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La giar-di-nie-ra, f., the female Ad En-ri-co, co Henry.

ExGLISH-ITALIAN. gardener, the gardener's Da En-ri-co, from or by

Our gardener is a good man. your gardener's wife is a good wife,

Henry.

woman. My friend is the uncle of this young man. I have L'uô-mo, m., the male person, Mi--no, Milan.

bought this tree from your gardener. Our (female) neighbour man, husband.

Di Mi--no, of Milan. La dôn-na, f., the woman, wife, A Mi--no, to, in or at Milan. seen this poor man's child ? My (male) cousin's looking-glass

has a very good son and a very good daughtır. Hast thou lady, mistress. Da Mi--no, from Milan,

is very large. Thy (male) neighbour is the pupil of my Il sol dd-to, m., the soldier. Gio-an-va, John.

father. My book is on the form. I have given my 'tat to this Il sêr-vo, m., the servant. L4-1-gi, Lewis.

poor child. The book which I have received from a friend Lo sco--re, m., the pupil, Fran--sco, Francis.

is lost. Louisa has lost her bonnet. Have you (sing.) forandi learner, scholar. Gr-gli-él-mo, William.

Charles's ring. Henry's father (i, e. the father of Henry) is Lo scul-to-re, m., the sculptor, 4-dól-fo, Adolphus.

very rich. John's garden is very small. William's friend has statuary. Ri-dól-fo, Rodolph, Ralph.

departed. My cousin has (i. e. is) arrived. We hare received Lo spêc-chio, m., the looking- An-to-nio, Anthony.

a letter from Louis; he is at Milan. Have you seen Francis glass, mirror. Sté-fa-no, Stephen.

and Ferdinand: Rodolph has departed for Venice. We have Io scri-gro, m., the coffer, Fer-di-nán-do, Ferdinand.

written a letter to Stephen in Paris. Hare you (sing.) seen casket, safe, iron safe, strong-Car-li-na, Caroline.

thotch of Louis: Has (i. e, is) your (sing.) uncle departeci box, small money - box, Lr-í-gia, Louisa.

for Paris : Caroline's aunt is in London. Our (male) neighdrawer, portable desk. Vi-en-na, Vienna,

bour has a son, who is called Adolphus, und a daughter who is Lo scán-no, m., the long stool, Ve-ne-zia, Venice.

called Louisa. form, bench.

Pa-ri-gi, Paris.
Lo scrit-to, m., the writing. -dra, London.

ENGLISH-ITALIAN,
Cárulo, Charles.
Ar-ri-va-to, arrived.

The nephew has gone with the general's sor and daughter Di Cár-lo, of Charles.

Par-ti-to per departed for- into the park to dine there. Next week they will go together A Cár-lo, to Charles,

Si chia-ma, is called (i. e. one into the country. A courier has arrired with the news of the Da Cár-lo, from or by Charles, calls or names, we, they, conclusion of peace. The cousin came here with the express Ein-ri.co, Henry:

people call or name). order to buy a horse and a coach. I have never offended hini D'En-ri-co, of Henry. E' di- belongs to-(i... is of) with one single word. In time, and with parience, one learns

everything. Man ought to spend the first part of his life with EXERCISES. -ITALIAN-ENGLISH.

the dead, the second with the living, and the third with diin

self. The world is filled with ungrateful persons : we live with Hô ve-dú-to l'om-hrêl-la di vô-stro pá-dre. L'a-mi-co di the ungrateful, we work for the ungrateful, and we always mi-o zi-o è ric-co. Quest'uô-mo è l'a-mí-cowi mi-o pá-dre. hare to do with the ungrateful. Il fan-ciúl-lo di quest'uô-mo è am-ma-la-to. Qué-sto fan

FocaerLARI. ciul-lo • an-có-ra gió-va-ne. A-ve-te voi ve-du-to l'al-be-ro che mi-o pá-dre ha com-prá-to? L'uô-mo, che a-Té-te re-dú- Nephew, rii--te, m.

One single word, 4-4?a -la pato, è mól-to pô-ve-ro. Sú-o fí.glio è am-ma-iá-to. Hô dá-to Has gone to dine there, è 012

70-la, f.

-to a pran-i-e la pén-na a qué-sto pô-ve-ro fan-ciúl-lo. A-ré-te voi re-dú

Time, tế: -90, m. to l' o-ro-lô-gio che mi-o zí-o ha ri-ce-rú-to: E-gli ha ven. Park, bo-schét-to, m.

Patience, po-ze-en-50 (ts-ts), f. du-to qué-sto o-ro-lô-gio a mí-o pá-dre. La zi-a di qué-sto General, ge-ne-ru-le, m. One learns everything, s' imgió-va-lie à an-co-ra am-ma-lá-ta. Qué-sto pô-ve-to fan- Week, set-ti-mi-na, f.

pi-ra tít-to ciúl-lo ha per-du-to sú-a má-dre. Il 141-0 a-mi-co è un uô-mo Next, ren-tu-ro, m., ven-tú- Ought to spend, de-ve pas-mól-to ric co. Quest'uô-mo è il no-stro giar-di-niê-re. Quésta dôn-na è la nô-stra giar-di-niê-ra. Il no-stro ri-cí-no è They will go, -glio-no ai-da- First part, pri-na pár-te, f. ric-chis-si-mo. La vô-stra vi-ci-na è u-na buô-na don-na.

His lite, la si-a vi-ta A-ve-te voi ve-du-to mi-o cu-gi-no. Hộ ve-du-to vô-stro cu- Together, tút-ti ilt-siẽ - thư Dead, môr-to, m. gi-no e vô-stra eu-gi-na. Vỗ stro cu-gi-no è a-mi-eo di Country, cam-pu-za, f. Second, se-con-do, m., se-cón. mí-o fra-têl-lo. Mi-a so-rêl-la è l'a-mi-ca di tô-stra cu-gi-na. (There) has arrived, é giún-to da, f. La buô-na giar-di-niê-ra ha per-du-to sú-o fí-glio; sú-a fi-glia Courier, vor-riê-re, m. Living, vi-10, mn. e an-có-ra an-ma-lá- ta. La vl-cí-na di mi-o zí-o ha un gran- News, nuó-va, f.

Last, úl-ti-mno, m., úl-ti-ma, f. dís-si-mo fi-glio. I nô-stro giar-di-niê-re è il pá-dre di qué- Peace, på.ce, f. (i.e. news of Himself, stés-so sto fan-ciúl-lo. La fi-glia di qué-sta pô-ve-ra dôn-na è am-ma

the peace)

World, Gat-do, m. lá ta. Hô Hi-ce- vu-to un re-ga-lo da tú-0 cu-gi-no, Mi-8 so-1 Cousin, cx-gi-no, m.

Is filled with, è piê-ro di rel-la ha scrít-to ú-na lêt-te-ra a vô-stro cu-gi-no. Il sol-da-to | Cane here, a-27-zo qui Ungrateful (person), in-grd che a-vé-te ve-dú-to é mí-o cu-gi-no. Lo sco-lá-re di mi-o Express order, ór-di-ne es-pris

to, m. zí-o ha per-dú-to lo spêc-chio di sú-a má-dre. Dov'è lo scrit

We live, si vi-ve to di mi-a so-rel-la ? "E's-so è nél-lo scrí-gno. Lo spêc-chio è To buy, di coin-pra-te

We work, si lo-vo-ra súl-lo scán-no. Il sêr-vo ha ri-ce-vu-to qué-sta ta-bac-chiê-ra Horse, ca-val-lo, m. da ú-nu scul-to-re. Mi-o cu-gi-no è un buô-no sco-la-re. A. Coach, car-róc-sa, f.

And we always have to do, est vé-te ri-ce-vu-to ú-no spêc-chio da mí-a má-dre. Ca-no-va è I have never offended him, i.. ha da far sém-pro, un gran-de scul-tó-re. Il fi-glio di mí-o zí-o si chia-na Car-lo non l'of--si ma-i e sú-a fi-glia si chiama Lu-í-gia. Il fan-ciúl-lo di qué-sto scul-10-re si chia-ma Gu-gli-el-mc. La zi-a di Fer-di-nan-do è ar-ri-va-ta; na sú-o pá-dre è par-ti-to per Lôn-dra. La so- LESSONS IN GREEK.No. XXII. rel-la di Lu-i-gi è gran-dís-si-ma. Pên-so ad En-ri-co ed a

By John R. BEARD, D.D. Sie-fa-no. La zí-a di Lu--gia ha scrít-to u-na grán-de lêt-leTa ad A-dôl-fo. Fran-cé-sco ha ri-ce-pu-to qué-sta pén-na da ACCORDING to these general statements and explanations, the un gió-va-ne, che si chiá-ma Ri-dôl-fo. Il cu-gi-no di Gio- verb may be regarded as a total comprising a number of ideas, ván-ni è par-th-to per Pa-rí-gi. L' on-brêl-la di Car-lí-na è or representing a number of facts. This may be exemplified pic-co-lís-si-ma. Ab-bia-moda-to la nð stra ta-bac-chiê-ra a in decrw, I leare; and decotelrnv, they two are left ; thusGu-gli-el-mo. Qué-sto cap-pêl-lo è di Gio-rán-ni, e qué-sto

λειπω. . man-rel-lo è d' A-dôl-fo. No-stra zi-a è a Mi-la-no. Loscul. to-re è a Vi-ên-na. Qué-sta dôn-na è di Ve-ne-zia. Il no- | Person. Number. Tense.

Mood.

Voice. stro a-mi-co è di Pa-ri-gi. Il no-stro sêr-vo è ar-ri-va-to da First. Singular. Present, Indicative. Active. Løn-dra. Mi-a so-rel-la pên-sa a Car-li-na. Ste-fa-no ha

λειφθειτην. . per-du-to il tem-pe-ri-no ch' e gli ha ri-ce-vu-to da A-dôl-fo. La-i-gia è la 80-rêl-la di Car-li-na, ed An-tô-nio è il fra-têl-lo Person. Number.

Mood. Voice. di Gio-yan-ni.

Third. Dual,

Aorist, 1st. Optative, , Passive,

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D.

S. εσομαι

S. ην

P. εσυμεθα D. εσομεθον

Ρ. ημεν

P. εσμε!

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1

Terbs in μι.

From this instance you learn that the Greek verb varies, or S. D. P.-That is, the singular number, the dual, the is modified in person, in number, in tense, in mood, and in plural. voice. Accordingly, it is the business of the learner to be- N, denotes the nominative case. come familiar with the verb in all these its modifications, so G. denotes the genitive case. 83 to at once recognise every form he may neet with in M. denotes the masculine gender. . reading, and be ready at first sight to assign its meaning. F. denotes the feminine gender. . The task is not an easy one, but will yield to persevering ap- N. denotes the neuter gender. plication. The task, being difficult, must be undertaken in

The English is only given in part, it being presumed that detail. Before we proceed to the general conjugation of the Greek that the means I am, he can hardly fail to know that the

the learner can easily supply the rest; thus, when he knows terbs, we must present a peculiar form, namely, that of the plural runs we are, you are, they are. substantive verb, or verb of existence, Elvat, to be.

Let it be premised that the significations given in the Future.

paradigms, or examples of conjugation, are sometimes only Imperfect. . Present. .

approximately correct; for the exact meaning the student

must wait until he is familiar with the details of Syntax and Sଦ

other details, which will follow.

The verb whose forms are given above, belong, it will be seen, to the class of the verbs in ul. There is another form, distinguished in part by accents, namely, είμι, Igo, (είμι, I am); the conjugation of which will be given in its place under the

The second person of the present, ει, is more used than εις. In the imperfect, the second person, ns, often becomes noba, by the addition of a euphonic suffix; the third person is nv, more frequently than η.

Instances are found, particularly in the first person singular and the third person plural, of another imperfect, which resembles the imperfect of the middle voice. S. ημην ησο ητο.

Ρ. ημεθα ησθε ηντο. A middle imperative form is also found in the second person singular, namely, ego, be thou.

The entire present subjunctive, namely, ω ης η, &c., Supplies terminations to all the verbs in w. The second and third person singular have the iota subscript, as seen above.

The optative forms, ειην ειης ειη, 1end their terminations inv, &c., to the optative of the verbs in ull. For the form ειημεν, ειμεν is used; and for ειησαν, ειεν is much more com

ELEV is also found in the sense of well! very well! be it so!

The future, in all its moods, is a middle form ; its termination, σομαι, is that of all the middle verbs in the future. The original forms were

2

εστε

I was, thou wast, he was.

ης

ήστε
ήτε or
ηστον
ητον

εστον

I shall be, thou shalt be, he shall be.

εση

I am, thou art, he is.
Indicative.

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ήτην, or
η Or ην

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ωμεν ητε

ητον ήτον

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I may be, &c.
Subjunctive.

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CONJUGATION OF THE VERB ειμι, I am.

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FOOITO

εσεαι.

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Let me be, &c.
Imperative.

.

εστω

3

εσομαι In coegat the second o was elided, and the word became

The ea was contracted into n, the + was written under, and thus ery arose.

This observation extends to all the second persons in y, of the middle and passive verbs. Also, in the optative, εσοιο stands for εσοισο εσται, & contracted form of εσεται, is more commorthan εσεται.

The participle coouevos (the Latin futurus) is declined like αγαθος, αγαθη, αγαθον.

The substantive verb lacks the perfect, the pluperfect, and the aorist; these tenses are supplied from

I

γιγνομαι,
become.
The stem of the verb is ες, as found in εσμεν, εσομαι, &c.

The present participle is declined thus-
Singular.

Plural.
Μ.
F. Ν.

M. F.

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So decline the participles in wv, of all the verbs.
By the aid of prepositions various compounds of selle are

formed, and these compounds are conjugated like their primiBefore I make any remarks on this verb, I will explain the tive; as παρ-ειμι (adsum), I am present και απ-ειμι (absum), I contractions, the rather because they will recur again and am absent; Met-elle (intersum), I am among; ovv-Erjee (una again.

sum), I am with; προς-ειμι (insum, accedo), I am near, I apList of CONTRACTIOXS, WITH EXPLANATIONS.

proach ; Tepe-£lui (supersum, superior sum), I survive,' I am 1. 2. 3.—That is, the first person, the second person, the superior; and others. The preposition remains invariable;

only the verb undergoes the conjugational changes.

wird person.

.

1. El-fel

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EO-TOV

EO-TE

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The verb Elue is instructive in regard to the original personal

ENGLISH-GREEK. endings. The-e personal endings in Elut I will mark off by a

This is in my power. The laws are in your power. It is in hyphen, thus Eloui.

your power (that is, it depends on you) to purchase corn. It Singular. Dral.

Plural.

was in the power of the enemies to be present. It is in the εσ-μεν

power of good boys to excel. It will be in my power to ap2. 20-ol(EL)

proach the city. Punishments belong (APOSELVAL) to sinners. 3. 80-71(v)

El-ol(v).

Thy care of thy friends is an example to all. The ships have

come to the king. The terminations of the three persons of the singular are properly appended pronouns; thus ue is found in ue, al (contracted into el) is found in oe, and re in the stem of the article to. Accordingly, in their original form, these were- LESSONS IN GERMAN.--No. LXXXII. THE PERSONAL TERMIXATIONS.

§ 119. SYNTAX. Active,

Middle.

SYNTAX is that part of Grammar which unfolds the relations Principal Tenses. Historical T. Principal Tenses. Historical T. and offices of words as arranged and combined in sentences. S. 1. fe μαι

The essential parts of every sentence are the subject, which is that of which something is affirmed; and the predicate, which is that which contains the affirmation.

The subject is either a noun or that which is the represenD, 1. μεν

μεθον

tative or equivalent of a noun; the predicate is either a verb σθον

alone, or a verb in conjunction with some other part or parts of σθον

σθην. . speech. All other words entering into a sentence are to be P. 1. μεν

μεθα

regarded as mere adjuncts. The following sentences exhibit 2.

σθε

the subject and the predicate under several varieties of form: v (VT)

Subject.

Predicate.
God

exists. By studying these terminations now, and by reverting to

Man

is mortal. them afterwards, the student will be materially assisted.

To be,

contents his natural desire. One thing let me enforce on the student, he must make himself thoroughly master of all the paradigms before he

Throwing the stone was his crime. attempts to set a step in advance. The remarks made In the sentence, God exists, the verb exists is the predicate: thereon are, in the commencement, of less consequence. affirming, as it does, existence of the Almighty. But in the

sentence, man is mortal, mortality is what is affirmed of man; VOCABULARY.

and the verb (is) is the mere link that connects the subject and

the predicate together. It is thence called the copula. $ 158. Επιλειπω,I leave,lack, επελιπε, | Ταξις, εως, ή, a rank, or fle of

Sentences are either simple, that is, contain a single assertion second aorist active, failed. soldiers,

or proposition; or compound, that is, contain two or more asIIplaual, I purchase, aplaolau, lepa, as,. 1, an hour (Latin, sertions or propositions. Of the various parts of a sentence, infinitive present middle, hora), time, to purchase, ouk nu tpiao - Aplotov, ov, To, breakfast;} detail; so as to show the relation, agreement, government, and

whether principal or adjunct, we come now to speak more in Oai, literally, was not to pur- ημιν αριστον εστι, we hav chase, that is, could not be

1. rangement of words in construction,

breakfast; Ecval, with a dative, purchased. of the person, has the forcevi.

§ 120. THE ARTICLES. 'Opaw, I see, behold; opãv, to have; the pronoun must

RULE. infinitive present active, to be put in the dative, the behold; eoti opãv, literally, it person being preserved, thus The article in German, whether definite or indefinite, is gene

is to see, that is, you may see. EOTL POL is I have; EOTI GOL, rally employed wherever the corresponding article would be Evykalew, I call together, con- thou hast, &c.

used in English.
voke; ó ovykałūv, con-
con- Qutela, as, r, planting, care.

OBSERVATION.
Tewpyikos, n, ov, agricultural,
Nikaw, I conquer.

hence the name Georgics,

This rule is of course founded upon the presumption that the 'AquOTTELV, to fit, befit, suit, given to Virgil's Didactic student is familiar with the usage of the English in respect to agree with; the infinitive is

Poem on agriculture,

the article. In the specification that follows, therefore, he is to in the text used as a noun, Ayopa, as, i, a market.

look only for the points in which the German differs from the and may be rendered, in Aropos, a, ov, impassable; ta usage of our own language. harmony.

amopa, straits, extremities; (1) The Germans insert the definite article: Ow, I desire, I will.

observe that Elval, with the (a) Before words of abstract or universal signification; as, Φερω,

preposition eti, signifies " to der Mensch ist sterblic), man (i. e, every man) is mortal; das Gold Avw, I go down, enter ; Too be in the power of.”

ist schnbar, gold is ductible; das Leben ist kurz, life is short; dic δυντος, ήλιου, before sunset.

Tugend führt zum Glüde, virtue leads to happiness :

(b) before the names of certain divisions or periods of time: EXERCISES.-GREEK-ENGLISH.

as, der Sonntag, Sunday; der Montag, Monday; der Dezember, De. 'H rašis nu Šratov avdoes. Hy ons àpas ulkpov apo duvros cember; der Auguft, August; der Sommer

, Summer: jdcov. Oi vouor Smulai Eloi Twv õuaprwiwv. Tourois bavaros Lürfei

, Turkey; die Schweiz, Switzerland ; tie lombardei, Lombardy:

(c) before certain names (feminines) of countries; as, dic εστιν η ζημια. Ο σιτος επελιπε, και ποιασθαι ουκ ην.

(d) before the names of authors, when used to denote their οράν το ορος. “Η Αγησιλαου αρετη παραδειγμα ην. 'Huiv works; as, ich leje den leffing, I am reading Lessing: aplotov OVK EOT17). Εγω εσομαι και συγκαλών. Ούτος εστι ο (e) before the proper names or titles of persons, when used νικών. Εγω μια τουτων ειμι. Βασιλευς νομιζει υμας αυτού in a way denoting familiarity or inferiority; as, gruβe bie 2narie,

EoTiv ovv ins yswoyons texvns i twv devdowv dutela, greet (or remember to me) Mary; sage dem Luther, daß ich ihn zu Εστιν αυτοις αγορα. Εν τοις αποροις ημεν. Ο Κυρος εν

seien wünsche, tell Luther that I wish to see him ; also, when

connected with attributive adjertives ; as, die kleine Sophie, little .

Ον μικρον αγαθον τα Sophia: : αρμoττειν προςεστιν. . Τη βια προςεισιν εχθραι και κινδυνοι.

(f) belore words (especialty proper names of persons) whose Τη επιμελεια περιειναι των φιλων θελω. Παρην Αγεσιλαος | cases are not made known either by a change of termination, δωρα φερων. Κυρω παρησαν εκ Πελοποννησου νηες.

or by the presence of a preposition; as, das deben ber Fürften, the

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life of princes; die Frau des Sofrater, the wife of Socrates; ter Cicero was called the father of his country: Er ist Alexander gcs Tag der Name, the day of (tbe) vengeance :

tauft worden, he has been christened Alexander. From this re(g) before the names of ranks, bodies, or systems of doc mark, however, must be excepted the verb lehren, since it has trine: as, das Parlament, Parliament; die Regierung, government no passive. die Monarchie, monarchy; das Christenshun, Christianity: also in such phrases as, in der Stadt, in town; in ocr Kirche, at

$ 123. RULE. church; die meisten Menschen, most men : (h) before the words (signifying) half and both : as, Die Halbe fying a different thing, is put in the genitive; as,

A noun used to limit the application of another noun signi(not Halbe vie) Zahl, half the number; die beiden (not beiden die)

Der Lauf der Sonne, the course of the sun. Brüder, both the brothers :

Der Soin ineines Freundes, the son of my friend. (i) before words denoting the limit within which certain

Dic Erzichung der Kinder, the education of the children. specified numbers or amounts are confined, wherein in English,

Die Wahl eines Freuntes, the choice of a friend. the indefinite article would be used: as, znicimal die Wodye

, twice o week:

How this limitation is made, is easily seen : thus, der lauf ber (2) Note, further, that the German differs from the English Sonne, the course of the sun. Here we speak not of any course in omitting the definite article,

indefinitely, but of the sun's course definitely: the word der (a) before certain law appellatives ; as, Betlagter, (the) defen- Sonne, is the genitive, limiting der Lauf, which is the governing dant; Kläger, (the) plaintiff ; Upvellant, (the) appellant; Supplicant, word. (the) petitioner:

OBSERVATIONS. (b) before certain common expressions; such as, in bester Orda ming, in (the) best order; lleberbringer diescs. (The) bearer of this;

(1) If, however, the limiting noun (unless restricted itself by and certain' adjectives and participles treated as nouns; as, an adjective or some other qualifying word) signify measure, erfterer, (the) former ; letzterer, (the) larter ; besagter, (the) before-number, weighi, or quantity, it is then put in the same case with said (person) :

that which it limits; as, zwei Glas Wein, (not Weines), two glasses (c) before certain proper names and places; as, Ditindien, (te) | (of) wine ; jeans Pfund Tijee (not Thees), six pound (of) tea: but East Indies: Defiindicn, (the) West Indies; and before the with a restrictive term), sechs Pfund dieses Thees; zwei

, Olcs dieses names of the cardinal points : as, Diten, (the) East; Westen, Weines. (the) West; Süten, (the) South ; Morton, (the) North :

(2) It should be observed that the two nouns under this rule (d) before a past participle joined with a noun, which, in must be of different signification ; for two nouns standing for English, precedes the participle : as, das verlorene Paraties, (lite- the sume thing would be in the same case, forming an instance rally, the lost Paradise) Paradise Lost.

of apposition. See $ 133. (1). (3) Noie, again, thet the Germans, in using certain collective (3) The noun in the genitive, that is, the limiting roun, is terms preceded by adjectives, employ the indefinite article where commonly said to be governed by the other one. This genitive the English would use the definite: as, ein hochweiser Rath, the is either subjective or objective; subjective, when it denotes (lit. a) most learned Senate; cine löbliche lIniversitāt, the (a) that which does something or has something : objective, when honourable University.

it denotes that which suffers something, or which is the (4) In German, also, the indefinite article stands before (not ohject of what is expressed by the governing word. To ilafter, as in inglish) the words, such, half: thus, ein solcher Manu, lustrate this, we have only to

have only to take the examples given (not foicher ein Mann), such a man; ein halbes Jalır. (not yalbes ein ahove : der Lauf ter Soune, the course of the sun; die Ärzichung der Fahr), half a year,

In questions, direct or indirect, like the Riader, the education of the children; where, in the first exfollowing: Cuen wie langen Spazierritt vat er gemacht, how long. ample, the sun is represented as performing or having a course, ride has he taken ; it must be noticed that the article stan'ı cani is consequently subjective; and, in the second example, the before wie: thus, einen wie langen (a how long) and not, as in. amldren are represented as being the objects of education, and English, how lony a.

the word is consequentiy objective. This objective genitive, it (5) The German differs again from the English in not using should be added, cccurs only after verbal nouns, and chiefly an article at all in the phrases answering to the English ; a few; those ending in the suffixes cr, which marks the doer, and ung, a thousand; a hundred.

which marks the doing of an action.

(4) It seems hardly necessary to observe that under this rule $ 121. THE NOUN.

come all words which perform the office of nouns; as, proRULE,

nouns, adjectives used substantively, &c. ; thus, die Gnabe der A noun or pronoun which is the subject of a sentence must Großen, the favour of the great.

(5) We say often in English, He is a friend to, or an enemy be in the nominative case : as,

to, or a nephew to any one; where, were these phrasis put into Ber Menicht denkt, Gott lenkt, man devises, God disposes.

German, we might expect the dative to be used. But, in such Die Berge donnern, the mountains thunder,

cases, the Germans always employ the genitive: thus, er ist ein OBSERVATIONS.

Feind seines Vaterlandes, he is an enemy of his native country. (1) The subject or nominative in German is seldom omitted, (6) We say in English, the month of August, the city of Lonexcept in the case of the pronouns agreeing with verbs in the don, and the like: where the common and the proper name or second person (singular and plural) of the imperative: as, the same thing are connected by the preposition of. The

Lese (bu), read! Gehet und saget (Thr) ihni, go and tell him. Germans put the two nouns in apposition. See § 133. (2). See, however, $ 136. 2.

(7) So, too, in English we say, the fifth of August; but in

German, the numeral is put in direct agreement with the name § 122. RULE.

of the month: as, ter fünfte August, the fifth (of) August, or À noun or pronoun which is the predicate of a sentence, must August fifth. be in the nominative case: as,

(8) In place of the genitive, the preposition von, followed Er war cin großer König, he was a great king.

by the dative, is, in the following instances, generally used : Dieser Knabe ist Raufmann geworten, this boy is become a merchant. an. When succeeded by nouns signifying quality, rank, meaMerander hieß der Große, Alexander was called the Great. sure, weight, age, distance, and the like; as, cin Dann von Hohem

.Stude, a man of high standing; ein Schiff von zioei hundert Donnen, OBSERVATIONS.

a ship of two hundred tons; ein Gewicht von fünf Pfund, a weight (1) This rule applies, where the subject and the predicate are of five pounds; ein Mann von achtzig Jahren, a man of eighty connected, as above, by such verbs as sein, to be; werden, to be- years eine Reise von drei Meilen, a journey of three miles; cin come; heißen, to be called; bleiben, to remain, &c.

Englinder von Geburt, an Englishman by birth, &c. (2) So, also, the rule becomes applicable when any of those 7. When followed by nouns denoting the material or sub. verbs which in the active govern two accusatives ($ 132. 2.), are stance of which any thing is made: as, ein Becher von Silber, a employed passively: as, Ciceru svurte ter Vater des Vaterlantes genannt, ) cup of silver, i. e. a silver cup; cime Uhr von Golte, a gold watch

PROPOSITION XXVIII.-THEOREM.

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c. When followed by nouns whose cases are not indicated by the asymptotes, be placed so that the perpendiculars shall cointhe terminations of declension nor by the presence of the cide and the asymptotes in consequence be in one straight line, article: as, der Schein von Redlichkeit, the appearance of honesty; as s T in the figure below. Upon which it is clear, that how ein Vater von seche Kindern, a father of six children; die Königin von smaller than An GOT B8 x between wx and AB, w x cannot

ever it may be pleaded that there may always be an angle England, the queen of England; die Grenzen von Frankreich

, the be carried beyond the line of the asymptotes & T without ceasing boundaries of France; der Bischof von Konstanz the bishop of to meet A B; and consequently cannot be carried till it meets CD, Constance,

if co lies on the other side of s T as represented in the figure. d. When followed by a word indicating the whole, of which It follows therefore, that to say there will always be the possithe word preceding expresses but a part : as, einer von meinen bility of a further diminution of the angle, is not enough. It may Betannten, one of my acquaintances; welcher von beiden? which of be (as it is in the case of the hyperbolic angle above) the sophism the two?

of Achilles and the tortoise; which argues, that because after running a mile, half a mile, a quarter of a mile, &c., Achilles would always be behind by the last-mentioned fraction of a mile, he would

. LESSONS IN GEOMETRY.-No. XXVII.

resolving itself into the fact that these quantities, though endless

in number, are limited and surpassable in amount. LECTURES ON EUCLID,

To establish the anion of the lines to any particular extent that may be desired, it is consequently necessary to prove, not only

that the angle at the intersection is capable of diminution, but (Continued from page 298.)

that the, angle on each side of the travelling line (that is to say, 16. A fallacy, somewhat more subtle than Franceschini's, to less than some given angle. Which is whai has been attended to

both the angle A H G and the angle GUP) will never be reduced though akin to it, may be framed on the consideration of the accordingly, in the case of the intersections with a travelling line anglo of intersection. Let A B, cn'be two straight lines in the in Proposition XXVIII. C of the “Geometry without Axioms." same plane making with a third straight line AC the angles CA 3,

17. Another course taken has been to detine a straight line to AC D, of which a od is a right angle and C A B less than a right be one of which every successive portion has the same direcangle. And to improve the appearance though this is not tion," and parallel straight lines to be" straight lines having tbe indispensable) draw a straight line A E on the other side of AC

same direction with each other." From which it is purported to and in the same plane, making an angle C A B equal to C A B. And be collected, that a straight line cutting two parallel straight

lines makes the interior angle equal to the exterior and opposite on the same side of the line. For, it is argued, the direction of the cutting line is at the two points of intersection the same; and the directions of the two parallel straight lines cut, are at those points the same with each other's; wlience the differences of direction, which are the angles, will be equal. To which reply may be made by asking, what definite idea is attached to two lines having the same direction. It does not mean that they tend to the same point, for they do not. I means, then, that they never run against each other; or are parallel., And a line every successive portion of which has the same direction, means ? ! De

of which the parts all lie in the straight line leading to a partita from A let a straight line of unlimited length as w x travel along lar point or object. The argument therefore resolves itseur into the straight lines A B and A 2, cutting a c always at right angles the proposition, that if a straight line falls upon two parallel in some point G between A and c. This line will represent straight lines, it makes the exterior angle equal to the interior and Franoeschini's succession of perpendiculars. But instead of opposite on the same side of the line ; propounded in other terms, arguing from its continually catting off greater and greater por- without the intervention of any new or explanatory idea. tions A G, let it be argued that because it at any time makes with 18. In a tract entitled “The Theory of Parallel Lines perA B an angle A HG OF B H X, it may always be removed to a posi- fected; or the Twelfth Axion of Euclid's Elements demontion further from A without ceasing to cut A B and A E. From strated. By Thomas Exley, A.M.-London. Hatchard 1818" which it at first sight might appear to be a reasonable conclusion, --the proof rests on taking for granted (in the Second Proposithat the straight line w x may be carried forward without the tion) that if four equal straight lines in the same plane, making possibility of failing to cut A Band i e, till it arrives at c. And right angles with one another successively towards the same the fallacy will perhaps he still more taking, if A Band A e are hand, do not meet and enclose a space, a fifth if prolonged both made to begin by being placed at c, and so are moved from c ways must inevitably accomplish it. A conclusion which may towards A, as represented by a b and ae ; under which circum- be resolved into taking for granted that the three angles of a stances the allegation that there must always be an angle of rectilinear triangle are gteater than a right angle and a half; for some kind at h, has a very inviting appearance as a reason why if they were equal to this, the angles of an equilateral and equiab and c , being continually prolonged, cannot quit one another angular octagon would be right angles, and the fifth straight line or fail to meet and make an angle of some magnitude or other, in the series proposed would never meet the first; still more if the consequence of which would be that ab and a e might be they were less. And in the same manner. if it was urged that a moved till a coincides with A and ab with A B, without the sixth, seventh, &c. perpendicular mast meet the first straight line, possibility of parting company with cd by the way.

it would only resolve itself into a demand for admitting, without The answer to this is by inquiring, whether there are no lines proof, that the three angles of a triangle are greater than some in which the same facts may be determinable on the subject of other amount capable of being specified. There is no obscurity the angle, but where it is certain that a straight line as vX can- about the fact that four such straight lines, and still more five, not be carried on to an unlimited extent as proposed. And here are found on experiment to nioet; but the object was to discover it is easy to show that there may. Take, for example, any why they necessarily meet. And between the observed faet byperbola; and from the vertex draw a perpendicular to each of and the explained fact there is a difference of the same kind as the asymptotes; and let the two halves of the linear hyperbola, between Kepler's observation of the proportion between the

periodic times and distances of the planets, and Newton's explanation of the cause.

19. In “d Treatise on Geometry, by D. Cresswell, M. A. Cambridge, 1819," the priaciple proposed to be taken for granted is, that through any point within an angle less thin the sum of two right angles, "a straight line may be supposed to pass, which shall cut the two straight lines that contaiu the an:le. The grounds for such admission being stated to be, that“ if it be granted that among the infinite number of points outside the angle, there are two, on contrary sides of the angle, which are in the same straight line with the point within; or if it be granted, that, inasmueh as the sides that make the angle are

anlinited in length in the directions removed from the angular together with the porpendiculars and the portions of the asymp-point, two points in those sides may be taken, one in each; so that totes cut off by them ou the side remote from the intersection of every point in the straight line which joins them shall be fartier

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