« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
combined with the metal, are not points for discussion at formed of them constitutes the main point of difference between present. One object was to get a solution of manganese, and an expert and an inexpert chemical analyst. We have got it: let us now study the properties of this solu- For the present we will have done with manganese and tion. Our proposition is to precipitate or throw down the zinc, my especial object being to fix on the reader's memory dissolved manganese. How can this be effected. The student the nature of the changes effected on solutions of these metals succeeded in throwing down zinc by means of hydrosulphuric by hydrosulphuric acid, and hydrosulphate of ammonía. acid, either in the form of aqueous solution or gas. Will these The reader must not infer that the re-agents mentioned are agents throw down manganese : On trying the experiment, the only ones for zinc and manganese; there exist several of the reader will find that the manganese cannot be precipitated equal delicacy, but the fact especially to be remembered is by this means. The solution will either remain absolutely this:- Hydrosulphuric acid, and hydrosulphate of ammonia, are clear, or will only become slightly turbid; the manganese tests for all thuse substances which a beginner would consider to be remaining dissolved. But if instead of hydrosulphurie acid metals. gas, or solution of this gas in water, a solution of the same in “Which a beginner would consider metals,"what is the aminonia (hartshorn) be employed; or, what amounts to the meaning of this expression? Why, the meaning is this : Lime, same thing, if a little hartshorn be added to the manganese clay, and other earths, the beginner would not suspect to be solution simultaneously with the hydrosulphuric acid, then all metallie compounds ;--they are nevertheless, they are each the manganese will be thrown down or precipitated. If the an oxide, or rust of a corresponding metal; and the metals manganese solution be páre, the precipitate will be white, or which form earths are said to be terrigenous or earth-making rather flesh-coloured (we will call it white by courtesy); if the metals. Again, the reader does not usually associate the solution contain iron or some other metal a very probable idea of a metal with the alkalis, potash, and soda: neverthecontingency-then the white or cream-colour will be pro-less, these also are oxides or rusts of corresponding metals portionately disturbed.
which are said to be kaligenous or alkali-making metals. What I desire especially to impress upon the student's con
Well, then, let the student remember the following facts : sideration is this. Zinc is precipitäted from its solution white 1. Neither the earth-making nor the alkali-making metals are by hydrosulphuric acid alone, whereas marganese is precipi- precipitated from their solution by either hydrosulphuric acid tated white (by courtesy) only when the hydrosulphuric acid or hýdrosulphate of ammonia. is combined with ammonia or hydrosulphate of ammonia. Hence 2. All the metals remaining, constituting by far the greater we at once deduce a valuable power in analysis. Supposing number, and termed by chemists calcigenous metals, are zinc and ammonia to exist together in one solution, they may precipitated by hydrosulphuric acid or hydrosulphate of readily be separated by applying the principles already deduced. ammonia. Passing a current of hydrógulphuric acid gas through the coma (3.) Solutions of all calcigenous metals save uranium, iron, pound solution, without the presence of ammoniay
, all the zine Manganiese, cobalt, and niekel, are precipitated by either will be thrown down ; repeating the operation with the hydrosulphurie acid or hydrosulphate of ammonia. presence of ammonix, or still better, hydrosalphate of ammonia 4. The colour of the precipitate is black. already prepared, the manganese will fail. Both these preci
5. Bat solutions of inc and manganese yield a precipitate pitates will be sulphurets; one of zine, the other of manganese. which is white. I'he reader wilt Row observe that although we just AOW
6. And solutions of arsenic, cadmium, antimony, and perdismissed the metal zine, this was only for å time. Its con- salt of tin, yield & precipitate which is yellow. sideration is now reopened in connexion and by contrast with The preceding are anóngst the most important of fúndamanganese : chemical philosophy, in point of fact, is a structure mental chemical facts; the reader should master them made up of this comparative knowledge of different bodies. thoroughly, not resting content with being able to think them
In addition to the fact that zinc is precipitated by hydro- out, but the facts should become part and parcel of the brain sulphuric acid alone, and manganese by hydrosalphuric acid itself, so that the student, if soused from his slumbers at night, in combination with ammonia, let the reader remember that and asked any questions involved by the six generalisations a white precipitate by either of these agerts is altogether which have been givers, should be instantaneously able to exceptional
. The usual colour of precipitatos by hydrobal. supply the required answeds. phuric acid and hydrosulphate of ammonia is black. Two metals are alone precipitated white: these are zinc and manganese. The student will now recognise à means by which
LESSONS IN GREEK.NO. IX. zinc and manganese, if existing together in one solution, admit of being separated'; he will perhaps remark, however, that we
BY JOHN R. BEARD, D.D. do not separate the metalowmobtaining zinc bodily, and manganese bodily--but obtain either a metal or a sulphuret. He will
THE THIRD DECLENSION (continued). perhaps desire, like most beginners, to obtain this bodily presence of the metals. To this extent I cannot gratify him in There is yet another class, of which the stem ends in v or the present lesson. Suffice it to say, that the process of re-UT, As examples take ή ρις, ριν-ος, the most και ο δελφις, moving sulphuric acid may be accomplished is accomplished denpiv-os, a dolphin; • yuyas, Yıyavtos, a giant; o odovs, in the reduction of metals from their ores--but would be dovt-os, a tooth (Lat. dens. Eng. dentist.) difficult to accomplish in our present case; it is never &c-s. N. ρις
δελφις | Yuyas
οδους complished in the course of analysis. Chemists arrive at
G. piv-os δελφιν-ος
7- οδοντος some of their most correct results by collateral reasoning and
οδοντι calculation ; thus, knowing that the white sulphuret of man.
οδοντ-α ganese is made up of- parts sulphur, and parts
ρίν δελφις (ιν) γιγαν
οδους manganese-Chat the white sulphuret of zinc is made up of
P. N. ρίνες
οδοντ-ες parts zinc, and parts sulphur-of course it is easy
οδοντιων to calculate the amount of metal and of sulphur present, with
bicol δελφι-σι γιγά-σι
οδου-σι out actually separating the sulphut and obtaining the metal
A. piv-as δελφιν- ας
οδοντ-ε that a certain result will always follow the addition of a cer- G.D. Piv-olv δελφιν-οινί γιγαντ-οιν
odovt-OLV täin substance to a solution of the same body. Thus, for
To this class belong the adjectives in 1, ας, αινα, αν, as example, a beginner might imagine that zinc, in whatever atate of solution, will always be thrown down by hydro- μελας, μελαινα, μελαν, διαολ, g. μελανος, μελαινης, μελανος, sulphuric acid, and that manganese, in whatever solution, will and Falas, talaiva, talav, unhappy; 2, ras, maca, rav, ali, slways be thrown down by hydrosulphate of ammonia. This every, S., Tavros, maons, avtos, and its compound åtag, is not su. The conditions necessary to ensure these, or any draga, åtav 3, éxwv, škovoa, śkov, willing; g. ŠKOVTOS, other chemical results, lje in a comparatively narrow space'; $rovons. Éxovros, and arwy, akovoa, akov, unwilling så privative they can only be learned by practice, and the appreciation makes #kwv into akwvo) 4, the adjectives in eis, cooa, sv, e. g.
D. Ν.Α.V. χαριεντε
χαριεις, χαριεσσα, χαριεν, ίουely which have in the dative remains at the end of the word and before consonants, but plural of the masculine and neuter gender eoi instead of slot, disappears in the middle between vowels. Nouns in evs have, as it is in λειφθεις, left behind, for the participles in εις, εισα, εν, in the accusative singular α, and in the accusative plural ας; form the case regularly in εισι. .
take in the genitive singular what is called the Attic form in S. Ν.
ws, instead of os; and in the dative singular as well as in the χαριεις χαριεσσα χαριεν
nominative plural, admit contraction; which, however, is G.
χαριεντος χαριεσσης χαριεντος D.
commonly not found in the accusative plural. If a vowel χαριεντι χαριεσση χαριεντι
precedes evs, the whole singular and plural is contracted, as in Α. χαριεντα χαριεσσαν
χοευς. Nouns in αύς and oύς take the contraction only in the Υ. χαριεν χαρίεσσα χαριεν
The words about to be declined are • Ρ. Ν. χαριεντες χαριεσσαι χαριεντα
βασιλευς, α king ; ο χοευς, α measure of liquid (about a gallon) ; G. χαριεντων χαριεσσων χαριεντων
ο, η βούς, « ouil or cow, αη οα (Latin bos, bovis); and ή γραύς D. χαριεσι χαρίεσσαις χαριεσι
an old woinan. Α,
χαριεντάς χαρίεσσας χαριεντα Υ.
βασιλεί χαριεντoιν χαριέσταιν
γραύν S. Ν. λειφθεις λειφθεισα λειφθεν
D. βασιλεύσι | χoεύσι βουσι
γραυσι V. λειφθεις λειφθεισα λειφθεν
Α. βασιλεας χο(εα)άς (βο-ας)βούς (γρά-ας) Ρ. Ν. λειφθεντες λειφθεισαι λειφθεντα
γραύς G. λειφθεντων λειφθεισών λειφθεντων V.
G.D. βασιλε-οιν 1 χοε-οιν βο-οιν γρα-οϊν
Αχιλλεύς, εως, o, the hero | Εκτωρ, oρoς, o, Hector.
Αχαριστος, ον, unthankful.
Οδυσσευς, εως, o, Ulysses. Πολυλογος, οη, talkative. Ακτις, ινος, η, a beam, ray. Ευπορος, ον (with gen.), easily | Γονευς, εως, o, a parent. Αρχω (g.), I govern. Ελεφας, αντoς, o, an elephant, passed, abounding.
Ιερευς, εως, o, a priest. Ατιμαζω,I honour not, digivory. Κωτίλος, η, ον, loquacious.
Νομευς, εως, ή, a shepherd. honour, despise. Βρωμα, ατος, τo, food. Φιλανθρωπος, man-loving, phi- Νομη, ης, ή, a pasture. Εικαζω (d.),I liken to, comΜαχη, ης, ή, ight, battle. lanthropic.
Επιμελεια, ας, ή, attention to, Χωρα, ας, ή, country, district. Λεαινω, Irmake smooth, polish,
Ovw, I sacrifice. Λιβυη, ης, ή, Lybia, Africa. masticate. .
Ληρος, ου, ο, idle talk, chatter. | Φονευω, I put to death, kill, “Ηλιος, ου, ο, the sun. Οσφραινομαι (g.), Ismell some- οφθαλμος, ου, o, an eye.
murder. . Αυτος, he himself, (Lat. ipse); thing.
Κυρος, ου, ο, Cyrus.
Βουλομαι, I wish, will. και αυτος, the same, (Lat. Ποτε, once (an enclitic).
Ομηρος, ου, ο, Ηomer.
Te (enclitic)--kai, and also, idem).
Πατροκλος, ου, ο, Patroclus. both.
Τηλεμαχος, ου, ο, Telemachus.
EXERCISES.-GREEK-ENGLISH. βρωματα λεαινομεν. Οι δελφίνες, φιλανθρωποι εισιν. Εστιν*
Οι βασιλείς επιμελειαν εχουσι των πολιτών. Η αγελη τη ανδρος αγαθου παντα κακα ανδρειως φερειν. Πολλαι Λιβυης νομεί έπεται. Εκτωρ υπ 'Αχιλλεως φονευεται. Οι ιερεις τους χωραι ευποροι εισιν ελεφαντος. Παντες κωτιλον ανθρωπον θεόίς βούς θυουσιν. Κυρος παίς ην αγαθων γονεων. οι εχθαιρoυσιν. Τοις γιγάσι ποτε ην μαχη προς τους θεους. Ταις
αχαριστοι τους γονεας ατιμαζουσιν.
Πειθου, ω παι, τοις του ήλιου ακτίσι χαιρομεν. Ρινων εργον εστιν οσφραινεσθαι.
γονεύσιν. Τηλεμαχος ην Οδυσσεως υιος. Βουλου τους γονεας ENGLISH-GREEK.
προ παντος εν τιμάις έχειν.
Οι των γραών ληροι τα ωτα
Αι γράες πολυλογοι We have ivory. Ivory is produced (γιγνομαι) in districts or τειρoυσιν. Καλως αρχεις, ω βασιλεύ.
Οι νομείς την βοών αγελην εις νομήν αγoυσιν. “Ομηρος Africa. The rays of the sun delight the shepherds. The brothers and the sisters are delighted by the rays of the sun. τους Ηρας οφθαλμους τους των βοών εικαζει. Πατροκλος φιλος The sister is lovely. We admire fne ivory. Many elephants ην Αχιλλεως. Κυρον, τον των Περσων βασιλεα, επι τη τε αρετη are in Africa. The business of the teeth is to masticate the food. και τη σοφια θαυμαζομεν. It is the duty of every man to worship the divinity. To the gods there once was (in idiomatic English, the gods once
ENGLISH-GREEK. carried on) a war against (προς) the giants.
The flocks follow the shepherd. The king has care of (for)
the citizen. Ears are tired by the idle talk of the old According to odovs, are formed words compounded with woman. An old woman is talkative. The shepherd leads the odous, as ê, ń povodovs, having one tooth, g. povodovros; accord- herd of oxen to the city. Oxen are sacrificed to the gods by ing to yıyas, adjectives in as, g. avtoS, as è, i akauas, unsub- (üro with g.) the priests. O priests, sacrifice an ox to the dued, unwearied, g. αντος.
gods. Children love their (the) parents. Parents are loved
by their children. It is the business of a good shepherd to I pass on to the second great division of nouns, and proceed take (have) care of his herds. to speak of B. NOUNS WHICE IN THE GENITIVE HAVE A VOWEL BEFORE
In the second place I must ask your attention to nouns end. THE TERMINATION oς.
ing in ης, ες και ως (g. ωος) and ως and ω(g. οος) in ας (g. αος), And here, first, I must take up substantives which end in os (g. £os). The stem of these words ends in o; the o remains ευς, αύς, and oύς. The stem of these ends in υ. The v at the end and before a consonant, but disappears in the * The verb goti with a genitive, as here, signifies it is the
* That is, χοεως 18 contracted into χούς, χοεα into χά, duty of, it is oecoming in.
into χοών, and χοεας into χοάς.
middle between two vowels. In the dative plural one σ dis- παρεχε. Επαμεινωνδας πατρος ην αφανούς. Ελεαιρε τον appeara, e.g., ο θως, « jackal, τοις θιω- σι.
ατυχή ανθρωπον. Ορεγεσθε, ω νεανια, αληθων λογων. Of these words, let us «onsider, irst, those which end η ακρατείς αισχραν δουλειαν δουλευουσιν. Μη ομιλιαν (και The terminations ns (m. and t.), es (11.), belong only
ακρατει ανθρωπω. to adjectives, and to proper names terminating in adjective
ENGLISH-GREEK. forms 10 νης, λης, γενης, κρατης, μηδης, πειθης, σθενης, and (κλεης) κλής: The neuter presents the pure steri.
Socrates had (in Greek, to Socrates was) wonderful wisdom, The words of this class suffer contraction in all the cases, Pity unfortunate men. We pity unfortunate men. Many except the nominative and vocative singular, and the dative youths were disciples of Socrates. Socrates had (in Greek, plural, after dropping the σ. The words ending in Klans to Socrates was) much wisdom. They admire the wisdom of being contracted into kiss, again undergo contraction in the Socrates. The immoderate (man) serves a shameful servitude, dative singular. Learn both the contracted and the uncon. We admire the beautiful tragedies of Sophocles. True words
Have not tracted forins I am about to give of o, ý, oaons, clear, to OaDes are believed. I pity the lite of immoderate men. and » Tpinos, a Trireme, or galley with three banks of rowers intercourse with immoderate men. Singular.
LESSONS IN ITALIAN GRAMMAR. No. III.
BY CHARLES TAUSENAU, M.D., Α. (σαφε-α) σαφή σαφες (σαφε-ας)σαφείς (σαφε-α)σαφή γ. σαφες σαφες (σαφε-ες)σαφείς (σαφε-α)σαφή of the University of Paria, Professor of the Italian and German Languages
at the Kensington Proprietary Grammar School.
(Continued from page 21.)
Little Socrates, and Tepuklens, Pericles; as strictly proper names, they Pute
He has a bad smell are found only in the singular.
Pap for children V. Σωκρατες (Περικλεες) Περικλεις
pip-po Mark the contraction in the dual of
The occiput, goblet. not into the usual form in el.
Consumption by a vowel, εα is commonly contracted into d, as Περικλεά,
TVith thee and not into η, as in σαφεα σαφή; for example, ακλεης, μη
Type (a model) renowned, makes ακλεεα into ακλεά, in the masculine and
Mouse feminine accusative singular, and in the neuter nominative,
Tube accusative and vocative; so υγιης forms υγιά.
Haughty the accusative singular, follow the first as well as the third
To mount declension, and are thereføre denominated Heteroclite (that
Laurel is, of different declensions); accordingly, we have both Σωκρατη
Height • and Σωκρατην. But in those ending in κλης, the accusative in
Act, action is not Attic, and therefore not allowable,
vai-ro Αφανης, ες, unknown, unseen. | Επαμεινωνδας, ου, ο, Epami- vino
Wine “Ελωδης, ες, marshy.
ah-vóo-to Σοφοκλής, ους, o, Sophocles. Καλαμος, ου, o, a reed.
báh-vah-ro Δουλεια, ας, ή, slavery, servi- Ποταμος, ου, o, a river.
lah-vo-ro Ομιλια, ή, intercourse (dat.) Ελεαιρω, I pity.
00-diy-vee Αι Σοφοκλεους τραγωδιαι καλαι εισιν. Τον Σωκρατη επι τη
dôv-vee σοφια θαυμαζομεν, Σωκρατει πολλοι μαθηται εισιν.
Was there παρα τε τους ποταμους και τους ελωδεις τοπους φερει καλαμους πολλους. Λεγε αει τα αληθη, ωπαϊ. Αναξαγορας, ο σοφιστης, Ť When the gg's are followed by a, o, or it, they are pronounced διδασκαλος ην Περικλεους. Ω Ηρακλεις, τους ατυχεσι σωτηριαν | in each syllable like English g in g..
He gives you
He heard you
has two sounds--one like the English consonant l; the second Zara tzáh-rah Zara, a town
is a peculiar sound, of which I shall have oocasion to speak in Zero dzê-ro Cypher
the pronouncing tables. Zita tzée-tah Girl
3. Mm, named in the alphabet emme (pronounced ém-mai). dzô-nah Zona
Zone, girdle To insure perfect accuracy in the pronunciation, I may remark tzóo-go
that when m is preceded by a vowel with which it forms one mah-tzáh-rah* Mazara
Mazzara in Sicily
syllable, and a consonant being the next, it must be very Gazera gáh-czai-rah Magpie
softly sounded, and the voice must glide quickly to the next ah-dzee-mo Azimo
consonant, almost as if it formed part of the same syllable; Bazoto bah-dzó-to Half-cooked for example, ambizione, ahm-bee-tzee-6-nai
, ambition; empio, Azufa ah-tzú-fah
He comes to blows ém-peeo, impious ; ombra, óm-brah, a shadow. Pazzo pah-tzot
4. Nn, named in the alphabet enne (pronounced en-nai). Pezzo
Generally speaking, this letter is pronounced just as in English; Pozzo pó-tzo A well
but the observation made on the m is equally applicable to 9, Puzzo póo-tzo A bad smell
In similar circumstances, the voice must glide quickly from the Pagato pah-gáh-to Paid
to the succeeding consonant; for example, andare, ahn-dahIthaca ée-tah-kah
Ithaca in Greece
Agape, or Christian rai, to go; entrare, en-tráh-rai, to enter; onda, on-dah, a wave. Agape áh-gah-pai
After g, n has a peculiar sound, which I shall have occasion Ricaino ree-kah-ino Embroidery
to explain in the pronouncing tables. Often n is proVegeto vê-jai-to
nounced like m before words commencing with the con
sonants b, m, and y; as, gran bestia, pronounced grahm bêGaeta gah-ai-tah
Town in Naples steeah, a boorish, insolent fellow, great blockhead, &c.; scolpire tchai-dai-tai Cedete
in marmo, pronounced skol-pée-rai im mahrr-mo, to chisel in Cadice kah-dee-tchai
Cadiz Egida ai-jée-dah
marble; .con poca fatica, pronounced kom pâ-kab fah-tée-kah, Aegis
with little effort. This is certainly the finest pronunciation, Tacitus tah-tchee-to Tacito
because it is the genius of the lialian language, as in the Vagito
vah-jée-to Rigore ree-go-rai Rigour
classical tongues, particularly Greek, to soften the transition Epocha
from one word to another, and often from one syllable to the Epoch êpo-ka Pagode
other, bychanges of consonants. pah-gô-dai
5. Rr, named in the alphabet erre (pronounced ér-ra*), R, ah-góo-to
when it is followed by a consonant, must be vibrated with a Acuto ah-kóo-to
Acute, ingenious stronger emphasis than in English; and it is on the other hand tchee-kóo-tah
Water hemlock Cicuta
very soft before a vowel; as, carta, pronounced kahrr-ta, paper, tchai-doo-to
and soft in cara, pronounced káh-rah, dear. Apogeo ah-po-je-o Apogee
(To be continued.) Capacitato
Zebedee too-tchée-dee-dai Tucidide
LESSONS IN FRENCH. No. LXXX.
Thucidydes Abituato ah-bee-too-áh-to Habituated
By Professor Louis FASQUELLE, LL.D. Zodiaco Agarico ah-gah-ree-ko Fungus growing on larches
§ 135.-REMARKS ON THE FOREGOING RULES. Idiota ee-dee-Ô-tah Ignorant
(1.) Although the compound tenses of the reflective or proAbigeato ah-bee-jai-áh-to Stealing of cattle
nominal verbs [§ 43, (6.), § 46, (2.), § 56] take être as an Vegetativo vai-jai-tah-tée-vo Growing
auxiliary, the past participle of those verbs does not follow the dai-kah-pee-táh-to Decapitated Decapitato
rule (2.) of the preceding section ; but comes under the same dai-kah-doo-to Decaduto
rules with those conjugated with avoir. It agrees with the Agitato ah-jee-táh-to Agitated
direct regimen, when that regimen comes before it, and is Epicuro ai-pee-kóo-ro Epicurus
invariable when that regimen succeeds :-Pedagogia
Education and go-
vernment of chil. Votre sæur s'est acheté de belles Your sister has bought (herself)
handsome dresses, i. e., for herself.
Cette femme s'est rendue mal. That woman has rendered hersels III.
unhappy. There are six semi-vowels in the Italian language, so called
Acheté in the first example does not vary, because se, placed because in their utterance à vowel must be placed before the consonant. They are not pronounced in one syllable only, as before it, is an indirect regimen or dative, while the direct in the case of the mutes, but require the utterance of twoʻsyl- regimen or accusative, robes, is placed after the participle.
Rendue in the second example varies, because the word se, lables, which syllables are substantially the same though in an
representing femme, is a direct regimen, and precedes the inverse order. The semi-vowels are :
participle. 1. Ff, named in the alphabet effe (pronounced éf-fai).
We will add a few extracts as examples 2. Ll, nared in the alphabet elle" (pronounced el-lai). It
* In this and a few other cases, I am compelled, for the sake of Used as indirect Objects.
Used as direct Objects, completeness of system, to make a slight departure from strict
Il ne se sont proposé, pour Elles se sont proposées commedes orthography: This word being properly written Mazzara, as well exemple, que la constitution la modèles de douceur. as the following words gazzera, azzimo, bazzotto, azzuffa.
plus simple des anciens.
QUOTED BY BESCHER. † There is very little difference between the pronunciation of the
VOLTAIRE. single z and zz. The zz, as well as a, may have the sound of tz in
They have proposed to themselves, They have proposed themselves as the word switzer, or de in the word adze. According to modern as an example, only the most simple patterns of gentleness. orthography, the z is generally doubled between two single yowels constitution of the ancients. in the middle of a word, but not after a consonant and not before diphthongs the first vowel of which is e; as, for examples, ia, io, do, where it must remain single, and has th: hard sound.
# The er like the sound of the syllable er in the English word orrar.
Il est vrai, ça'elle et moi nous La langue latine et la langue (6.) The participle past of neuter verbs, conjugated with HOUS'sommes parle des yeux. grecque se sont longtemps parlées. avoir, and those of unipersonal verbs, are always invariable: MOLIÈRE.
Que de bien d'a-t-elle pas fait, 1 How much good has she not done, It is true, that sive and I have The Latin and Greek languages pendant le peu de jours qu'elle a during the few days that she reigned. spoken to each other with our eyes. were long spoken of.
FLÉCHIER. Néanmoins, il s'était conserve La vie pastorale qui s'est conser- Les chaleurs excessives qu'il a The esecessite heat which we have l'autorité principale. BOBBUET. vée dans l’Asia, n'est pas sans opun fait, ont causé beaucoup de mala- had, has caused much sickness.
CORDILLAC. Nevertheless, he had preserved to The pastoral life which has been himself the principal authority. prescrved in Asia, is not without (7.) The past participle never agrees with en, because e opulence.
can have no other relation to the participle than that of au (2.) Whet vionominal or reflective verbs, of which the vent the agreement of the participle with a direct regimen
indirect regimen.* The presence of en does not of course presecond pronoun is an indirect regimen, are accompanied
by preceding the verb :-another pronoun, or by a noun, used as a direct regimen, the
Avez-vous mangé des fruits ? Have you ecten of the fruits ? I participle agrees with this latter pronoun or noun when it
J'en ai mangé.
have eates if them. is preceded by it, and remains invariable when the régime
Tout le monde m'a offert des Everybody tendered me services, direct follows. See Rules (4.) (5.) of the preceding sec-services, et personne ne m'en a 1 and no person rendered me any. tion :
rendu. MYE. DE MAINTENON, Variable.
Invariable. L'indiscrétion que nou6 DOUS Nous nous sommes reproché l'in.
En, preceded by the Direct Regimen of the Participle. sommes reprochée. discrétion.
Cassius naturellement fier et im- Cassius, naturally proud and im The indiscretion with which we We have reproached ourselves with périeux, ne cherchait dans le perte perious, sought in the death of have reprocched ourselves. the indiscretion. de César que la vengeance de quel Cæsar only revenge for some injuries
which he had received from him. Or to render in English the relations the same as in ques injures qu'il en avait reçues.
Rendez grâces au ciel qui nous
Render thanks to Heaven, which The indiscretion which we have We have reproached to ourselves en a rengés. CORNEILLE. has revenged us for it. reproached to ourselves. the indiscretion.
(8.) Le peu has in French two meanings: it signifies a small (3.) The participle past conjugated with avoir, and preceded quantity, or the want of. by a direct regimen, is sometimes followed by an infinitire.
When it signifies a small quantity, the participle agrees with In such cases, when the direct regimen is under the govern- the noun which follows le peu :ment of the infinitive rather than of the participle, the latter
Le peu d'affection que vous lui ! The little affection which you have of course remains unchanged:
avez témoignée, lui a rendu le cou- shown him, has restored his
co La règle que j'ai commencé à ex- The gule which I commenced to rage. pliquer. explain.
When le peu is used in the sense of the want of, the participle (4.) The verb in the infinitive is sometimes understood; yet remains unaltered :the participle must follow the same rule, as if it were
Le peu d'affection que vous lui The want of affection uchich you expressed. The participle fait, followed by an infinitive, and avez temoigné, la découragé. have shown him, nas discouraged laissé, followed by the infinitive of an active verb, are always
him. invariable :Elle a obtenu toutes les faveurs She obtained all the favours which
$ 136.-THE ADVERB.-RULES.-PLACE OF THE ADVERB. qu'elle a voulu (obtenir). she wished (to obtain).
(1.) In French the adverb used to modify a verb in a simple La maison que j'ai fait bâtir. The house which I have had built.
tense is generally placed after the verb :Ces hommes se sont laissé battre. These men hate suffered themselves to be beaten.
Que de gens prennent hardiment i How many people assume boldly le masque de la vertu !
the mask of virtue! (5.) In some cases, it may be difficult to ascertain whether
SCUDERI. the régime direct is under the government of the participle or of the infinitive.
(2.) Adverbs of place, and those used in interrogations, have If the régime direct is to be represented as performing the the same place in French as in English: action expressed by the infinitive, the participle is made to
Oi est votre frère ? Il est ici. Vhere is your brother? He is agree with that régime in gender and number:
here, Je les ai vus secourir leurs enne- I saw them relieving their enemies.
(3.) In compound tenses the adverb is placed between the mis.
auxiliary and the participle : In this example it will be seen that les (the régime direct) is
Vous avez mab fait.
You have done
wrong. represented as actually doing what is expressed by the
Il nous a bien reçus.
He received us acell. infinitive, and that the infinitive itself is translated by the present participle.
(4.) Adverbs of manner ending in ment, may, in compound If, however, the régime dircct is to be represented as suffer- tenses, be placed before the participle or after it, when they ing the action expressed by the infinitive, then the participle are not very long, or followed by other modifying words. will remain unchanged, and the infinitive will be translated as When, however, they are followed by such words they must a passive. Thus:
be placed after the participle: Je les ai vu secourir par leurs I saw them relieved by their Cela est heureusement exprimé.
That is happily expressed. ennemis. enemies.
Cela est exprimé heureusement. Further examples :
Il est venu heureusement à temps. He came fortunately in time. Variable.
(5.) The adverbs aujourd'hui, to-day; demain, to-morrow; Je les ai vus repousser les enne- Je les ai vu repousser par les hier, yesterday, may be placed before or after the verb, but mis. ennemis.
never between the auxiliary and the participle. The adverb I saw them repel (repelling) the I saw them repelled by the enemies. davantage, more, must always follow the participle :enemies,
Je les ai vus prendre la fuite. Je les ai vri prendre sur le fait. * Noël and Onapsal, page 165. Several grammarians call en at times a I saw then taking flight.
I saw them taken in the deed.
régimen direct. We think with Bescherelle (Dictionnaire national, paye .Je les ai vus frapper.
Je les ai vu frapper.
1114), that en does not represent the entire direct regimen, but only a part saw them striking. I saw them struck.
of it, or rather merely refers to is; the direct regimen being itself underLes personnes que j'ai entendues Les chansons que j'ai entendu stood. Ex. Avez-vous des livres ? J'en ai. Have you books! hane
some. In the latter sentence, the words quelques uns, the direct object, is chanter. chanter.
understood after the verb; J'en ai quelques us, and on is rather a reference The persons whom I heardsing
The songs which I heard surg, to it, than a-substitute for it. The literal translation of the sentence will
show this : I have of them a fero.