« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
1. A present participle used as a noun; as,
bution, in denotes presence in a place, and so requires its object He accused the boys of fighting.
to be one, one individually, or one collectively ; e. g.,
In a great nation many are found among whom charity may find 2. A present participle and a noun; as,
deserving objects. He accused the soldiers of being cowards.
Among the thousands who live in England there are a few 3. A present combined with a past participle; as,
philosophers. He accused the soldiers of having been cowards.
In- differs from into, since while the former denotes rest, the
latter denotes motion :4. A clause of a sentence or a phrase ; as, He accused the troops of having acted in a cowardly manner.
Being in a boat, we went into the harbour. In the following example, many words, combining to form a sub- In many phrases, however, in is employed where motion is stantive clause, stand as the object to the preposition above; signified or employed. In the Bible we find within the clause is a minor clause dependent on the preposi- "rent in train; cut in pieces ;” “puled in pieces.” tion of:
The correct signification has greater influence than the etymo“A quick wit and a nice judgment could not raise this man above logy in determining what preposition shall follow a word. being received only upon the foot of contributing to mirth and diversion." -Steele. This, however, is a form of a sentence which cannot be recom
LESSONS IN GEOMETRY.--No. XXIII. mended for imitation. Prepositions in general stand before the nouns they govern, but
LECTURES ON EUCLID. by poetic license they may be placed after ; e. g.,
“ Wild Carron's lonely woods among."--Langhorne. In verbs used with separable prepositions, the preposition, when If one side of a triangle be produced, the exterior angle is greater separated, may stand after its object, and even at the end of the than either of the interior opposite angles. sentence:
In fig. 16, let A B C be a triangle, and let its side BC be pro“ This you pride yourself upon and this you are ruined by." duced to D. The exterior angle A CD is greater than either of the In some phrases the preposition follows the noun; e. go,
interior opposite angles C B A and B A C.
Fig. 16. “ Civil and religious liberty all the world over.'
produce it to F. Make EP equal (I. 3) to An affectation of elegance, which was devoid of a knowledge of BE. the Teutonic idiom of our language, led Dr. Blair, and has led a Because a E is equal (Const.) to B C, and host of blind imitators, to proscribe what that superficial critic BE (Const.) to EF; therefore in the tri. with little accuracy called "splitting of particles,” which he angles A E B and CEF, the two sides A E declares " is always to be avoided;" he gives as an instance this and E B of the one, are equal to the two sentence:
sides C B and EF of the other, each to each. “Though virtue borrows no assistance from, yet it may often be But the angle A E B is equal (I. 15) to the accompanied by, the advantages of fortune."
angle CEF, because they are vertical angles.
Therefore the base AB is equal (I. 4) to Yet it is certain that sentences so formed are sanctioned by the the base cr, the triangle A e B to the triangle CEP, and the highest authority ; e. & ,
remaining angles of the one to the remaining angles of the other, “ To suppose the zodiac and planets to be efficient of and antecedent each to each, viz., those to which the equal sides are opposite. to themselves."-Bentley.
Wherefore the apgle B A B is equal to the angle BC F. But the The sense may require two prepositions used in combination ; angle e CD is greater (Ax. 9) than the angle ECF. Therefore
the angle ACD is greater than the angle B A E.
In the same "And from before the lustre of her face
manner, if the side BC be bisected, and a c be produced to g, it White break the clouds away.”—Thompson.
may be demonstrated that the angle BCG is greater than the angle Ellipses of prepositions have given rise to idiomatic phrases ; Therefore the angle A CD is greater than the angle A B C.
But the angle ACD is equal (I. 15) to the angle BCG.
Scholiun. The student should, for the sake of practice, write
out the demonstration of the second part here alluded to; otherLike, near, next, and other adjectives and adverbs, are used with wise, the truth of the proposition will not be so completely fixed an object immediately dependent on them:
in his mind. A new axiom is taken for granted in the demonstra“And earthly power doth then show likest God's
tion of this and some subsequent propositions, viz., If two things When mercy seasons justice."-Shakspeare.
be equal to one another, and the one be greater than a third, so is Care must be taken not to confound prepositions with adverbs, the other. especially with regard to the words which are used both ways. Before is an instance; e. g., Adverb: She entered before.
From a point without a straight line, only one perpendicular can Preposition: She entered before me.
be drawn to it. You may ascertain whether in any particular case before (and
In fig. T, let A be a point without
Fig. T. similar words) is an adverb or preposition by considering what it the straight line B C; only one pergoes with, a verb or a noun; e. g.,
pendicular can be drawn from the The king came near.
point A to the straight line B C. The king came near the city.
From the point A, by Prop. XII., In the first place, near does no more than qualify cane; in the draw A D perpendicular to BC; then second, near governs the city.
no other straight line but A D, drawn The prepositions between and among have specific meanings, and from the point a, can be perpendicular should be used accordingly. Between (twain, two) is, two individuals, or two sets or classes of individuals. Among the point A be perpendicul i to B c.
For if possible, let A E drawn from denotes distribution to several :
Because in the triangle AD E, the
straight line Ad is perpendicular to
BC, the angle ADE is a right angle; for the same reason, the Among differs from in in this, that while among denotes distri- . angle A E B is a right angle; therefore, by Axiom XI., the angle
A B C.
EXERCISE TO PROPOSITION XVI.
A B B is equal to the angle A De, that is, the exterior angle equal to greater than three right angles ; thus the following exercise is
EXERCISE II. TO PROPOSITION XVII.
The two exterior angles of every triangle are togother greater than pendicular to BC; and in the same way it may be shown that no other straight line but A B can be perpendicular to BC. Therefore. are together greater than the three right angles. from a point without a str: ight line, &c. Q. E. D.*
In fig. 17, let A B C be any triangle; any two exterior angles of Corollary 1.--If from any point without a given straight line the three exterior angles are together greater tban three right
this triangle are together greater than two right angles; and all two straight lines be drawn, one perpendicular to it, and the other
angles. not, the perpendicular will be on that side of the straight line which
For every exterior angle, together with its adjacent interior is not perpendicular, where it makes the acute angle with the given angle, is equal to two right angles, therefore, any two exterior straight line.
angles, together with their adjacent interior angles, are equal to Corollary 2.--The two equal angles of an isosceles triangle are four right angles; but, any two interior angles are together less both acute angles.
than two right angles, by Prop. XVII. ; therefore their two Corollary 3.-Only two equal straight lines can be drawn to exterior angles are together greater than two right angles. Again, another straight line from a given point without it.
the three exterior angles, together with their adjacent interior
angles, are together equal to six right angles ; but in the preceding Corollary 4.--A circle cannot cut a straight line in more points exercise it was shown that the three interior angles of any triangle than two.
are less than three right angles; therefore, the three exterior angles
Scholium. This demonstration depends on the axiom, that if Any two angles of a triangle are together less than tuo right two unequal quantities are together equal to a given quantity, and angles.
if one of the unequal quantities be less than half of the given In fig. 17, let ABC be any triangle ;
quantity, the other of the unequal quantities must be grcater than any two of its angles are together less
half of the given quantity. than two right angles.
Produce BC to D. Because ACD is the exterior angle of the triangle A B C,
The greater side of every triangie is opposite to the greater the angle A CD is greater (I. 16) than the
angle. interior and opposite angle A B C. To
In fig. 18, let ABC be a triangle,
B each of these unequals, add the angle
of which the side A c is greater than
From A c the greater, cut off by
Because, in the two triangles A BE and ADE, the side A D is equal to the
side A B, by construction, and the side The three interior angles of any triangle are together less than therefore the two sides A B and A e in the triangle A BE, are equal
AE is common to both triangles, hree right angles.
to the two sides A D and A e in the triangle to DE; and the angle In fig. 17, let ABC be any triangle, its three interior angles B A E is equal to the angle DA E, by construction ; therefore, by A B C, BCA, and CAB are together less than three right angles. Prop. IV., the base Be is equal to the base D is, and the angle For, by Prop. XVII., the two angles A B C and BCA are
A B E to the angle A DE, But, by Prop. XVI., the exterior angle together less than two right angles; the two angles BCA and A D.E of the triangle DEC is greater than the interior Dce; Cå B are together less than two right angles; and the two angles wherefore, also, the angle ABE is greater than the angle DCE; CAB and a B C are together less than two right angles ; therefore, therefore, in the triangle A B C, the angle 4 B C is greater than the in all, the three angles ABC, BCA, and C A B taken twice are less angle BCA. Wherefore, the greater side of every triangle, &c. than six right angles; wherefore, the three angles A B C, BCA, and Q. E. D. *
Scholium.--This demonstration is different from Euclid's, and CAB taken once are less than three right angles. Therefore, the three interior angles, &c. Q. E. D.+
preferable to it, on account of its being more direct, and not
requiring the à fortiori argument. Scholium.—Here there is evidently a new axiom implied in the
Corollary. One side of a triangle is greater than, equal to, or demonstration, namely, that the halves of unequals are unequal, less than another, according as the angle opposite to the former and that the inequality remains, after halving, on the same side as is greater than, equal to, or less than the angle opposite to the it did before halving. Another mode of demonstration proposed latter. by T, Bocock, Great Warley, is this : That as every exterior
In Cassell's Euclid this corollary is misplaced, as it is there angle with its corresponding interior is equal to two right angles, attached to the 19th proposition ; and the corollauy there attached so all the three exterior angles with their corresponding interior to the 18th should be appended to the 19th. This misplacement angles are together equal to six right angles; but by Prop. XVII. was pointed out by Mr. G. Williams, Bristol. every exterior angle is greater than its opposite interior angle, therefore all the exterior angles together are greater than all their corresponding interior angles together. But all the interior angles "Of curious arts, art thou more fond ? then mark together with their corresponding interior angles are equal to sir
The mathematic glories of the skies, right angles, therefore all the interior angles are together less than
In number, weight, and measure, all ordaiu'd. three right angles, and consequently all the exterior angles are
Wisdom and choice their well-known characters
Use rivals beauty, art.contends with pow'r; * This exercise was solved by NOX SUTOR, Colchester; J. H. EASTWOOD,
No wanton waste amid.effuse expense,
The.great Economist adjusting all
To prudent pomp, magnificently wise." hsle; and others.
* This exercise was solved by J. H. EASTWOOD, Middleton ; QUINTIN * This exercise was solved by T. BOCOCK, Great tarix?; QUIXTIN PRINGLE, Glasgow ; E. J. BREMNER, Carlisle ; E. Russ, Pentonville; PRINGLE, Glasgow ;-J. II. EASTW000, Middleton; K. i. Vi linss, CanB B. N. Ross, Camberwell; T. Bocock, Great Warley ; and others. berwell; and others,
EXERCISE I. TO PROPOSITION XVII.
, } except (see hors ocloco)
(6.) Remark.-Ne is not used when the verb of the preceding LESSON $ IN FRENCH.NO. LXXXI.
preposition is accompanied by a negative By Professor Louis FASQUBLLE, LL.D.
Il ne parle pas autrement qu'il He does not speal: otherwise than agit.
he acts. $ 138.-ADVERBS OF NEGATION.
Il n'est pas plus modeste qu'il He is not more modest than he aple parait.
pears. (1.) The negation is composed of she placed before the verh, and pas or point, after it in the şimple tenses. The second (7.) After craindre, appréhender, uvoir peur, trembler, we put negative comes between the auxiliary and the verb, in the com- pas alter the ne when we wish for the accomplishment of the pound tenses :
action expressed by the second verb :Le ciel sur nos souhaits ne règle Heaven does not regulato, things
Je crains, qu'il ne viende pas, I fear, that he may not come. CORNELLLE according to our wishes.
J'ai peur, que mon frère l'arrive pas le choses.
I am afraid, that my brother may Rome n'attache point le gradę à Rosne does not by any means con- pas. la noblesse.
fine offices to the mobility. L'estime est le vrai principe de Esteem is the true principle of cor- $ 139. –The PREPOSITION-REGIMEN OF PREPOSITIONS AND
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. la considération, qui n'est pas tou-sideration, which is not always atjours attaché aụx dignités
tached to offices. FONTENELLE.
(1.) Prepositions may be divided according to their regimen Les rois ne sont point protégés Kings are by no means protected into three classes :par les lois. CHÉNIER. by laws.
Ist. Prepositions governing nouns without the aid of another
preposition. They are : It will be seen in the above examples, that the negative A, at or to point is stronger than pas. The meaning of these two words, De, of, from which are in fact substantives used adverbially to stgengthen Dès, from, as soon as
Malgré, in spite of° the negative sze, will sufficiently explain this:
Moyennant, by means of
Joigoant, joiniig or step. N'allez point means n'allez ur point, do not go, or Avant, before
Nonobstant, noiiithstanding move a point or dot.
Par, by (2.) The second negative may be suppressed after the verbs Chez, with, at the house of
Pour, for pouvoir, oser, savoir, and cesser :
Parmi, among, amongst
Pendant, during qu'un de leurs vaisseaux fasse nau- a single one of their ressels perishi. Depuis, since
Sans, without frage. FénéLon.
Sauf, safe, sale appartement, elle She dare not re-citer her apart- | Dessus, above
Selon, according to n'osait rentrer.
Suivant, according to longtemps yivre. CORNEILLE. erist long.
A travers, through
Voici, here is another negative word, such as jainais, guère, sul, ulement, Excepté, except
Voilà, there is aucun, personne, ni, n, or followed by que, meaning only, and
| Yu, considering plus used negatively :
2nd. Prepositions requiring the preposition de after L'ambition, seigneur, n'a guère Ambition, my lord, has scarcely them :de limites.
A raison, by reason, at the rato
Au rez, on a level
Au deça, this way
Faute, for want
Au delà, tňut way, beyond
Au dessous, under
Au dessus, above
su dedans, within
Au dehors, acithout
Au devant, before, to meet
A côté, by the side
Au milieu, in the middle
Au liea, instead
Au moyen, by means
Au niveau, oz a level conjunctions à moins que, unless; de peur que, de crainte que; A force, by dint
A la faveur, by means
Au péril, at the peril for fear that :-
A l'abri, under shelter
Aụ prix, ai the price
A la mode, according to the fashion Au risque at the risk
Au travers, througit
A l'exception, excepting
Aux dépens, at the expense (5.) Ne is used in the same manner after autre, difcrent; A l'égard, with regard
A l'exclusion, excluding
dux environs, in the neighbourhood
En dépit, in spite of autrement, otherwise ; plụs, moins, miers, forming a compari- A l'insu, unknown
Le long, along son, and after the veròs craindre, avoir peur, trembler, appré- A l'opposite, contrary
Vis-à-vis, opposite hender, empêcher:
A moins, unless, for less
3rd. The prepositions followed by à are :
Par rapport, with regard est plus modeste qu'il ne le He is more odest that he ap
Jusque, as far as
Quant, as to parait.
(2.) Many of the prepositions which govern the regime qu'un songe ne m'abuse. dream is deceiving mc.
direct are formed from active verbs. Almost all the preposiRACINE. Vous avez bien peur que je ne You fear much, lest I may change tions requiring de before the regimen are formed of a
preposition and a noun. Those requiring the preposition d change d'avis.
La pluie empêcha qu'on ne se The rain prevented their taking a have a relation of tendency, of aim, tie. promenat dans les jardins.
ratk in the gardens. RACINE.
* Governiny the accusative. + Governiag ihe genitive cr ablative.
LESSONS IN ITALIAN GRAMMAR.--No. IV. The rules which we have given ($ 92, (1.) (2.) note, and
By CHARLES TAUSENAU, M.D., $ 133] with regard to the regimen or government of verbs and adjectives, apply also to prepositions. When two prepositions of the University of Pavia, and Professor of the Gerinan and Italian
Languages at the Kensington Proprietary Grampınar School. require the same regimen, it is useless to repeat this regimen after each one, but if they require a different regimen, it is
(Continued from p. 42.) necessary to give to each its proper object. It would, therefore,
6. S, named in the alphabet esse (pronounced ês-sai). be incorrect to say,--Un magistrat doit toujours juger suivant This consonant has considerable variations, and is one of the et conformément aux lois : -A magistrate should always judge most difficult to pronounce throughout correctly, for even in in accordance with, and conformably to, the laus; because the pre- Italy there are variations. An irreproachable pronunciation position suivant governs the noun in the régime direct, that is of this consonant can only be acquired by closely marking its without the aid of another preposition, and conformément utterance in all its shades by Italians who speak purely. gorerns the noun in the régime indirect by means of «. We Speaking generally, there are two leading sounds. One is a sharp, should say :
hissing sound, as in the English words, sing, sicve ; the other Un magistrat doit toujours juger
A magistrate should always judge is a much milder sound, as in the English words, cheese, fleas, suivant les lois, et conformément à in accordance with the laws and con- case, please, &c.
case, pleose, &c. The following general rules will be sufficient ce qu'elles prescrivent. formably to what they prescribe. for the present: Ishall state the exceptions more fully hereafter.
First, the sharp sound of this consonant may be said to be
the ruling sound, because it is heard in the greater number of 141.-REPETITION OF PREPOSITIONS.
syllables and words. I shall invariably mark it by the single
letter s; and wherever this is used, the reader will remember 1. The prepositions à, de, en, and sans, must be repeated that it represents the sharp, hissing sound of the letter, thus before every regimen, be it a noun, a pronoun, or a verb :- avoiding multiplicity of signs, which would be caused by using
ss. It has always the sharp, hissing sound in the beginning of Ce monde ci n'est qu'un loterie This world is but a lottery of a word before a vowel; as, for example, sale, pronounced sáhde biens, de rangs, de dignités, de goods, of ranks, of dignities, of lai, salt; sole, só-lai, the sun ; sempre, sêm-prai, always ; subito,
rights. L'éloquence est un art très Eloquence is a very important art, before the consonants e, f, 7, 9, and t; as, for example, in
860-bee-to, suddenly. It has also the sharp, hissing sound sérieux, destiné à instruire, à ré- destined to instruct, to repress pasprimer les passions, à corriger les sions, to correct manners,
sions, to correct manners, to support scaltro, skáhl-tro, shrewd; sforzo, sfôr-tzo, compulsion ; crespo, meurs, à soutenir les lois, &c. the laws, Sc.
krái-spo, crisp ; pasqua, páh-skwah, Eastor ; pasto, pah-sto, a FénéLon.
meal. It has also the sharp and hissing sound after the conTelle est la multitude, et sans Such is the multitude, without re- sonants l, r, and 9, and I may say a pre-eininently hard and frein et sans lois. LA HARPE. straint and without laws.
hissing sound in this case; as, for example, fulso, fáhl-so,
false ; corso, kórr-so), course; arso, úhrr-90), burnt; forse, fórr2. The other prepositions must also be repeated before every sai, perhaps ; pianse, peeahn'-sai
, he wept ; vinse, vín-sai, he noun, pronoun, or verh, unless the words used as regimens vanquished. In Rome, the sharpness of the s after I, n, and r, have a similarity of meaning; in which case the prepositions is generally so viry audible, that it almost amounts to the may be placed before the first regimen only, or before all, at utterance of a ts, as if the examples just given were written the option of the speaker :
with the hard - pronounced with the English sound in the
word Soitzer ; which, however, with all respect for the eternal Je vous donne ceci pour vous et I give you this for you and for city and the “ bocca Romana," I must pronounce to be a pour votre frère. your brother.
provincialism. Il perd sa jeunesse dans la mol- He wastes his youth in effeminacy lesse et (dans) la volupté. and voluptuousness.
Secondly, the milder sound of the s occurs generally when it is placed between two vowels. As the nearest possible
approach to it, I shall follow the practice of Mr. Walker in his § 142.-OESERVATIONS ON SEVERAL PREPOSITIONS,
English pronouncing dictionary, and mark it with a s; for ex
ample, avviso, ahv-rée-zo, opinion; guisa, gvée-za, guise, (1.) Arant marks a priority of time and place; --Devant means
manner; tesoro, tai-gô-ro, treasure; adsawa, oo-z6-rah, usury ; simply opposite, in front of :
sposa, spô-za, bride; accusa, ahk-kóo-zah, accusation; missric, I wall before you, i. e., I wall mee-zê-reeah, misery ; misura, mee-z60-rah, measuré. e marche avant vous,
carlier than you, or I have the pre- This rule is subject to several exceptions, the most important cedence of you in walking.
of which I must state here. Je marche devant vous. I walls in front of you.
Many Italian adjectives end in oso and osa, and whenever
before these terminations there is a vowel, the terminational s (2.) En, à, dans.---The sense of en is more indefinite, more has the sharp, hissing sound; as, for example, glorioso, proextensive than that of dans. En is generally used before the nounced glo-reeó-so, glorious; virtuoso, virr-tooó-80, virtuous; name of a division of the earth, a kingdom, &c., a before the tortuoso, torr-tooó-80, tortuous. name of a town, and dans before a word restricted by an article There are many compound words in Italian having the paror a determinative adjective:
ticles dis and is, and before consonants the final å of these
particles must have the sharp, hissing sound; as, for example, En Europe, en France, à Paris, In Europe, in France, in Paris, disposizione, pronounced dis-po-zee-tseeoʻ-nai, disposition ; disdans ma chambre. in my room.
misura, dis-mee-z60-rah, excess; (the reader will note in En Amérique ce sont les bisons In America the bisons have a the two foregoing words, that the s of the particle dis has the qui ont une bosse sur le dos. bunch on their back.
hissing sound, while the next s, placed between two vowels, BUFFON
follows the general rule, and has the mild sound); dispiacenza, Dans l'Amérique méridionale le In South America the ox was en.
dis-peeah-tchên-tsah, displeasure; discreditare, dis-krai-deebeuf était absolument inconnu, tirely unknown.
táh-rai, to discredit.
In the greatest part of compound words, where s begins the
syllable, it has the sharp, hissing sound; as, for example, (3.) Chez might be rendered in English by at the house of, proseguire, pro-sai-gwée-rai, continue; risolvere, ree-sôl-vai-rai, with, among, &c. :
to dissolve ; presumere, prái-sóc-mai-rai, to presume : risorgere, Che votre pére ; chez vous. At your father's; at your house. ree sorr-jai-rai, to rise again; trasustanziato, trah-800-stahn
La condition des comédiens était The condition of comedians was tseeá-to, transubstantiated. infame chez les Romains, et hono- | infamous among the Romans, and
There are other exceptions which I shall take occasion to rable chez les Grecs.
honourable with the Greeks. point out as examples occur. LA BRUYÈRE,
Further, s has the mild sound when it immediately precedes
IN NATURAL ORDER.
the consonants b, d, g, l, m, n, r, v; as, for example, sbarra, are just 80 written in Italian. They are nevertheless propronounced zbáhrr-rah, bar, barrier; suire, zdée-rai, to retract; nounced as if they were written Santippe and Santo. (The aguarda, zgwáhrr-do, look; slontanare, zlon-tah-náh-rai, to latter word has retained the x principally that it might not be remove'; simania, zmáh-neeah, madness; snervare, znerr-váh- confounded in writing with the word Santo, saint). rai, to unnerve; sradicare, zrah-dee-káh-rai, to eradicate ;
The letter y is always replaced in Italian by i ; as, for svelto, zvél-to, lively, clever, nimble, easy. I have stated that example, for physics (physical science), the Italians say fisica ; the particles dis and mis before consonants have the sharp, his
for stygian, stigio. sing sound. There is no deviation from this rule, and these particles retain the sharp, hissing sound even before the last
SECOND PRONOUNCING TABLE, mentioned consonants ; for example, disbandire, pronounced dis-bahn-dée-rai, to banish; disdire, dis-dee-rai, to retract; dis- SHOWING THE COMBINATION OF VOWELS WITH SEMI-POWELS gombrore, dis-gom-bráh-rai, to empty; disleole, dis-laiah-lai, disloyal, dismettere, dis-mét-tai-rai, to dislocate an arm, to
Pronounced. disnies (an affair); disnervare, dis-nerr-váh-rai, to unnerve;
English. disradicare, dis-rah-dee-káh-rai, to eradicate; disrenire, dis-vai- Fere
Beasts, fairs née-rai, to swoon; misgradito, mis-grah-dée-to, disagreeable; Refe
Jaws misleale, mis-laiáh-lai, disloyal; misvenire, mis-vai-née-rai, to Foce
I put to flight of the single s, but must be sounded with a sharp, hissing | Gufo
A horned owl sound; as, for example, fosso, pronounced fôs-s0, a ditch, a Lago
Lake canal; rosso, rós-so, red; posso, pós-so, I can.
Sun alphabet accu (pronounced ah’k-kah). According to its alpha
lée-tchai betical sound, and because its two syllables are substantially
It is permitted Celi tchê-lee
The heavens one, only placed inversely, it might be classed as a semi-vowel;
Praise but as it is only an auxiliary letter to modify the sounds of c
Delus and ý, as I shall have occasion to explain fully hereafter, it is a
Light mere scundless, written sign, not a letter. It also serves to dis- Lume
Mules tinguish the words ho, I have, from o, or; hai, thou hast, from Mule
Wild basil ci, dative plural of the article; ha, ne has, from a, the preposition Maro
Rome to ; and hanno, they have, from anno, the year. This distinction Roma
Month is, howercr, only for the eye, for in pronouncing, the h is quite Mese
Seed mute; and some purists, headed by Metastasio, instead of an h, Seme
The sight in artilput the grave accent in those first four words.
lery, aim The Italian has no aspirates, which essentially distinguishes
Branches it from the leading languages of Europe. Only in the middle,
Manner, mode and at the end of some few interjections, a kind of aspiration
Tamed is heard, which is only produced by the prolongation of the
I reconsider powel to another, principally, however, by a more emphatic
Ship emotion by which such interjections are thrown out; as, for Nare
Vein example, ah! ahi! deh! ahimè! eh! oh! ehi! ohi! ohimè!
Berenice, a woman's words manifestly of Latin origin with an initial h; as, for example, habile, noir abile; hinno, now inno; hora, row ora;
tchái-nee historia, now istoria. This insignificance of the h has given
Name rise to some proverbial expressions : as, " Questa cosa non rale
Less uz' acca, * this is not worth an h;" or, as an Englishman Meno
"Noni m'im “ not worth a fig or a farthing;
Nape of the neck Cuna koo-nah
Cradle porta un'ucce,'' “I don't care an h for it; or, as an Englishman
Thin, rare would say, "I don't care a straw for it;'
or, as is often
Surrenders (of said in England, "an iota of it.” When an Italian lias to pro
towns) nounce the h in another language, it is only with the greatest
Mr., Master difficulty he can master it.
Thou gildest 'something of the letters K, W, X, and Y, important letters in Dori
Property, victuals, English, but which do not occur in Italian.
merchandise, robe Instead of k, the Italians use before consonants and before
A cheat the vowels (1, 0, and 26, the letter c; and before the vowels e and Baro
Rude i, ch. For example, instead of Kalend, the Italians write Rude
With himself pound sound (ks), is unknown in pure Italian words, and the Seco English sound is never heard. In words of foreign origin, which would have this sound in English, the Italians place an
* That my pupil readers may thoroughly exercise themselves in 8 or ss, or c; as for the word example (from the Latin pronunciation, in order to give a complete illustration of the exemplum), the Italians write esempio; for extreme (from junction of vowels and semi-vowels, in natural order, I have Latin extrenius), they write estremo; for Xenophon, Senofonte ; selected words of two syllables, in which the tirst syllable of the for Xerxes, Serse; for Alexander, Alessandro. The letter c first word is the same as the concluding syllable of the second. replaces the x in words which are the compounds of the prefix
+ The vowel u in Italian, as a final letter, is only to be found in ex, when c follows it; for example, for excellent, they write monosyllables ; as, tre, thou ; fu, was; or in those words that have eccellente; for excess, eccesso, &c. Custom has, however, the grave accent on the last syllable; as, virtù, virtize; Corfis, sanctioned the use of the x in a few words of Greek origin, Corfu. I am therefore compelled, by the use of the word gufo, and for Xantippe and Xanto (Xanthus, the river in Asia Minor) others to follow, to depart from the strict system,
"Non ne saper