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LESSONS IN GREEK.No. XXIII.

BY JOHN R. BEARD, D.D.

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Conjugation, Preliminary Notions. LET us take this word, namely, elvoauny, and study it. The word significs, I loosed myself, I untied or unbound myself. Now, suppose that I unbound myself was written as though it formed one word, as thus :-Iunboundmyself. Let us mark off the several elements of this compound by hyphens, and assign names to the several parts :Personal Prefist. Adverbial Prefic. Verbal Stem. Personal Suffix. I

bound

myself. You have now some idea how the Greek form above presented has been produced. Here it is divided, and the parts named: Augment. Root, Aorist Stern. Middle Personal-ending. λυ

μην. You thus see that the root of the form is lv. This is called the root because it remains permanent under all the changes. Thus you find it in λυσω, in λυσομενος, ελυθην, &c. By pre

fixing certain letters to lv, and by adding certain letters to av, how such an instrument is made. The student has only to you make all the varieties of form and signification. Thus, if

add w as lu-w; if you want to say refer to some previously described glass manipulations, and he they loosed, you prefix' é and add oav, thus, e-du-gay. The will see.

prefixes and suffixes, by whose aid the root is thus modified, Well, having separated the supernatant layer of fluid, deposit may be termed formative syllables. A knowledge of these it on a watch-glass, and allow evaporation to take place. formative syllables, combined with a knowledge of the several Ether is a fluid so exceedingly volatile in its nature, that the roots, will make you proficient in the grammar of the verbs. application of a very slight amount of heat is necessary to effect You will do well to make a distinction between the root of a this volatilisation. It suffices for this purpose to hold the verb and the stem. The root of a verb is the verb reduced to watch-glass in the palm of the hand. Evaporation having its ultimate or most simple form. It agrees with the stem in ceased, that is to say, all the ether having been removed, the being generally the stem of the present tense, active voice. watch-glass will be found to contain a portion of white solid But it differs from the stem, inasmuch as it is one primitive material. If the white solid material be viewed through a lens it form; and there are several stems—the stem of the present, will be seen to be crystalline. What is it? Nothing more nor the stem of the imperfect, the stem of the perfect, &c. The less than solid bichloride of mercury, which happens to possess stem of a tense is that form which remains when the personal the quality of being more soluble in ether than in water; hence endings and the mood characteristics are taken away. I ether removes it from water as we have seen. This is a very present the stems of the root, and of several tenses of TUTTW, elegant test, and most useful under certain conditions. It is I strike., not, however, a good quantitative test; that is to say, the

Personal-endings. operator can never depend on removing by its agency the

Stoms, whole of the bichloride actually existing in a liquid. This

Third Person,

Second Person. fact was first demonstrated by the French chemist Devergie. Root Nevertheless we must not underrate the value of the test. ID Present Stem

El he strikes

Els thou, &c. poisoning cases it is a great point to make out the existence of Imperfect Stem

he struck a poison in any quantity, seeing that the law does not propound First Aorist Stem Eter he has struck to the analytical chemist the question—"Have you extracted

Perfect Stem all the poison?” but, “Have you extracted a sufficiency to

τετυφ

he has struck account for death?" Again, the ether test has the rare advan- | Pluperfect Stem ετετυφ EL he had struck tage of acting equally well in animal and vegetable fluids as That is to say, if to the present stem I add et, I get TUTTE, in pure water.

which means he strikes; if to the pluperfect stem I add I The next test we will employ is the white of egg. For this get ETETUDELS, which means thou hadst struck. So, if from purpose it will be well to beat up the substance, white of egg, TETUDES I take away as, I get the perfect stem TETUD. If I want with water, and strain through muslin; by proceeding thus to make the perfect stem into the pluperfect stem, I prefix the we shall get rid of much animal membrane that would be em augment ε, and make £TETUO. If, again, I wish to resolve barrassing to the result. Having prepared the test as described, retup into the root, I cut off the augment te, and change the add a portion of it to the bichloride solution, and remark the aspirate o into the corresponding soft 7, and so obtain Tum. white curdy deposit which results. At one time this precipi- This the root I may raise into the present stem by affixing r, tate was imagined to be calomel,--the action of the white of thus-TUTT. And TunT I may change into the imperfect egg being assumed to accomplish the removal of one half of the stem by prefixing the augment of that tense, namely, a. chlorine. It is not thus: the precipitate is an actual chemical compound of white of egg (albumen) and the bichloride, At any

THE AUGMENT. rate it is almost, if not quite, insoluble in water and the gastric

After these general explanations, you are, I presume, prefuids; hence it is innocuous, and this is the great point to be remembered in practice. Under the head of “Tin” during

the pared to enter into particulars. First, then, let us consider investigation of which metal we had occasion to employ bichlo- the augment or temporal prefix. I call the augment temporal, ride of mercury as a test), I stated that white of egg was the prefix, because it is put at the beginning of the root or stem.

I antidote to bichloride of mercury. You will now clearly see the augment is of two kinds; first, syllabic; second, temporal. why, for what reason, in virtue of what chemical reactions, it It is syllabic when it adds a syllable to the verb; it is temporal is an antidote,

when it lengthens the initial vowel of the verb. The sylīabic In our next lesson we will consider the best means of extract augment is of two kinds, it is simple or reduplicative; for -ing bichloride of meroury from complex animal and vegetable instance, it is simple when it merely prefixes a vowel, as in -solutions.

Edelfov, I was leaving ; it is reduplicative when it doubies

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ETUTT

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the initial consonant, as lelvka; here ε is called the simple I may give a general view of syllabic augment, and lɛ the reduplicative. The syllabic

THE TEXSE-ENDINOS.
augment is employed when the verb begins with a consonant.
If the verb begins with a vowel, the temporal augment is

Active,
Middle,

Passive. used, the vowels a and ε being changed into n or el, and i and Ŭ (iota short and upsilon short) being changed into i and Present

ομαι * ū; o is changed into w. The simple syllabic augment is found Imperfect in only the indicative mood ; the reduplicative extends

Perfect through all the moods. The simple syllabic augment is used

Pluperfect

μην* with the imperfect tense and with the aorist. The reduplica

Aorist first tive augment is used with the perfect tense, the pluperfect

σα μην

θην

Future first tense, and the third future, sometimes called the paulo-post

σομαι

θησομαι future. If, however, the verb begins with a vowel, the perfect Aorist second

ομην and the pluperfect have, instead of the reduplicative, merely

Future second

ησομαι the temporal augment. The pluperfect has a dcuble augment, inasmuch as it prefixes the simple augment ε to the reduplica- This arrangement places under the middle voice some tenses, tive te, &c.; for instance, eteruPELV. Fulier details will be those marked with an asterisk, which are commonly ascribed given hereafter. My object in these general remarks is to afford to the passive voice. If the student bears in mind what was you assistance to understand and commit to memory a general said in the last lesson of the intimate relation of the two, he paradigm of the verb.

will see a ground for this diversity of view. Of course, the

arrangement here presented is beliered to be the best. CHARACTERISTIC LETTERS.

PERSONAL ENDINGS AND VOWEL SIGNS. I have previously used the terms pure verbs. This is one class into which verbs are divided. Verbs are divided

The personal endings are the terminations by which the

generally into classes, according to the characteristic letters of the variations of person are indicated. They are closely connected

with the mood-signs, which are the vowels that indicate the present tense, or the stem of the present tense. The letter which stands immediately before the w of the present tense is several moods. For example:called the verbal characteristic; thus, in qvw, the v is the cha- 1Per. Sin. Ind.Pres. M. Boulev-o-jae Subj. βουλευ-ω-μαι of the verb; and in otellw, the X is the characteristic of the 3 Pers. Sing. Ind. Fut. Bovlav-f-a-tal Opi. BovAɛv-6-01-20 verb. If the characteristic is a vowel, the verb is called pure, 1 Pers. Plur. Ind. Pres. Boulev-o-peta Subj. Bovkv-w-peta e.g. lvw; if the characteristic is a consonant, the verb is called | 2 Pers. Plur. Ind. Pres. Bovlev-E-00Subj. βουλευ-η-σθε mute, e.g.TUTTW; if the characteristic is a liquid, the verb is 1Pers. Sin. Ind. Aor. 1 &Povlev-r-a-uny Subj. Boulev-0-w-pal called liquid, e.g. otellw, I send. Thus there are three kinds 3 Pers. Sin. Ind. Aor, 1 eBoulev-0-0-70 Opt. Boulev-6-01-70 of verbs.

In these instances Bovlev is the root, and eßovlevo is the stem
Pure.
Mute,

Liquid.

of the first aorist, while Boulevo is the stem of the future. The Tiuaw, I honour. Toußw, I rub.

palvw, I show.

personal endings are μαι, ται, μεθα, τo, &c. And the mood

signs are the vowels o. w; £, ni a, al. Mark how readily the FLEXIONAL TERMINATIONS,

one permanent form Bovlev takes to itself other forms, to suit

modifications in the sense. Mark, also, that the short vowels Another kind of characteristic letters or syllables are the represent the indicative, and that these short vowels are inflexions, which mark the time (tense), the manner (mood), changed into their corresponding long ones for the stå bjuncand the persons of the verb. Look at Avonual, I will loose my- tive. You may also note that . enters as an essential into the self. Analyse it, and you will find the parts stand thus :- optative forms, as in βουλευτοιτο and βουλευσαιτο, These two

tenses are, you see, very near in form, differing in this only, Root. Tense Sign. Mood Sign.

Person Sign. that the latter has an a where the former has an on λυ

цах

The personal endings join on immediately to the mood-signs, Here av is the root, o is the characteristic of the future, o of and may appear as one; e.g., Bovlevo-ys, instead of Bovlevo

and unite so closely with them that they are blended together, the indicative mood, and ual of the first person singular. Let

and βουλευ-η instead of βουλευ -ε-αι. us vary these forms a little.

The distinction between the principal tenses and the histoRoot. Tense Sigri.

Mood Sign.
Person Sign.

rical tenses is important. The principal tenses, that is, the

present, the perfect, and the future, form the second and the

μεθα third person of the dual with the same ending ; that is, ov, as Here the sign of the indicative nmood o has become oι, to indi-βουλευ-ε-τον, βουλευ-τον, βουλευ-ε-σθον, βουλευ-ε-σθον; while cate the optative; and mai of the first person singular is the historical tenses form the second person of the dual ir ov, changed into μεθα οf the first person plural. Again, talke out the third in ην ; as, εβουλευ-ε-τον, εβουλευ-ε-την ; εβουελυσαντο. .

λευ-ε-σθον, εβουλευ-ε-σθην. Further, the principal tenses form

the third person plural, active voice, with the termination ong Augment. Root. Tense Sign. Mood Sign Person Sign.

which before a Towel becomes σιν (abbreviated from ντι, νσι),

and the third person plural middle with vrai; but the histoλυ

rical or secondary tenses have in the active v, and in the βε βουλευ

middle vto; as βουλευ

βουλευ-ο-νσι = βουλευ-ουσι(ν) ε-βουλευον Augment. Root.

Voice Sign.
Person Sign.
βουλευ-ο-νται

ε-βουλεύοντο.
βουλευ
e

Lastly, the principal tenses in the singular of the present

middle run thus, ual, cai, tai but the historical tenses thus, The tense sign, in union with the person sign, is termed the

Mny, 00, TO; as, tense-ending. Thus, in avow the o is the tense sign, being the sign of the future, and ow is the ending of the future tense,

βουλευ-ο-μαι

ενβουλευ-ο-μην active voice, commonly called the first future active. The βουλευ-ε-σαι βουλευ-η

-=

ε-βουλευ-ε-σα Ξε βουλευ-ου stem of the verb, in connexion with the tense sign and with βουλευ-ε-ται

ε-βουλευ-ε-το. the augment, is called the tense-stem, Thus, in eßovrevoa the tense-stem is eßovlevo, that is, the stem of the first aorist (The person-endings of the subjunctive of the principal tenses active.

correspond to those of the indicative of the principal tenses,

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and those of the optative to those of the indicative of the his- GENERAL VIEW OF THE PERSON-ENDINGS OF A VERB IN . torical tenses; as,

Active Form.

Middle Form. 2 and 3 Dual Ind. Pres. Bovleve-TOV Subj. βουλευη-τον

Indic. & Subj. of Indic. & Opt. of Indic. & Sub. of Ind, & Opt. of βουλευε-σθον βουλεη-σθον

the Prin. Teoses. the Prin.Tenses. the Hist. Tenses. the Hist.Teng. 3 Plural βουλευου-σι) βουλευω-σι(ν) S. 1

μαι

unu
βουλευο-νται βουλευω-νται

00, o
1 Sing.
βουλευο-μαι
βουλευω-μαι

3
2
βουλευ η

βουλευ-η
D. I

μεθον

μεθον
3
βουλευε-ται
βουλευη-ται
2

σθον

σθον 2 and 3Du. Impf. Indic. ε-βουλευε-τον, ε-την Opt. βουλευοι - τον, 3

σθον

στην
OL-T7V
1

μεθα

μεθα ε-βουλευε-σθον,ε-σθην - βουλευοι-σθον, 2

obte

σθε
οι-σθην
3 (ντσι

ν, σαν

νται (αται) ντο (ατο) 3 Plural ε-βουλευο-ν

βουλευοι-εν
ε-βουλευο-ντο

βουλευοι ντο
Imperative.

Imperative,
1 Sing.
ε-βουλευο-μην
βουλευοι- μην S. 2

3
S. 2 (00)0

3 σθω
2
(ε-βουλευε-σο) εβου- (βυλευοι-σο) D. 2

3

D. 2 odov 3
λευ- ου
βουλευοί-ο P. 2

3

P. 2 che 3 σθωσαν, σθων 3 ε-βουλευε-το βουλευοι-το.

Infinitive.

Infinitite. As already intimated, the mood-vowel of the subjunctire of

σθαι the historical tenses differs from that of the indicative in its Pres., Future and Aorist 2 being lengthened: thus o is lengthened into w; ε and a into n; Perf. Act. and Aor. I and 2 Pass.

Aorist 1 Active and εt into y; as,

Participle. Indicative βουλευ-ο-μεν, βουλευ-εις, βουλευ-ε-σθε

Participle. Subjunctive βουλευ-ω-μεν, βουλευ-ης, βουλευ-η-σθε. Stem vt, except the Perfect whose

μενος, μενη, μενον Stem ends in or

μενος, μενη, μενον, Perf. The mood-vowel, or mood-sign, of the optative is e, in connexion with the preceding mood-vowel of the first person singular indicative; the pluperfect forms an exception, since its optative assumes the mood-vowel of the present ; e.g.

LESSONS IN GERMAN.No. LXXXIV. 1 Sin, Imp.Act. Indic. o Opt. ol e-Boulev-0-9 βουλευ-οι·μι

$131. THE PRONOUNS, Plural Aor. 1 αι εβουλευσ-α-μεν βουλευσ-αι,

RULE.

LLEV 1 Sin. Plup.Act. Opt. Ol

A pronoun must agree with the noun or pronoun which it re-
Present
βε-βουλευκ-οιμι, βουλευ-οιμι,

presents, in person, number and gender: as,
Person.
Person.

Der Mann, welcher weise ist, the man who is wise.
Die Frau, welche Fleißig ist, the woman who is diligent.
Das Kind, welches Flein ift, the child that is small.

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Indicative,

Optative.
Plpf. Aor. 1. M. Aor. 1, A. & Pf, A. Aor. 1. A. & M. Aor. 1. A. & M. Aor. 1, A, & Meu

Imperative. Infinitiva,

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(1) The neuter pronoun, es, is used in a general and indefiaite way to represent words of all genders and numbers: as, es éft der Mann, it is the men; es ist die Frau, it is the woman ; es ist das Kind, it is the child; es sind die Männer, they are the men, &c. In like manner, also, often are used the pronouns das, (that): dies, (this); wag, (what); as also the neuter adjective alles, (all); as, tas sind meine Richter, these are my judges.

(2) When the antecedent is a personal appellation formed by one of the diminutive (neuter) terminations, den and lern, the pronoun, instead of being in the 'neuter, takes generally the gender natural to the person represented : as, wo ist ihr Söhngen? Sit er (not es) im Garten? Where is your little sonIs he in the garden? The same remark applies to Weib (woman) and Frauens zimmer, (lady). When, however, a child or servant is referred to, the neuter is often employed.

(3) A collective noun may in German, as in English, be represented by a pronoun in the plural number: as, die Geistlichkeit war für ihre Rechte sehr besorgt, the clergy were very ansious about their rights.

(4) The relative in German, can never, as in English, be supe pressed: thus, in English, we say, the letter (which) you wrote; but in German it must be, der Briej, welchen du schriebest.

(5) The neuter pronoun eg, at the beginning of a sentence, is often merely expletive, and answers to the English word “there" in the like situation : es, es war niemand hier, there was no one here; es fummen Leute, there are people coming.

(6) The English forms, he is a friend of mine; it is a stable of ours, &c., cannot be literally rendered into German; for there we must say, er ist mein Freund, he is my friend; or, er if einer meiner Freunde, he is one of my friends, &c.

(7) The definite article in German is often used where in English a possessive pronoun is required; as, er winkte işin mit der Hand, he beckoned to him with his (the) hand.

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(8) The datives of the personal pronouns are often in fami

$ 137. USE OF THE TENSES. liar style employed in a manner merely expietive: as, ich lobe

RULE. mir den Nheinwein, I like Rhenish wine for me, i. e. I prefer Rhenish wine. See $ 129.3.

The Present tense properly expresses what exists or is taking

place at the time being; as, die wahre Tapferkeit beschüßt ten § 135. THE ADJECTIVES.

Schwachen, true valour protects the weak.
RULE.

OBSERVATIONS.
Adjectives, when they precede their nouns (expressed or un-

(1) The Present in German, as in other languages, is often, derstood), agree with them in gender, number, and case; as,

in lively narrative, employed in place of the Imperfect; as, Diese schöne Dame, this handsome lady.

Die Sonne geht (for ging) unter, da steļt (for stand) er am Thor, 2., Ein gütiger unt gerechter Vater, a good and just father. Den zwölften dieses Monats, the twelfth (day) of this month, &c.

the san goes down, while he stands at the door, &c. Hier ist ein Mißverstand, -ein Handgreiflicher, here is a misunder. (2) The Present is not unfrequently used for the Future, when standing,-a palpable (one). .

the true time is sufficiently clear from the context; or when,

for the sake of emphasis, a future event is regarded and treated OBSERVATIONS.

as already certain ; as, (1) This rule of course has reference to those adjectives Ich reise morgen ab, I start (1. e. will start) to-morrow. which are used attributively; for predicative adjectives, it will

Wer weiß, wer morgen über uns befichlt, who knows who commands be remembered, are not declined. For the several circum- (i. e. will command) us to-morrow? stances under which adjectives are varied in declension, consult Bald seben Sie mich wieder, soon you (wiil) see me again. § 27., $ 28., &c

Dies Schloß ersteigen wir in dieser Nacht, this castle scale we (i. e. (2) This rule applies equally to adjectives of all degrees of will we scale) this very night. comparison; as, bessere Bücher, better books; der beste Wein, the

(3) It should be noted that the Present is, moreover, the best wine; des Besten Weines, of the best wine, &c. So, too, it proper tense for the expression of general or universal truths applies equally to all classes of adjectives ; as, adjective pro- or propositions ; as, die Vögel fiegen ta der Luft, birds fly in the nouns, numerals, and participles.

air. (3) The word "one,which, in English, so often supplies the

(4) In English we have several forms of the Present tense; place of a preceding noun after an adjective, cannot be trans- as, I praise, I do praise, or I am praising. In German there is lated literally into German: its office being rendered needless in but one form (ich lobe) for the expression of these several the latter tongue by the terminations of declension. See last shades of meaning. example under the rule.

(5) The Present in connection with the adverb schon (already) (4) So, also, the English “one's” is the proper equivalent of often supplies the place of a Perfect; as, wir wohnen schon sieben the German sein in such cases as the following: gibt es etwas Sabre hier, already dwell we here (i. e. have we dwelt) seven years. Gdleres, als seinen Feinden zu vergeben? is any thing more noble than (6) In English, often we say, "I do walk, I did walk," and to forgive one's enemies?

the like: where the verb do (Present and Imperfect) is em(5) When the same adjective is made to refer to several sin. ployed as an auxiliary. This cannot properly be done with the gular nouns differing in gender, it must be repeated with each corresponding verb (thun, to do) iu German. and varied in form accordingly; as, ein gelehrter Sohn und eine ges lehrte Tochter, a learned sou and a learned daughter. The adjec

§ 138. RULE. tives are, also, often repented, though the nouns be all of the

The Imperfect tense is used to express what existed, or was same gender.

taking place at some past time indicated by the context: as, ich S 136. THE VERBS.

(chrieb an Sie, als ich Ihren Brief eryielt, I was writing to you, when

I received your letter.
RULE.

OBSERVATIONS.
A verb agrees with its subject or nominative in number and

(1) The imperfect is the historical tense of the Germans. person; as,

Its proper office is to mark what is incomplete, or going on, Jeder Augenblid ist kostbar, every moment is precious.

while something else is going on. It is the tense adopted by Die Bäume blühen im Frühling, the trees bloom in spring. the narrator, who speaks as an eye-witness; though it may be

used by such as have not been eye-witnesses of the events OBSERVATIONS.

narrated : provided the statemenü be introduced or accom(-) When the subject is the pronoun es, dad or dies, used in- panied by such expressions as, he said (sagte er), it is said, or definitely (See § 134. 1.), the predicate, if a noun, determines they say (sagt man). When the speaker has not been an eyethe number and person of the verb; as, es sind die Früchte Ihres witness, the Perfect should be used. Thuns, these are the fruits of your actions.

(2) From the use of the Imperfect in expressing the conti| (2) In the second person (singular and plural) of the Impe- nuance of a thing, i. e. what was going on at a given time, comes rative mood, the pronoun which forms the subject is commonly the kindred power which it has of expressing repeated or omitted ; as, gehet hin und faget Johanni wieder, was Ihr febet und customary action : as, er pflegte zu sagen, he used to say, i. e. was Höret, go and tell John what ye see and hear.

in the habit of saying. (3) When the verb has two or more singular subjects con

(3) The Imperfect in German, like the Present, has but one nected by und, it is generally put in the plural; as, Šaß und Eis form; which, according to circumstances, is to be rendered by fersucht sind Heftige Leidenschaften, hatred and jealousy are violent any one of the three English forms of that tense. In lobté, passions.

therefore, is either I praised, did praise, or was praising. (4) When the subject is a collective noun, that is, one con

$ 139. RULE. veying the idea of many individuals taken together as unity, the verb must (generally) be in the singular ; as, das englische Volk The Perfect tense is that which represents the being, action, Hat große Freiheit

, the English people have (has) great liberty. In or passion, as past and complete at the time being : as, die a few cases only, as, ein Paar, a pair ; eine Menge, I number; ein Schiffe sind angekommen, the ships have arrived; er ist vorige Woche Dußend, a dozen, the verb stands in the plural.

gestorben, he died last week. (5) When a verb has several subjects, and they are of diffe.

OBSERVATIONS. rent persons, the verb agrees with the first rather than the third; as, bu, dein Bruter und id, rollen spazieren gehen, thou, thy brother, (1) The German Perfect, as a general thing, corresponds and I will go take a walk; du und dein Brubek vermöget viel, you closely to our Imperfect, when used as an aorist; that is, when and your brother avail much.

used to express an event simply and absolutely, and without

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regard to other events or circumstances. Hence it often hap- 5. Qu'allait-on faire alors ? 15. Pourquoi le général fut-il pens, that where in English we use the Imperfect, the Germans 6. Que vit-on tout à coup? surpris? employ their Perfect : thus, ich habe deinen Bruder gestern gesehen, 7. Que fit ce soldat?

16, Que dit-il au petit taraber nicht gesprochen, I saw your brother yesterday, but did not 8. A quoi le reconnut-on pour

bour? speak to him.

un sapeur ?

17. Que répondit Bilboquet? (2) The auxiliary participle (worden) in the perfect passive, is 9. Le régiment le regardait-il? 18. Que dit-il en montrant sa sometimes omitted. (See $ 84. 2.)

10. Que faisaient les ennemis barbe? (3) We may remark here also, that, though in English we pendant ce temps-là ? 19. Quel sentiment le général have a double form for the Prefect (thus, I have written and I 11. Arriva-t-il enfin au pont? éprouva-t-il ? have been writing), the Germans have but the one. By which 12. Qu'arriva-t-il aussitôt ? 20. Comment récompensa-t-on of the English forms, therefore, the German Perfect is, in any 13. Que vit-on parmi les débris notre héros ? given case, to be rendered, must be determined by the context. qui surnageaient ?

21. De quelle manière fut-il 14. Que s'empressa-t-on de faire traité depuis, par les anciens alors ?

du régiment? NOTES AND REFERENCES

... from voir ; L. part ii., p. 110. FRENCH READINGS.No. IV.

-b. entraîner, throw down.-c. from paraître ; L. part ii., p. 98.

d. from pouvoir; L. part ü., p. 100.-e. à, by ; L. S. 86, R. 4. LE SAPEUR DE DIX ANS.

-- f. from suivre ; L. part ii., p. 106.-9. frora faire; L. part ii., SECTION VII.

p. 92, also S. 31, R. 3.-h. en, on that account.—i. from abattre;

L. part ü., p. 76.-j.surnagent, float; L. part ü., § 49, R. (1).Le général qui commandait, voyanta que le salut d'une k. se dirigeant vers, swimming towards; L. part ü., § 49, R. (1). partie de l'armée dependait de la destruction de ce pont,' -. L. Š. 80, R. 1.-m. allez, allez, I assure you; literally, go, voulut envoyer quelques sapeurs pour abattre cette poutre gon. il y en a pour votre argent, there is the worth of your et entraîner le reste de la charpente : 2 mais, au moment money.-o. from prendre ; L. part ii., p. 100.-p. L. S. 41, R. 7. où ils s'apprêtaient à s'embarquer, l'ennemi arrive de l'autre côté de la rivière, 3 et commence un feu si terrible de

LE CHATEAU DE CARTES. coups de fusil, qu'il ne paraissait pas probable qu'aucun sapeur pûtd arriver vivant jusqu'à la fatale poutre. Aussi Un bon mari, sa femme, et deux jolis enfants, allait-on se retirer en se défendant, lorsque tout à coup on

Coulaienta en paix leurs jours dans le simple ermitage 2 :voit s'élancer un soldat dans la rivière, une hache sur Où, paisibles, comme eux, vécurent b leurs parents. l'épaule; il plonge et reparaît bientôt, et àe sa grande Ces époux, partageante les doux soins du ménage, barbes on reconnaît que c'est un sapeur qui se dévoue au

Cultivaient leur jardin, recueillaient à leurs moissons : 3 salut de tous. Tout le régiment attentif le suit des yeux

Et le soir, dans l'été soupant sous le feuillage, tandis qu'il nage et que les ennemis fonts bouillonner l'eau

Dans l'hiver derant leurs e tisons,* autour de lui d'une grêle de balles ;10 mais le brave sapeur

Ils prêchaient à leurs fils la vertu, la sagesse ; avance pas moins vigoureusement. Enfin il arrive Leur parlaient du bonheur qu'ils procurent toujours. après des efforts inouïs, monte sur le pied de la pile, 11 et, Le père par un conte égayait ses discours, en quelques coups de hache, abati le reste de la poutre qui

La mère par une caresse." de loin semblait énorme, mais qui était aux trois quarts

L'aîné de ces enfants, nés grave, studieux, brisée. Aussitôt la charpente des deux arches s'abîme

Lisaith et méditait sans cesse;$ dans la rivière,12 l'eau jaillit en l'air avec un fracas terrible,

Le det, vif, léger, mais plein de gentillesse, et l'on ne voit plus le brave sapeur. Mais tout à coup,

Sautait, riaiti toujours, ne se plaisaiti qu'aux jeux.» parmi les débris qui surnagent, on l'aperçoit se dirigeants

Un soir, selon l'usage, à côté de leur père, vers la rive.13 Tout le monde s'y élance rempli d'admira

Assis près d'une table où s'appuyait la mère, tion et de joie ; 14 car malgré tant de malheurs, on était

L'aîné lisait Rollin:10 le cadet, peu soigneux joyeux de voir faire de si nobles actions; on tend des D'apprendre les hauts faits: des Romains ou des Parthes, perches au nageur, on l'excite, on l'encourage; le général Employait tout son art, toutes ses facultés, Iui-même s'approche jusqu'au bord de l'eau, et n'est pas peu

A joindre, à soutenir par les quatre côtés étonné de voir sortir Bilboquet avec une grande barbe noire

Un fragile château de cartes.11 pendue au menton. 15

Il n'en respirait pas d'attention, de peur.
Qu'est-ce que cela ? s'écrie-t-il et que signifie cette

Tout à coup voici le lecteur mascarade 16

Qui s'interrompt;" Papa, dit-il daigne m'instruire C'est moi? dit le tambour, c'est Bilboquet,17 à qui vous

Porquoi certains guerriers sont nommés conquérants, avez promis qu'on lui donnerait la croix, quand il aurait de

Et d'autres fondateurs d'empire : la barbe au menton. En voici une qui est fameuse, j'es

Ces deux noms sont-ils différents ? 12 père.18 Allez, allez,m je n'y ai rien épargné;

Le père méditait une réponse sage, il y en a pour votre argent, et vos vingt francs y ont Lorsque son fils cadet, transporte de plaisir, passé.

Après tant de travail, d'avoir puo parvenir Le général demeura stupéfait de tant de courage et de

A placer son second étage,14 finesse à la fois. 19 Il prito la main à Bilboquet, comme s'il

S'écrie: Il est fini !15 Son frère murmurant, eut été un homme et lui donna sur-le-champ la croix que

Se fâche, p et d'un seul coup détruite son long ouvrage 8 lui-même portait à sa boutonnière,20 et qu'il avait gagnéep

Et voilà le cadet pleurant. aussi, à force de bravoure et de services. Depuis ce temps,

Mon fils répond alors le père les anciens du régiment saluaient Bilboquet avec amitié,2

Le fondateur c'est votre frère et le tambour-maître ne lui donna plus de coups de canne.

Et vous êtes le conquérant. 17 FLORIAN,
E. MARCO DE SAINT-HILAIRE.

COLLOQUIAL EXERCISE.'
COLLOQUIAL EXERCISE.

1. Combien de personnes y 4. Où soupaient-ils dans l'été

avait-il dans cette famille? et dans Thiver ? 1. La destruction du pont 3. Que se passa-t-il lorsque les 2. Quelle était leur habita- 5. Que recommandaient-ils à était-elle nécessaire ? sapeurs allaient s'embarquer? tion?

leurs enfants ? 8. Qu'est-ce que le géneral 4. Qu'est-ce qui ne paraissait 3. Quelles étaient les occupa-6. De quoi leur parlaient-ila? voulut faire ? pas probable?

tions de ces épous ?

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