.
besides Arithmetic, Geography, &c., all contained in the P. E.-J. HALLAM (Liverpool): The difference between the words impracticable and impossible
seems according to usage to be this; the former means what cannot be done Unfortunate, in-fe-li-ce, m. Room, cd-me-fa, f.
by reason of some let or hindrance; the latter what cannot de contact according Find, tô-pa-no
She must either have gone-or, to the nature of things. Consolation, con-so-la-zió-ne, f.
él-la sa-rà an-da-ta 0-0 Hope, spe-rdn-za, f. Kitchen, cu-cé-na, f.
p. 69, col. 1, line 1 note; for hydrosulphurate read Nydrosulphat. Book, li-bro, m. Cellar, can-ti-na, f.
p. 138, col. I, line 35; for volume read weight. We find, sa trô-a-mo
Shall we go to take our break- p. 174, col. 2, line 44; for the diagram there given, read the following Means, mêm-20, m. fast, vo-gliá-mo an-da-re a
Sulphuretted hydrogen. To become learned, per di-ve- far co-la-zió-ne
Sulphuret ( Sulphur nér dót-to Summer-house, ca-si-nét-to, m.
Antimony ( Antimony Is not, non è
p. 208, col. 1, line 22; for fig. 48, fig, 47, read fig. 47, fig. 48.
has made in German.
(Continued from page 292.)
PNEUMATIC AND HYDRAULIC MACHINES.
Rarefaction and Compression of Gascs.—The rarefaction of the air is effecied in the following manner, by means of a suctionprump, fig. 93, in which r is the suction-pipe. This pipe communicates, at its lower extremity, with the receiver or vessel in which the air is to be raretied; and at its upper extremity, with the barrel or body of the pump D. The piston P, which moves up and down in the barrel by means of the piston-rod, is furnished with a valve in the middle, just under the semicircular piece to which the rod is fastened, and similar to the valve s (seen in the figure at the bottom of the barrel), which covers the upper extremity of the suction. pipe. Both valves open upwards and close downwards.
When the piston is Taised, the valve s opens, the air contained in the receiver passes through the tube F into the barrel, and is there rarefied or expanded. When the piston is lowered, the valve s, closes, and the air in the barrel between this valve and the piston is condensed; it then forces open the valve in the piston and escapes through the spout i, into the atmosphere. In this manner, every stroke of the piston rarefies the air in the receiver. Thus, it appears that the common suction-pump is in its principle and construction a veritable air-pump, as will appear by the description of the latter in the following paragraph. Nevertheless, for ordinary purposes, many simple and handy air-pumps are inade on the principle just described. In order to construct a pump which shall condense the air or any other gas, we have only to construct the valves so that they shall work in an opposite direction to that in which they work in fig. 93 ; but this, also, will be mule fully explained in a rapid and less laborious, the atmospheric pressure which acted subsequent paragraph,
on both pistons tending to produce an equilibrium.
The Air-Punp.-The air-pump is an apparatus which is The air-pump, as now constructed, is composed of two bras: employed to make a vacuum in a given space, or, more cylinders (strong glass in our engraving, to show the construc; strictly speaking, to rarefy the air in that space; for it cannot tion), in each of which works a piston P, fig. 94, formed of several produce an absolute vacuum. This machine was invented by discs of leather, put one above another, and greased so as to Otro de Guericke, burgomaster of Magdeburg, in 1650, a few completely exclude the air while moving up and down in the vears after the discovery of the barometer. Hawksbee, in cylinders. To each piston is fastened a råck, in the teeth of England, was the first, who added two cylinders to the air- which a pinion H, fig. 95, is made to work alternately from