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Well, having separated the supernatant layer of fluid, deposit it on a watch-glass, and allow evaporation to take place. JEther is a fluid so exceedingly volatile in its nature, that the application of a very slight amount of heat is necessary to effect this volatilisation. It suffices for this purpose to hold the watch-glass in the palm of the hand. Evaporation having ceased, that is to say, all the ether having been removed, the watch-glass will be found to contain a portion of white solid material. If the white solid material be viewed through a lensit will be seen to be crystalline. What is it? Nothing more nor less than solid bichloride of mercury, which happens to possess the quality of being more soluble in ether than in water; hence ether removes it from water as we have seen. This is a very elegant test, and most useful under certain conditions. It is not, however, a good quantitative test; that is to say, the operator can never depend on removing by its agency the whole of the bichloride actually existing in a liquid. This fact was first demonstrated by the French chemist Devergie. Nevertheless we must not underrate the value of the test. In poisoming cases it is a great point to make out the existence of a poison in any quantity, seeing that the law does not propound to the analytical chemist the question—“Have you extracted all the poison o’ but, “Have you extracted a sufficiency to account for death 2'' Again, the ether test has the rare advantage of acting equally well in animal and vegetable fluids as in pure water.
The next test we will employ is the white of egg. For this purpose it will be well to beat up the substance, white of egg, with water, and strain through muslim ; by proceeding thus we shall get rid of much animal membrane that would be embarrassing to the result. Having prepared the test as described, add a portion of it to the bichloride solution, and remark the white curdy deposit which results. At one time this precipitate was imagined to be calomel,-the action of the white of egg being assumed to accomplish the removal of one half of the chlorine. It is not thus: the precipitate is an actual chemical compound of white of egg (albumen) and the bichloride. At any rate it is almost, if not quite, insoluble in water and the gastric tfluids; hence it is innocuous, and this is the great point to be remembered in practice. Under the head of “Tin" (during the investigation of which metal we had occasion to employ bichloride of mercury as a test), I stated that white of egg was the antidote to bichloride of mercury. You will now clearly see why, for what reason, in virtue of what chemical reactions, it , is an antidote.
In our next lesson we will consider the best means of extract-ing bichloride of mercury from complex animal and vegetable -solutions.
You thus see that the root of the form is Xv. This is called the root because it remains permanent under all the changes. Thus you find it in Avaw, in Avoopoevog, skv6m v, &c. By prefixing certain letters to Av, and by adding certain letters to Xu, you make all the varieties of form and signification. Thus, if you want to say I loose, you add as as Av-w; if you want to say they loosed, you prefix s and add gav, thus, 8-Av-oav. The prefixes and suffixes, by whose aid the root is thus modified, may be termed formative syllables. A knowledge of these formative syllables, combined with a knowledge of the several roots, will make you proficient in the grammar of the verbs. You will do well to make a distinction between the root of a verb and the stem. The root of a verb is the verb reduced to its ultimate or most simple form. It agrees with the stem in being generally the stem of the present tense, active voice. But it differs from the stem, inasmuch as it is one primitive form; and there are several stems—the stem of the present, the stem of the imperfect, the stem of the perfect, &c. The stem of a tense is that form which remains when the personal endings and the mood characteristics are taken away. I present the stems of the root, and of several tenses of rv7rro, I strike. ,
- Third Person. Second Person.
That is to say, if to the present stem I add et, I get rvarret, which means he strikes; if to the pluperfect stem I add sic, I get stervg|Etc., which means thou hadst struck. So, if from rsrupac I take away ac, I get the perfect stem rerup. If I want to make the perfect stem into the pluperfect stem, I prefix the augment e, and make stervo. If, again, I wish to resolve rsrvo into the root, I cut off the augment rs, and change the aspirate p into the corresponding soft tr, and so obtain rvor. This the root I may raise into the present stem by affixing r, thus—rvirr., And rvarr I may change into the imperfect stem by prefixing the augment of that tense, namely, s.
After these general explanations, you are, I presume, prepared to enter into particulars. First, then, let us consider the augment or temporal prefix. I call the augment temporal, because its function is to denote past time; and I call it a prefix, because it is put at the beginning of the root or stem. The augmentis of two kinds; first, syllabic; second, temporal. It is syllabic when it adds a syllable to the verb; it is temporal when it lengthens the initial vowel of the verb. The syllabic augment is of two kinds, it is simple or reduplicative; for instance, it is simple when it merely prefixes a vowel, as in Metrov, I was leaving ; it is reduplicative when it doubles
the initial consonant, as A&vka ; here s is called the simple syllabic augment, and As the reduplicative. . The syllabic augment is employed when the verb begins with a consonant, If the verb begins with a vowel, the temporal augment is ised, the vowels a and s being changed into m or ev, and i and ü (iota short and upsilon short) being changed into 7 and 3; 0 is changed into w. The simple syllabic augment is found in only the indicative mood ; the reduplicative extends through all the moods. The simple syllabic augment is used with the imperfect tense and with the aorist. The reduplicative augment is used with the perfect tense, the pluperfect - tense, and the third future, sometimes called the paulo-postfuture. If, however, the verb begins with a vowel, the perfect and the pluperfect have, instead of the reduplicative, merely the temporal augment. The pluperfect has a double augment, inasmuch as it prefixes the simple augment s to the reduplica.tive rs, &c.; for instance, stervosuv. Fuller details will be given hereafter. My object in these general remarks is to afford you assistance to understand and commit to memory a general paradigm of the verb.
I have previously used the terms pure verbs. This is one class into which verbs are divided. Verbs are divided generally into classes, according to the characteristic letters of the present tense, or the stem of the present tense. The letter which stands immediately before the w of the present tense is called the verbal characteristic ; thus, in Avo, the v is the characteristic of the verb; and in rv7rrw the T is the characteristic of the verb; and in orex)\to, the X is the characteristic of the verb. If the characteristic is a vowel, the verb is called pure, e.g. Xvo; if the characteristic is a consonant, the verb is called mute, e.g.tv7rro; if the characteristic is a liquid, the verb is called liquid, e.g. ars?\\o, I send. Thus there are three kinds of verbs.
In these instances 80yAsv is the root, and sgovXeva is the stem of the first aorist, while Bow}\evo is the stem of the future. The. personal endings are uai, rat, Heffa, ro, &c. And the moodsigns are the vowels of a 3 s, ni a, at: Mark how readily the one permanent form 8ovXév takes to itself other forms, to suit modifications in the sense. Mark, also, that the short vowels represent the indicative, and that these short vowels are changed into their corresponding long ones for the sabjunctive. . You may also note that t enters as an essential into the optative forms, as in 8ovXèvrotro and 6ovXsvaaro. These two tenses are, you see, very near in form, differing in this only, that the latter has an a where the former has an o. The personal endings join on immediately to the mood-signs,
and unite so closely with them that they are blended together, and may appear as one; e.g., BovXevo-ac, instead of 300xeva. n-ic, and 3ov\ev-g instead of 3ovXsv-s-at.
. The distinction between the principal tenses and the historical tenses is important. The principal tenses, that is, the present, the perfect, and the future, form the second and the third person of the dual with the same ending; that is, ov, as §ow\ey-s-tow, Soviev-8-row, 3ovXev-8-0001, 3ovXev-s-gēov; while the historical tenses form the second person of the dual in ov, but the, third in my; as, egovXev-e-rov, soovXsv-s-rmy; egov. Aév-e-gēov, esłovXev-8-a0my. Further, the principal tensés form the third person plural, active voice, with the termination Orl, which before a vowel becomes giv (abbreviated from vri, woo), and the third person plural middle with vrat ; but the histo. rigal, or secondary tenses have in the active v, and in the middle vro ; as
(1) The neuter pronoun, e.g. is used in a general and indefi. nite way to represent words of all genders and numbers: as, e3 ift ber oann, it is the men; es ist tie Śrau, it is the woman ; tā ist baé £imb, it is the child; es first bie?)tānner, they are the men, &c. In like manner, also, often are used the pronouns baá, (that) ; bies, (this); was, (what); as also the neuter adjective asles, (all); as, bus sino meine àidter, these are my judges.
(2) When the antecedent is a personal appellation formed by
| one of the diminutive (neuter) terminations, djem and set n, the
pronoun, instead of being in the 'neuter, takes generally the gender natural to the person represented; as, moist ior &isingen? §st et (not eg) im Garten ? Where is your little son Is he in the garden? The same remark applies to Beit (woman) and Śrauen, immer, (lady). When, however, a child or servant is referred to, the neuter is often employed. (3) A collective noun may in German, as in English, be represented by a pronoun in the plural number; as, bie &eisitioteit near für isste §edite señt beforgt, the clergy were very anxious about their rights. * to (4) The relative in German, can never, as in English, be sup: pressed; thus, in English, we say, the letter (which) you wrote; but in German it must be, ber 3riej, mesdjeri bu storiebest. (5) The neuter pronoun es, at the beginning of a sentence, is often merely expletive, and answers to the English word “there” in the like situation: as, cé map niemani Wier, there was no one here; es fommen Şeute, there are people coming. (6) The English forms, he is a friend of mine ; it is a stable of ours, &c., cannot be literally rendered into German; for there we must say, et ist mein Śreunb, he is my friend; or, ec ist eimer meiner §reumot, he is one of my friends, &c. * (7) The definite article in German is often used, where in English a possessive pronoun is required; as, et winto out no bet $amb,
§ant, he beckoned to him with his (the) hand.
(1) This rule of course has reference to those adjectives ‘which are used attributively; for predicative adjectives, it will be remembered, are not declined. For the several circumstances under which adjectives are varied in declension, consult § 27., § 28., &c (2) This rule applies equally to adjectives of all degrees of comparison; as, beffere 38sider, better books; bet feste §§ein, the best wine; beș besten ścine3, of the best wine, &c. So, too, it applies equally to all classes of adjectives; as, adjective pronouns, numerals, and participles. (3) The word “one,” which, in English, so often supplies the place of a preceding noun after an adjective, cannot be translated literally into German: its office being rendered needless in the latter tongue by the terminations of declension. See last example under the rule. (4). So, also, the English “one’s” is the proper equivalent of the German sein in such cases as the following: gibt eg etmas (obseteå, as seinen $einben gu vergeben 2 is any thing more noble than to forgive one's enemies? . (5) When the same adjective is made to refer to several sin‘gular nouns differing in gender, it must be repeated with each and varied in form accordingly; as, cin geses)tter &oñn unb eine ge. Ieštte &oditer, a learned son and a learned daughter. The adjectives are, also, often repeated, though the nouns be all of the Game gender.
U1) When the subject is the pronoun cé, bag or bies, used indefinitely (See § 134. 1.), the predicate, if a noun, determines the number and person of the verb; as, e3 sint bie Štúðte 35tes £5uné, these are the fruits of your actions. ! (2) In the second person (singular and plural) of the Imperative mood, the pronoun which forms the subject is commonly omitted ; as, geşet 5in umb fuget $ojanni mieber, mag 3%t sesset umb jövet, go and tell John what ye see and hear. (3) When the verb has two or more singular subjects connected by unb, it is generally put in the plural; as, Šaft unb (£i. fersudit sinb jestige &cibenstjäften, hatred and jealousy are violent passions. | (4) When the subject is a collective noun, that is, one conIveying the idea of many individuals taken together as unity, ‘the verb must (generally) be in the singular; as, bag englisée Golf oat große Steiffeit, the English people have (has) great liberty. In a few cases only, as, tin Baqt, a pair; eine ostenge, I number; ein Qugent, a dozen, the verb stands in the plural. * (5) When a verb has several subjects, and they are of different persons, the verb agrees with the first rather than the third; as, bu, bein 8tuter ulto id) mossen spagitten geselt, thou, thy brother," and I will go take a walk; bu unt bein 38tubct octmüget vies, you and your brother avail much.
(3) It should be noted that the Present is, moreover, the proper tense for the expression of general or universal truths or propositions; as, bie Bögel fliegen to bet Sust, birds fly in the Blls.
(4) In English we have several forms of the Present tense;
as, I praise, I do praise, or I am praising. In German there is 'but one form (id, sobe) for the expression of these several shades of meaning.
(5) The Present in connection with the adverb soon (already) often supplies the place of a Perfect; as, pit mojmen foom fieben Saffre fliet, already dwell we here (i.e. have we dwelt) seven years.
(6) In English, often we say, “I do walk, I did walk,” and the like: where the verb do (Present and Imperfect) is employed as an auxiliary. This cannot properly be done with the corresponding verb (tàult, to do) in German.
§ 138. RULE.
The Imperfect tense is used to express what easisted, or was taking place at some past time indicated by the context; as, id, sdries an €ie, as id; 3%ren 3rief etàiest, I was writing to you, when I received your letter.
(1) The Imperfect is the historical tense of the Germans. Its proper office is to mark what is incomplete, or going on, while something else is going on. It is the tense adopted by the narrator, who speaks as an eye-witness; though it may be used by such as have not been eye-witnesses of the events narrated: provided the statement be introduced or accompanied by such expressions as, he said (sagte et), it is said, or they say (sagt man). When the speaker has not been an eyewitness, the Perfect should be used.
(2) From the use of the Imperfect in expressing the continuance of a thing, i. e. what was going on at a given time, comes the kindred power which it has of expressing repeated or customary action : as, et psiegte ou fugen, he used to say, i. e. was in the habit of saying.
(3) The Imperfect in German, like the Present, has but one form; which, according to circumstances, is to be rendered by any one of the three English forms of that tense. Šć (ofte, therefore, is either I praised, did praise, or was praising.
§ 139. RULE.
The Perfect tense is that which represents the being, action, or passion, as past and complete at the time being: as, bie ediffe simb angetommen, the ships have arrived; er ist potige Rode gestotöen, he died last week.
(l) The German Perfect, as a general thing, corresponds closely to our Imperfect, when used as an aorist; that is, when used to express an event simply and absolutely, and without speak to him. (2) The auxiliary participle (morben) in the perfect passive, is sometimes omitted. (See S 84.2.) (3) We may remark here also, that, though in English we have a double form for the Prefect (thus, I have written and I have been writing), the Germans have but the one. By which of the English forms, therefore, the German Perfect is, un any given case, to be rendered, must be determined by the context.
regard to other events or circumstances. Hence it often hap-| 5. Qu'allait-on faire alors ? 15. Pourquoi le général fut-il pens, that where in English we use the Imperfect, the Germans | 6. Que vit-on tout à coup ? surpris ? employ their Perfect : thus, id #abe beinen Bruber gestetn gese#en, | 7. Que fit ce soldat ? 16. Que dit-il au petit tamaber nidjt gesprodjen, I saw your brother yesterday, but did not | 8. A quoi le reconnut-on pour bour ?
Le général qui commandait, voyant* que le salut d'une partie de l'armée dependait de la destruction de ce pont,! , voulut envoyer quelques sapeurs pour abattre cette poutre , et entraînero le reste de la charpente : * mais, au moment , où ils s'apprêtaient à s'embarquer, l'ennemi arrive de jl'autre côté de la rivière,o et commence un feu si terrible de coups de fusil, qu'il ne paraissait° pas probable qu'aucun · sapeur pûto arriver vivant jusqu'à la fatale poutre.* Aussi allait-on se retirer en se défendant,o lorsque tout à coup on : voit s'élancer un soldat dans la rivière,o une hache sur · l'épaule ; il plonge et reparaît bientôt," et à° sa grande , barbeo on reconnaît que c'est un sapeur qui se dévoue au salut de tous. Tout le régiment attentif le suito des yeux° tandis qu'il nage et que les ennemis fonts bouillonner l'eau autour de lui d'une grêle de balles ;o mais le brave sapeur n'en o avance pas moins vigoureusement. Enfin il arrive après des efforts inouïs, monte sur le pied de la pile,o et, en quelques coups de hache, abato le reste de la poutre qui de loin semblait énorme, mais qui était aux trois quarts brisée. Aussitôt la charpente des deux arches s'abîme ' dans la rivière,!* l'eau jaillit en l'air avec un fracas terrible, et l'on ne voit plus # brave sapeur. Mais tout à coup, parmi les débris qui surnagent, on l'aperçoit se dirigeant* vers la rive.o Tout le monde s'y élance rempli d'admiration et de joie ;* car malgré tant de malheurs, on était joyeux de voir faire de si nobles actions; on tend des perches au nageur, on l'excite, on l'encourage ; le général lui-même s'approche jusqu'au bord de l'eau, et n'est pas peu étonné de voir sortir Bilboquet avec une grande barbe noire pendue au menton.o
—Qu'est-ce que cela ? s'écrie-t-il et que signifie cette masearade ?lo l C'est moi! dit le tambour, c'est Bilboquet,o à qui vous avez promis qu'on lui donnerait la croix, quand il aurait de la barbe au menton. En voici une qui est fameuse, j'es#père.o . . . .. Allez, allez," je n'y ai rien épargné ; ·il y en a pour* votre argent, et vos vingt francs y ont passé. i Le général demeura stupéfait de tant de courage et de finesse à la fois.o Il prit ° la main à Bilboquet, comme s'il eut été un homme et lui donna sur-le-champ la croix que lui-même portait à sa boutonnière,o et qu'il avait gagnéeP aussi, à force de bravoure et de services. Depuis ce temps, les anciens du régiment saluaient Bilboquet avec amitié,oi et le tambour-maître ne lui donna plus de coups de canne.
E. MARCO DE SAINT-HILAIRE.
un sapeur ? 9. Le régiment le regardait-il? 10. Que faisaient les ennemis pendant ce temps-là ? 11. Arriva-t-il enfin au pont ? 12. Qu'arriva-t-il aussitôt ? 13. Qua vit-on parmi les débris qui surnageaient ? 14. Que s'empressa-t-on de faire alors ?
17. Que répondit Bilboquet ?
18. Que dit-il en montrant sa barbe ?
19. Quel sentiment le général éprouva-t-il ?
20. Comment récompensa-t-on notre héros ?
2l. De quelle manière fut-il traité depuis, par les anciens du régiment ?
NoTEs AND REFERENCES.-a. from voir ; L. part ii., p. 110. —b. entraîner, throw down.-c. from paraître ; L. part ii., p. 98. -d. from pouvoir , L. part ii., p. 100.-e. à, by , L. S. 86, R. 4. —f from suivre , L. part ii., p. 106.-g. from faire ; L. part ii., p. 92, also S. 31, R. 3.-h. en, on that account.—i. from abattre ; L. partii., p. 76.-j. surnagent, float ; L. part ii., $ 49, R. (1) k. se dirigeant vers, swimming towards; L. part ii., $ 49, R. (l). —l. L. S. 80, R. 1.-m. allez, allez, I assure you; literally, go, go —n. il y en a pour votre argent, there is the worth of your money.-o. from prendre , L. part ii., p. 100.-p. L. S. 4l, R. 7.
LE CHATEAU DE CARTES.
UN bon mari, sa femme, et deux jolis enfants,!