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left to right, and from right to left, by means of a pinch or air which is below is gradually compre-scd until iis elastic lever Mn; so that when one of the pistons is raised the other force exceeding the pressure of the atmosphere, raises :lle valve is lowered, and lite ec?s.
in the interior of the piston. The compressed air then piis.es The tuo barrels are cemented at the bottom to a brass sup- above the piston, and, by the aperture in the top of llie pision, port, which is furnished with a plate 1), fig. 94 ; upon this plate escapes into the atmosphere." When the piston reaches the stands a strong bell-shaped glass, wiib a ground edge, the bottom of iis course, all the air which had been withrirawn former being sometimes called the pleiten, and the latier the from the receiver is expelled. At the second stroke of the receiver. It is in the receiver that the Facuum is to be made, piston, the same series of operations takes place in succession or that the air is to be rarefied; in the centre c of the platen, in both barrels, until a limit has been reached, when the air there is an opening which forms a communication between the which comes from the receiver is so rarefied that it can no interior of the receiver and ihe barrels of the pump, by means longer raise the interior valve of the piston, even when the of a tube represented in plan, in fig 9.5, and dividing itself | piston is at the bottom of the barrel. into two branches, K cbs, and Kodo. In fig. 96, there is a The Sipohon-Gouge.-When the operation of pumping the air representation of a vertical and anterior section of the barrels. has been continued for a certain time, the elastic force of the It'shows how the pinion 11, worked by the lever MN, conveys air which remains in the receiver is measured by the difference ihe motion to the two racks, and consequently to the pistons of level which the mercury shows in the two branches of a Band Q. These pistons are not solid; in their interior is an tube bent in the form of an inveried siphon, the one branch cylindrical cavity closed at bottom by a small valve which has being open and the other shut, as in the siphon-harometer. a weak spring. The cavity in which the valves are placed This appendage to the air-pump, when properly filled with communicates with the upper part of the barrel by an aperture mercury, is fixed on a vertical scale and placed under B, fig. abore the valve which is always open to the atrnosphere for the 94, a small glass receiver of its own, which communicates with fgress of the air. Besides the valves placed in the interior of the platen receiver E by means of the tube which connects the the pistons, two other valves o and s are placed at the bottom aperture c in the platen with the barrels of the pump. Now, of the barrels. These valves are conical, and are each fixed io before any air has been withdrawn from the receiver, its elastic an iron rod, which easily slides up and down through the force baliences the column of mercury in the siphon-gauge, and pistons. These barrels open and shut alternaíely the com- it is then full; but in proportion as the air is rarefied by the munication between the barrels and the receiver. If the piston action of the pistons, the elastic force diminishes, and then it P, for example, descends, it draws with it the iron avid and can no longer balance the column of mercury. This column shuts the valve s; if it rises, the rod and the valve are raised, ranks, and the mercury approaches the same level in both but only a small height, because that this ruel is of such a branches. If an absolute vacuum were obtained, the mercury
ength that it soon strikes the top of the barrel, and then it would reach exactly the same level ; for there would be no only slides in the piston which afterwards rises by pressure on it in either branch of the gauge. But with the itself.
best constructed machines, the level in the shut branch is In order to understand the working of the machine, it will always higher than that in the open branch, by about its part be sufficient to consider what takes place in one of the barrels, of an inch, which shows that the vacuuin is not perfect, and since they are both alike. When the piston Q, for instance, is that there still remains a quantity of air, whose tension first at the bottom of the cylinder, it is raised by the action balances a column of mercury of about one-twenty-fifth part of the winch, and it then draws with it the rod and the valve of an inch in height.
As to the valve which is in the interior of the piston, it It is evident that practically the air-pump cannot produce remains closed while the latter is raised in consequence of its an absolute vacuum, because, as has been already observed, own weight and that of the atmosphere; for the tops of the there is a limit where the air which remains in the receiver barrels are pierced with small apertures me and n, by which he becomes so rarefied, that even when the pistons are at the exterior pressure is conveyed. According to this arrangement bottom of the barrels, its elastic force cannot overcome the of the valves, there is a tendency to the production of a vacuum atmospheric pressure on the valves in the interior of the pisbelow the piston as it moves upwards; but the air in the re- tons, and consequently they can no longer be opened for the ceiver, yielding to the law of its elasticity, passes partly into expulsion of the air from the receiver. Even theoretically, an the barrel through the orificeo. If, for example, the volume of absolute vacuum is impossible, because if, for exanıple, the the barrel is zo of that of the receiver, then 1 of the quantity | volume of each barrel is zo of that of the receiver, there is of air in the latter passes into the barrel. When the piston withdrawn, at every stroke of the piston, only one of the. inoves downwards, the rod of the valve o is drawn down, this quantity of air which remains in the receiver; consequently,
alre shuts, and the air in the barrel does not return into the the air which it contains can never completely be withdrawn. I cceiver. The piston continuing its motion downwards, the l It can be shown, indeed, by in easy calculativi, that it would require an infinite number of strokes of the piston to make sible before the application of the stop-cock with the double & perfect vacuum in the receiver.
passage. Now, each time that we can thus open the valve 2, Improved Stop-Cock.-M. Robinet has applied to the air- some air is expeller). pump a stop-cock which admits of the rarefaction of the air
Use of the Air-pump.--A considerable number of experimente being carried to a very great extext. This stop-cock is placed with the air-pump have been already explained in former at the point where the connecting tube between the receiver lessons ; such as the shower of mercury, the fall of bodies in a and the two barrels separates into two branches, and it is per- vacuum, the expansion of a flaccid bladder in a vacuum, the forated by several passages, which are successively used in bladder-glass, the Magdeburg hemispheres, and the baroscope. working, by turning it in two different directions. Fig. 95 The air-pump serves also to prove that the air, in consequence represents à horizontal section of this stop-cock R, in such as of the oxygen which it contains, is necessary to the support of position, that by its central aperture, and its two lateral aper-combustion and of animal life. For example, if we place tures, it establishes a communication between the orifice x in under the receiver, any lighted body, such as a candle, we see the platen, and the valves o and s. The machine then works the flame diminishing as the exhaustion advances, and very as already described. In fig. 98, the stop-cock has been moved
soon becoming extinguished. In like manner, an animal round by a quarter of a turn, and the transverse passage db, placed under the receiver, first becomes motionless, and then which was horizontal in fig. 95, is now vertical, and its orifices dies, as the air within it becomes more and more rarefied. are shut by the sides of the tube. But a second passage, which Mammifers and birds die at once in a vacuum. Fishes and was not u-ed at first, and which has taken the place of the reptiles can bear the want of air for a considerable time; and former, now, puts the barrel on the right alone in communica- insects have been allowed to remain in a vacuum several days tion with the receiver by the passage cb8, fiy. 93 ; and it also without losing their vitality. puts the barrel on the right in communication with that on the left by a passage a eo fig. 98, or aico fig 97. This passage long time in a vacuum, without the slightest alteration in their
Substances liable to fermentation have been kept for a very proceeds from a central aperture a placed at the bottom of the state, because they were not exposed to contact with oxygen, barrel on the right, and terminates at the valve o of the other which is necessary to this process. Alimentary subsca aces barrel
, passing through the stop-cock, as represented in figs. have been preserved for a long time in bottles hermetically 89 and 90; but the same passage is shut by the stop-cock, when sealed, in which a vacuum has been previously made; and the latter is in its former position, as shown in figs. 95 and 96. This arrangement being understood, when the piston on the they were the first day they were sealed.
they hare been found as fresh at the end of several years as right is raised, the air is
Fig. 49. withdrawn from the re
The fountain in a vacuum, represented in fig. 99, is also an ceiver ; but when it is
experiment which is performed with the air-pump, and which lowered, the air which is
is employed to prove the expansire force of air. This is simply withdrawn is now forced
a bottle containing water and air. The mouth of the bottle is into the barrel on the left,
shut by a cork, and a tube immersed in the liquid, passes through the orifice a, the
through it. The whole being now put under a receiver, as passage ci, and the valve
soon as the air in the receiver becomes sufficiently rarefied, o, fig. 97, which is then
the water issues from the upper extremity of the tube like a open. When after this,
fountain--an effect which is produced by the pressure or elastic the piston on the right is
force of the air contained within the bottle. raised, that on the left is
Another experiment is represented in fig. 100, which shows lowered, but the air which
the pressure of the atmosphere on the human hand. This is below does not return
consists of a glass cylinder bottle-shaped at one extremity, and into the barrel on the
open at both ends. The larger end, ground and well greased, right, because the valve
being put on the platen, and the palm of the hand placed on ois now shut. The piston
the upper end, a vacuum is made in the cylinder. The atmoon the right continuing
spheric pressure being no longer balanced in reference to the thus to draw air from
upper and lower surfaces of the hand, the upper surface the receiver and to throw
is powerfully pressed on the top of the eylinder, and it into the barrei on the
it can scarcely be withdrawn from its position except left, the air is accumulated
by a rery strong effort. Besides the elasticity of the fluids in the latter, and reaches
in the organ being no longer counterbalanced by the a tension sufficient to raise
weight of the atmosphere, the paim of the hand becomes the valve of the piston Q,
swelled, and the blood has a tendency to issue from the pores a thicg which was imposFig. 100.
of the skin.
A mospheric Railway.-An important application of the silver in solution. The learner must not imagine them, howvac!ium principle was made some years ago in the construc- ever, to be the only tests. There exist others, of which the tiori of atmospheric railways. Vallance, an Englishman, following are importari :appears to have been the original inventor, in 1824; but it was
Solution of iodide of potassium-known in certain country only in 1831, that the first atmospheric railway was construc- shops under the name of hydriodote of potash throws down ted'in Ireland, by the engineers Messrs. Ciegg and Samuda, from salts of silver a palish-yellow precipitate. The principal details of this principle of railways is represented per, immersed in a solution of silver-or, at any rate, in a in fig. 101. A cast iron pipe Mn, is placed between the rails, solution of nitrate of silver, throws down the metal in a finelythe whole length of the road. In the interior, there is a piston divided metallic form. A, with a rod of about ten feet long terminated by a counter- There are other tests; but we may simply pass them over; weight B. The first carriage is connected with the piston-rod the best have already been indicated more would be needless. by an iron plate c. To allow of the play of this plate as the at present. . piston advances, a longitudinal slit is made along the whole
Method of obtaining Silver in a Metallic Form from a Silver Length of the pipe; this is covered by a continuous band of Solution. Not every metal, as I have already stated in the preleather, so that when the train is in motion, it is gradually ceding lesson, readily admits of being recovered from its raised as it proceeds. In fig. 102, a transverse section of the solution in a metallic state. Silver is embarrassed with fewer pipe, and of the parts now mentioned, is represented; where difficulties than any other in this respect, many efficient is the piston rod; c the plate which connects it with the train; processes existing by which it may be obtained in a pure E the covering valve, at the instant when it is opened to admit metallic condition. of the passage of the plate c. The prime mover of the train is
Reduction by Cooper. First of all, we have seen that the atmospheric pressure. For this purpose, the extremity N it admits of being thrown down from a solution in nitric of the pipe remains open, while the other extremity n is shut, acid by immersion of a piece of copper,
The metal may and is put in communication with a powerful exhausting be precipitated in such a condition of fine powder, that machine, or air-pump, driven by a steam engine. In the front the metallic character is scarcely recoverable. However, if a of the piston, therefore, the air is rarefied, and the pressure is little quicksilver be thrown into the vessel in which the thus reduced to one-third or one-fourth of that of the atmo- powder is deposited, and agitated, the quicksilver and the sphere, whilst in the rear of the piston, the whole of the atmo- silver will combine, forming a sort of metallic paste, to which spheric pressure is permitted to act. The piston, therefore, the term silver amalgam is applied, amalganı being the geneadvances in the direction of NM, drawing after it the whole ral expression indicating the composition of any metal with of the train. It is necessary that the valve which closes the quicksilver. If this amalgam be strongly heated in a crucible, longitudinal aperture or slit in the pipe should only be raised or even the bowl of a tobacco-pipe, all the quicksilver will to admit of the passage of the plate c, when the piston is pass- escape in vapour, and all the silver will remain as a sort of ing; if this precaution were not taken, the air would find its button. The reader will easily see, that instead of simply way into that part of the pipe which is in advance of the evaporating away the quicksilver, and allowing it to go to wastes
. piston. This object is attained by means of a disc fixed on the as in our experiment, the process of distillation might have piston-rod and projecting into the longitudinal slit of the pipe, been had recourse to; in which case the quicksilver would so as to raise the valve E. K is a piece or part of the first have been recovered. Supposing this to have been accarriage in the train, which shuts this valve as the train pro- complished, we should have exactly copied the procedure of ceeds on its journey. In the figure, the parts of the piston are the gold and silver metallurgist, who extracts goid almost exhibited on a scale twice the size of that of the carriages. universally, and silver from certain ores by the process of
amalgamation, as it is called : that is to say, he first brings the gold or silver particles in contact with mercury or quicksilver under favourable conditions ; accomplishes their union,
and finally, distilling away the quicksilver, leaves the noble LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.-No. XX.
Of all the machines devised for the purpose of conducting BEFORE resuming our active consideration of the metal silver, amalgamation on the large scale, Berdan's, of which a diagram, I feel it desirable to draw the reader's attention to a fact, which fig. 5, is appended, is the best. It consists of cast-iron basins I trust, however, he will have already recognised and given it (their number variable), in each of which rotate two cast-iron due consideration. He can scarcely fail to have seen that the bolts—the rotation being effected by motion imparted to the preceding lesson, although totally devoid of showy experi-basins. Into each basin is piuced a portion of the ore to be ments, contained several aggregative groups of facts of the crushed and amalgamated along with water and quicksilver. highest importance. The learner should master them one by The machine being now set in motion, the ore is speedily reone, and every one. It is not for me to tell him how this duced to powder; and, coming into contact with the quicksilver, mastery is to be effected. Different people have different amalgamation is effected. But the chief peculiarity of the methods. Some persons depend on frequent reading; some machine consists in this. Under each basin is a fire, which, on frequent writing; some rely on frequent experiments.heating the contents, the mercury comes in contact with the Any plan that accomplishes the end is good; but I would metal, hot and expanded-conditions under which its combinrecommend the following as an accessory at least. Write ing agency is greatly exalted. each little aggregation of facts in large characters on a large Although metallic silver may be readily obtained from a piece of paper, and stick or pin those pieces of paper in your solution of its nitrate by precipitation with copper, neverthebed-room, or some other part of the house where you must see less this plan is not frequently had recourse to in practice. Far them every day. It is astonishing how, in this way, deduce more usual is it to throw it down as a chloride, by the addition tions become impressed on the mind, absorbed, as it were, of hydrochloric acid, or solution of common salt, and subseunconsciously by the recipient. Nor is the result to bé quently extract from this chloride its contained silver. marvelled at, when we reflect on the mind's susceptibility to Two processes may be adopted for accomplishing this : the external images and impressions. Who is there amongst us first is reduction by fusion with a carbonated alkali; the who can recall a house, which we have often seen, except second is reduction by contact with metallic zinc. with all the accessories of trees and flowers, and other local Before trying this process, let us examine, a little more ate objects in relation to it at the period of our last view? Who tentively than we have done, the substance chloride of silver. To is there, who, after having seen a certain room, with its acces- this end, let the student prepare some, by the addition of a solusories of furniture, does not feel the mental impression to be tion of common salt to a solution of nitrate of silver. The operaviolated by any alteration ? Thus it is. The mind un- tion will be most conveniently performed in a Florence flask; consciously takes a sort of daguerreotype image of things and the solution of common salt should be added, little by around us : houses, furniture, faces, and chemical deductions little, until no further precipitate results. The precipitate being printed or written on a sheet of paper. Once for all, the facts white, assimilates, so far as relates to colour, with thousands, must be learned. The plan which we have followed in the nay, tens of thousands of other substances; but certain physical preceding lesson furnishes an epitome of the chief tests for appearances presented by it are so peculiar, that it might be
almost individualised without invoking the aid of any precipitates of those which usually come before chemists test.
that have the property of effervescing when acids are poured As the student adds the solution of common salt, he will upon them-are sulphite of silver (produced by adding sulremark the peculiar flaky dense white precipitate. This filaki- phurous acia or a sulphite), and carbonate of silver (pzoness is characteristic of chloride of silver-iodide and bromide duced by adding carbonic acid or a carbonate). In either of silver are also flaky-but their colour is not quite the same, case, effervescence is the result of the escape of gas ; carand their flakiness is not so great. Next, let the student bonic acid in the one instance, sulphurous acid in the remark, that on adding one solution to the other in certain other; the latter, melting like a burning brimstone match,
proportions, the result is rendered turbid, from the refusa
is easily recognised; and therefore, by negative evidence the it were, of the generated chloride to deposit itself.
Having procured some chloride of silver, let the student exFig. 6.
pose a portion of it to sun-light; and, remarking the blackening which ensues, let him associate this appearance with the substanice chloride of silver-and, indeed, with silver salts—all of which, if exposed to the direct agency of light, in contact with organic matter, assume a dark tint.
Resuming now the process of extracting silver from its chloride, proceed thus, Collect a portion of chloride; squeeze it between blotting-paper until nearly dry; mix it with twice its weight of carbonate of soda (wasliing soda), and fuse it in a crucible or tobacco-pipe bowl. Chloride of sodium and metallic silver will result, as rendered evident by the appended diagram :
Chloride of Silver
Sodium remain, been effected, and agitate it circularly, fig. 6. Thus treated, he
Silver will find the diffused particles of the precipitate soon aggregate into one curdy mass, and, depositing, will leave the superna- The chloride of sodium, being soluble, may be removed by tant liquid clear. Thus we not only have a good characteristic washing, then leaving the silver pure. of chloride of silver, but we have a means of practically
Process of Reduction by Zinc. - A far more generally applicable separating it in the course of analysis ; but the test of ultimate and elegant method of obtaining metallic silver from its appeal for chloride of silver is hartshorn-liquor ammonia-chloride consists in agitating it with a sheet of metallic zinc in which it readily dissolves, although totally insoluble in immersed in water, slightly acidulated with hydrochloric acid. nitric acid,
Treated thus, chloride of silver is rapidly decomposed, with the Other White Precipitates occurring in Silver Solutions, and how formation of chloride of zinc and the liberation of metallic silver. they may be distinguished from the Chloride.-Solutions of oxalic, If the materials, i. e, zinc, acid, and water, be all quite pure, tartaric, sulphuric, sulphurous, carbonic, and many other then the resulting precipitated silver will be chemically pure acids, as well as their combinations, yield white precipitates also, and may be freed from any adherent chloride of zinc by when projected into silver solutions; but these may be readily copious ablution. This plan of obtaining silver from chloride determined not to be the chloride, by means of nitric acid and of silver is of frequent occurrence in the laboratory, where the ammonia. The reader may try experiments with some or all valuable precipitate continually accumulates as the result of of these tests, if he pleases; but their fuller description more testing; and, in this way, the student may obtain all the silver properly belongs to another part of our subject. Weantime, contained in what remains of the nitrate of silver which he has at may be as well to point out that the only two white silver | dissolved for the purpose of experiment.
Fu uc-c-so con un col-po di pi-stû-la. Con sem-bián-te turLESSONS IN ITALIAN GRAMMAR.-No. XX. bá-to mi dis-se. Con i-s cu-dio. Con i-stu-po-re. Que-sti
bot-to-ni non s” ac-côr-da-no col co-lô-re. Ví-a di qua con BY CHARLES TAUSENAU, M.D.,
qué-sta cô-sa. Con bêl gár-bo (or con bil-la grozio). Con pôOf the University of Papia, and Professor of the Italian and German
co gár-bo. Con sú-a buô-na grá-ziâ. Con 6-yni ma-gai-fiLanguages at the Kensington Proprietary Grammar School. cên-za. Con 0-gni for-za. Con ri-spit-to par-lát1-do (or sal
va vê-nia). Con.
VOCABULARY. When the preposition with denotes company, society, union, community, connexion, or when it denotes the instrument or Si netta, he wipes himself purpose, of purpose, demeans by which something is effected, it coincides with the clean.
signedly, intentionally). use of con in Italian. In the former case, the words together Fazzoletto, handkerchief, Stupore, astonishment, with, besides, to, or similar ones, and in the latter, the words by pocket-handkerchief.
prise, amazement. encans of, by agency of, by dint of, by, through, are frequently Guardar, to look.
Bottone, button. equivalents of with, and are translated by com; e. g. an-dd-re Coda, tail.
Non s' accordano, do not match, col fra-tél-lo, to go with the brother ; si "as-so-ceò con un mer- Occhio, eye (rada dell' occhio, Colore, colour, canate, he entered into partnership with a merchant ; ês-se-re,
the lesser of external cantkus Via di quà, away with. sta-re con ú-no, to be with one, to belong to one, i.e. to one's or angle of the eye; guardar Garbo, good grace, pleasing family, company, &c.; con chi stá-to voi? with whom are you? uno colla coda dell' occhio, to manners (bel garbo, address, (i. e, in whose service are you? or with whom are you on a
look at one from the corner skill, cleverness; good grace, visit? or with whom do you stay and take dinner? &c.); vên- of one's eyes, generally from pleasing manners). go con voi, I come with you; com-bát-te-re col ne-mi-co, to fight contempt, also from suspi- Grazia, grace, charın, favour, with the enemy; con-gii-gne-re un sog-get-to col sú.o pre-di-cd-to, cion or envy, to look askance kindness, permission (bella to join a subject to its predicate; c0^-cer-ta-re ú-na cô-sa con or cast a suspicious glance or buora grazia, good grace, ú-no, to concert a thing with one; pa-ra-90-ncé-re 4-na co-sa con at one, to look at
pleasing address). un' al-tra, to compare one thing with another; con qué-ste mu- with an evil eye, not to like Poco, little (poco garbo, want of ni, with these hands; con gran fa-ti-ca, with great pains; con ane).
good grace, unskilfulness, fro-de ed in-gán-No, with fraud and deceit; con un col-tél-lo, with Temperare, to mix, dilute. awkwardness). a knife; con un scu-do gua-da-gnár-ne tre, with one crown or Viro, wine.
Con sua buona grazia, with your dollar to gain three ; la-vo-ra-re cól-la lé-ana, col pen-nel-lo, col Favorite, please.
kind permission. scar.pèl-lo, to work with the file, with the pencil, with the Penir, to come.
Ogni, each, every, all. chisel; fd-fe a-ma cà-sa co pha-ce-Te, cam, do-lo-he, co2 fa-gi-li-ta, Mg, me.
Magnificença, magnificence (con con đif-6-col-tà, con đe-stréz-za, cam cô gá-bo, to do a thing eco, with me.
ogni magnificenza, most magwith pleasure, with grief, with ease, with difficulty, with skill, Porta, carry.
nificently or superbly). with good grace.
Forza, power, strength, force The adverb in-sie-me, together, very frequently has the pre- Lanterna, lantern.
(con ogni forsa, or con tutta la position con after it, and exactly coincides with the English Egli lo prese, he took it.
forza, a tutto forza, di tutto together with; e... in-sie-me con lui, together with him; in- Se, himself, him.
forza, a marcia t forza, a siê-re con un' al-tro, together with another; 2-0 in-siê-me con Andar, to go, going, pace, viva forza, pora viva forza, ini-o pá-dre, I together with my father. *
with all one's might, with It is obvious that it is not allowed to translate with by con Tempo, time (coll' andar del might and main, by main whenever this preposition does not represent any of the above- tempo or col tempo, in time, force). stated meanings; e. g. I am satisfied with him, só-no con-têm-to
in time to come, hereafter). Rispetto, respect, regard, deferdi lui; I am delighted or greatly pleased with you, mi ral-lé-gro fu ucciso, he was killed. di voi. In these cases, to translate with by con would com- Colpo, blow, knock, shot. Parlardo, speaking (con rispetto pletely alter the sense. Só-no con-tên-to con lui, and mi ral-lé- Pistola, pistol.
parlando, with respect, or gro con lui (di qual-che cô-sa) would mean : I am satisfied along Sembiante, visage, face, coun- saying your reverence with him (i. e, as well as he), and I am delighted or greatly
tenance, appearance, air, honour). pleased along with you (i. e, as well as you=I congratulote you aspect.
Salvo, m., salva, f., safe, secure, on somethin.s).
Turbato, disturbed, alarmed, saved, unhurt. Con, with a noun following, frequently supplies the place
Venia, f., remission, forgiveof adverbial expressions; e. g. con pru-din-za, with prudence; Mi disse, he told me.
ness, indulgence (salva venia, con ci-vil-tà, with politeness ; con so-brie-tà, with subriety Studio, study, diligence, care with your permission, under con su-per-bia, with haughtiness, &c., for pru-der-te-men-te,
(con istudio or a studio, on
your favour). prudently; ci-vil-men-te, politely; so-bria-mér-te, soberly ; su
COLLOQUIAL EXERCISES.--ITALIAN-ENGLISH, . per-ba-men-te, haughtily, &c.
Con, before an infinitive, which in this case occupies the place I' a-mi-co, m., the friend, Am-ma- lá - to, distempered, of a real noun, is quite an idiom, and will be best translated by Ca-mi-ca, f., the female diseased, out of health, the prepositions by, through, by the conjunctions while, when, as,
sick, ill. and particularly and, or by the present purticiple of the English L'él-bero, m., the tree. An-có-ra, yet, still, also, even, verb; e. g; coll an-da-re a spus-so non si può ur-ric-chi-re, by L'uô-mo, n., the human being, again. taking walks (i. e. by idling) one cannot get rich; é-gli si scu
Il vi-ci.no, m., la vi-cé-ra, f. sò con di-re......he excused himself by saying, saying, and said, Ric-co, rich.
the neighbour. while he said; é-gli fé-ce te-sta-men-to con fár-mi e-ré-de di tút- Pó-ve-Yo, poor.
Il cu-gt-no, m., la cu-gi-na, f., to il sú-o, he made his will, and constituted (or constituting) Gió-va-ne, young.
the cousin, me heir of all his property.
Il gió-va-ne, the young man, Il giar-di-niê-re, m., the garyouth.
dener. EXERCISES, ITALIAN-ENGLISH. 8ị nét-ta col faz-ZO-lét-to. Guar-dán có1-la (con la) có-da * In the place of con me, with me; con te, with thee; and con se, dell' ôc-chio. Tem-pe-rár il ví-no coll' a-cqua. Fa-V0-r1-te with himself, herself, itself, themselves, meco, teco, and
seco, are di ve-nir con me (or mé-00). Pôr-ta té-co (con te) la lan-têr- frequently used; and in elegant style con as a mere expletive, con na. E'-gli lo pré-se sé-co (con se). Coll' an-dár del têm-po. meco, con teco, con seco,
+ The adjective mdr-cio, m., and mor.cia, f., rotten, putrefied, vile,
despicable, is sometimes nothing more than an augmentative, giving * It is also allowable to separate in-siê-me from con, and to place greater force to the word to which it is joined, and, in this case, it after the case governed by con; e. g con lui in-siê-me, together somewhat similar to the English arch, chief, principal, very, e. g. a with him ; mé-co (i. e. con me) t-siè-me, together with me. The már-cia för-za, with all one's might ; exrê.ti-co marcio, arch-beretic; adverb in-sie-me-men-te also means together with, but it is not so a tú-o mdr-cio di-spêt-to, in defiance of thee. much in use as in-sieme con,
IVí-vo, m., and vi-va, f , living, lively, brisk.