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1. A present participle used as a noun; as, He accused the boys of fighting.
2. A present participle and a noun; as, He accused the soldiers of being cowards.
3. A present combined with a past participle; as, He accused the soldiers of having been cowards.
4. A clause of a sentence or a phrase; as, He accused the troops of having acted in a cowardly manner.
In the following example, many words, combining to form a substantive clause, stand as the object to the preposition above; within the clause is a minor clause dependent on the preposition of:—
“A quick wit and a nice judgment could not raise this man above being received only upon the foot of contributing to mirth and diversion.” —Steele. This, however, is a form of a sentence which cannot be recommended for imitation.
Prepositions in general stand before the nouns they govern, but by poetic license they may be placed after ; e.g.,
“Wild Carron’s lonely woods among.”—Langhorne.
In verbs used with separable prepositions, the preposition, when separated, may stand after its object, and even at the end of the Sentence :“This you pride yourself upon and this you are ruined by.”
In some phrases the preposition follows the noun; e. g., “Civil and religious liberty all the world over.”
An affectation of elegance, which was devoid of a knowledge of the Teutonic idiom of our language, led Dr. Blair, and has led a host of blind imitators, to proscribe what that superficial critic with little accuracy called “splitting of particles,” which he declares “is always to be avoided ; ” he gives as an instance this Sentence :“Though virtue borrows no assistance from, yet it may often be accompanied by, the advantages of fortune.” Yet it is certain that sentences so formed are sanctioned by the highest authority ; e. g., “To suppose the zodiac and planets to be efficient of and antecedent to themselves.”—Bentley. The sense may require two prepositions used in combination ; e. g., ! “And from before the lustre of her face White break the clouds away.”—Thompson. Ellipses of prepositions have given rise to idiomatic phrases; e.g., We rode (over) sixty miles (on) that day. This looks very like (to) a paradox. Like, near, nect, and other adjectives and adverbs, are used with an object immediately dependent on them :“And earthly power doth then show likest God’s When mercy seasons justice.”—Shakspeare. Care must be taken not to confound prepositions with adverbs, especially with regard to the words which are used both ways. Before is an instance; e.g., Adverb: She entered before. Preposition: She entered before me.
You may ascertain whether in any particular case before (and similar words) is an adverb or preposition by considering what it goes with, a verb or a noun; e.g.,
The king came near.
The king came near the city. In the first place, near does no more than qualify came ; in the second, near governs the city.
The prepositions between and among have specific meanings, and
should be used accordingly. Between (twain, two) is by two, that is, two individuals, or two sets or classes of individuals. Amony denotes distribution to several :—
He divided the apple between his brother and sister. He divided the apples among the children.
Among differs from in in this, that while among denotes distri
In fig. 16, let A B C be a triangle, and let its side B c be produced to D. The exterior angle A C D is greater than either of the interior opposite angles C B A and B.A. C.
Bisect (I. 10) A C in E, join B E and produce it to F. Make E F equal (I. 3) to B E. Join F c.
Because A E is equal (Const.) to E c, and B E (Const.) to E F; therefore in the triangles A E B and c E F, the two sides A. E. and E B of the one, are equal to the two IB sides C E and E F of the other, each to each. But the angle A E B is equal (I. 15) to the angle cre F, because they are vertical angles. G. Therefore the base A B is equal (I. 4) to the base C F, the triangle A B B to the triangle C E F, and the remaining angles of the one to the remaining angles of the other, each to each, viz., those to which the equal sides are opposite. Wherefore the angle B A E is equal to the angle E c F. But the angle E CI) is greater (Aa. 9) than the angle E C F. Therefore the angle A C D is greater than the angle B.A. E. In the same manner, if the side B C be bisected, and A C be produced to G, it may be demonstrated that the angle B c G is greater than the angle A B C. But the angle A G D is equal (I. 15) to the angle B ce. Therefore the angle A C D is greater than the angle A B C. Therefore, if one side, &c. Q. E. D.
Scholium.—The student should, for the sake of practice, write out the demonstration of the second part here alluded to ; otherwise, the truth of the proposition will not be so completely fixed in his mind. A new axiom is taken for granted in the demonstration of this and some subsequent propositions, viz., If two things be equal to one another, and the one be greater than a third, so is the other.
EXERCISE TO PROPOSITION XVI.
From a point without a straight line, only one perpendicular can be drawn to it.
In fig. T, let A be a point without the straight line B C ; only one perpendicular can be drawn from the A point A to the straight line B c.
From the point A, by Prop. XII., draw A D perpendicular to B C ; then no other straight line but A D, drawn from the point A, can be perpendicular to B C.
For if possible, let A E drawn from the point A be perpendicul, to B C. Because in the triangle A D E, the straight line A D is perpendicular to B c, the angle A D E is a right angle; for the same reason, the angle A E B is a right angle ; therefore, by Axiom XI., the angle
A R B is equal to the angle A DE, that is, the exterior angle equal to the interior and opposite angle ; but by Prop. XVI, the exterior, angle is greater than the interior and opposite angle; therefore, the angle A E B is both equal to, and greater than, the angle A DE, which is impossible. Wherefore the straight line A E is not perpendicular to B C ; and in the same way it may be shown that no other straight line but A B can be perpendicular to B c. Therefore. from a point without a stright line, &c. Q. E. D.”
Corollary 1.--If from any point without a given straight line two straight lines be drawn, one perpendicular to it, and the other not, the perpendicular will be on that side of the straight line which is not perpendicular, where it makes the acute angle with the given straight line.
Corollary 2. — The two equal angles of an isosceles triangle are both acute angles.
Corollary 3,-Only two equal straight lines can be drawn to another straight line from a given point without it.
Corollary 4.—A circle cannot cut a straight line in more points than two. PROPOSITION XVII.—THEOREM.
Any two angles of a triangle are together less than two right angles.
In fig. 17, let A B C be any triangle; any two of its angles are together less than two right angles.
Produce B C to D. Because A CD is the exterior angle of the triangle A B C, the angle A c D is greater (I. 16) than the interior and opposite angle A B C. To B C each of these unequals, add the angle T) A ch. Therefore the two angles A CD and A C B, are greater (Aa). 4) than the two angles A B C and A.C. B. But the two angles A c D and A c B are together equal (I. 3) to two right angles. Therefore the two angles AB C and B CA are together less than two right angles. In like manner, it may be demonstrated, that the two angles B A C and A C B, as also the two angles c A B and A B C, are together less than two right angles. Therefore, any two angles, &c. Q. E. D.
FXERCISE. I. TO PROPOSITION XVII.
Fig. 17. -A
*e three interior angles of any triangle are together less than #ree right &ngles.
In fig. 17, let A B C be any triangle, its three interior angles A B c, Bc A, and c A B are together less than three right angles.
For, by Prop. XVII., the two angles A B C and B C A are together less than two right angles; the two angles B C A and c A B are together less than two right angles ; and the two angles. c A B and A B C are together less than two right angles ; therefore, in all, the three angles A B C, B C A, and C A B taken twice are less than six right angles; wherefore, the three angles A B C, B CA, and c A B taken once are less than three right angles. Therefore, the three interior angles, &c. Q. E. D.f
Scholium.—Here there is evidently a new axiom implied in the demonstration, namely, that the halves of unequals are unequal, and that the inequality remains, after halving, on the same side as it did before halving. Another mode of demonstration proposed by T. Bocock, Great Warley, is this: That as every exterior angle with its corresponding interior is equal to two right angles, so all the three exterior angles with their corresponding interior angles are together equal to six right angles; but by Prop. XVII. every exterior angle is greater than its opposite interior angle, therefore all the exterior angles together are greater than all their corresponding interior angles together. But all the interior angles together with their corresponding interior angles are equal to six right angles, therefore all the interior angles are together less than three right angles, and consequently all the exterior angles are:
greater than three right angles; thus the following exercise is partially anticipated. EXERCISE II. TO PROPOSITION XVII.
The two exterior angles of every triangle are together greater than two right angles; and the three exterior anyles of every triangle are together greater than the three right angles.
In fig. 17, let A B C be any triangle; any two exterior angles of this triangle are together greater than two right angles; and all the three exterior angles are together greater than three right angles.
Tor every exterior angle, together with its adjacent interior angle, is equal to two right angles, therefore, any two exterior angles, together with their adjacent interior angles, are equal to four right angles; but, any two interior angles are together less tion two right angles, by Prop. XVII. ; therefore their two exterior angles are together greater than two right angles. Again, the three exterior angles, together with their adjacent interior angles, are together equal to six right angles; but in the preceding exercise it was shown that the three interior angles of any triangle are less than three right angles; therefore, the three exterior angles are greater than three right angles.
Scholom.—This demonstration depends on the axiom, that if two unequal quantities are together equal to a given quantity, and if one of the unequal quantities be less than half of the given quantity, the other of the unequal quantities must be greater than half of the given quantity.
JPROPOSITION XVIII.-T II.E.O.R.E.M.
The greater side of every triangle is opposite to the greater angle. In fig. 18, let A B C be a triangle, of which the side A c is greater than the side A B ; the angle A B C is greater than the angle B C A. From A C the greater, cut off by Prop. III. the part AD equal to the less AB; bisect the angle B A D, by Prop. IX., by the straight line A E, meeting B C in E ; and join E p. Because, in the two triangles A B E and AD E, the side A D is equal to the
| side A B, by construction, and the side
A E is common to both triangles,
therefore the two sides A B and A E in the triangle A BE, are equal to the two sides A D and A E in the triangle A. D. E.; and the angle B A E is equal to the angle D A E, by construction; therefore, by Prop. TV, the base B E is equal to the base D B, and the angle A B E to the angle A D E. But, by Prop. XVI., the exterior angle A DE of the triangle D E G is greater than the interior D ce: ;
wherefore, also, the angle A B E is greater than the angle D c E;
therefore, in the triangle A B C, the angle A B C is greater than the angle B G A. Wherefore, the greater side of every triangle, &c. Q. E. D. * Scholium.—This demonstration is different from Euclid's, and preferable to it, on account of its being more direct, and not requiring the d fortiori argument. Corollary.—One side of a triangle is greater than, equal to, or less than another, according as the angle opposite to the former is greater than, equal to, or less than the angle opposite to the latter. In Cassell's Euclid this corollary is misplaced, as it is there attached to the 19th proposition; and the corollary there attached to the 18th should be appended to the 19th. This misplacement was pointed out by Mr. G. Williams, Bristol.
“Of curious arts, art thou more fond P then mark
* This exercise was solved by T. Bogock, Great War;ey : Q gistin PRINGLE, Glasgow; J. H. EAST woop, Middleton; R. B. N. isoss, Canberwell; and others,
The rules which we have given [$92, (1.) (2.) note, and § 133] with regard to the regimen or government of verbs and adjectives, apply also to prepositions. When two prepositions require the same regimen, it is useless to repeat this regimen after each one, but if they require a different regimen, it is necessary to give to each its proper object. It would, therefore, be incorrect to say, Un magistrat doit toujours juger suiyant et conformément aux lois:—A magistrate should always judge in accordance with, and conformably to, the laws; because the preposition suivant governs the noun in the régime direct, that is without the aid of another preposition, and conformémeot governs the noun in the régime indirect by means of d. We should say:—
At your father's ; at your house.
The condition of comedians was infamous among the Romans, and honourable with the Greeks.
LESSONS IN ITALIAN GRAMMAR.—No. IV.
By CHARLES TAUSENAU, M.D.,
Of the University of Pavia, and Professor of the German and Italian Languages at the Kensington Proprietary Grammar School.
(Continued from p. 42.)
6. S, named in the alphabet esse (pronounced es-sai). This consonant has considerable variations, and is one of the most difficult to pronounce throughout correctly, for even in Italy there are variations. An irreproachable pronunciation of this consonant can only be acquired by closely marking its utterance in all its shades by Italians who speak purely. Speaking generally, there are two leading sounds. One is a sharp, hissing sound, as in the English words, sing, sieve ; the other is a much milder sound, as in the English words, cheese, fleas, ease, please, &c. The following general rules will be sufficient for the present: Ishall state the exceptions more fully hereafter.
First, the sharp sound of this consonant may be said to be the ruling sound, because it is heard in the greater number of syllables and words. I shall invariably mark it by the single letter s; and wherever this is used, the reader will remember that it represents the sharp, hissing sound of the letter, thus avoiding multiplicity of signs, which would be caused by using ss. It has always the sharp, hissing sound in the beginning of a word before a vowel; as, for example, sale, pronounced sáh.” lai, salt; sole, sá-lai, the sun ; sempre, sém-prai, always; Subito, sóo-bee-to, suddenly. It has also the sharp, hissing sound before the consonants c, f, p, g, and t, as, for example, in scaltro, Skåhl-tro, shrewd ; sforzo, sför-tzo, compulsion ; crespo, krāi-spo, crisp ; pasqua, pâh-skwah, FastCr; pasto, pâh-sto, a meal. It has also the sharp and hissing sound after the consonant c l, n, and 7", and I may say a pre-eminently hard and hissing sound in this case; as, for example, fusso, fåhl-So, false; corso, kórr-so, course; arso, ährr-so, burnt; forse, förrsai, perhaps; pianse, peeahn'-sai, he wept ; winse, win-sai, he vanquished. In Rome, the sharpness of the s after l, n, and r, is generally so very audible, that it almos, amounts to the utterance of a ts, as if the examples just given were written with the hard 2 pronounced with the English sound in the word Switzer; which, however, with all respect for the eternal city and the “bocca Romana,” I must pronounce to be a provincialism. Secondly, the milder sound of the s occurs generally when it is placed between two vowels. As the nearest possible approach to it, I shall follow the practice of Mr. Walker in his English pronouncing dictionary, and mark it with a g; for example, avviso, ahv-vée-zo, opinion; guisa, gvée-za, guise, manner; tesoro, tai-zó-ro, treasure; usura, oo-zó-rah, usury; sposa, spö-za, bride; accusa, ahk-kóo-zah, accusation ; mistrict, mee-zè-reeah, misery ; mist/ra, mee-zóo-rah, measure. This rule is subject to several exceptions, the most important of which I must state here. Many Italian adjectives end in oso and osa, and whenever before these terminations there is a vowel, the terminational s has the sharp, hissing sound ; as, for example, glorioso, pronounced glo-reed-so, glorious; virtuoso, virr-tood-so, virtuous; tortuoso, torr-tooë-so, tortuous. There are many compound words in Italian having the particles dis and mis, and before consonants the final s of these particles must have the sharp, hissing sound; as, for example, disposizione, pronounced dis-po-zee-tseeo"-nai, disposition; dismisura, dis-mee-zóo-rah, excess; (the reader will note in the two foregoing words, that the s of the particle dis has the hissing sound, while the next 8, placed between two vowels, follows the general rule, and has the mild sound); displacenza, dis-peeah-tehén-tsah, displeasure; discreditare, dis-krai-deetāh-raj, to discredit. In the greatest part of compound words, where s begins the syllable, it has the sharp, hissing sound; as, for example, proseguire, pro-sai-gwée-rai, continue; risolvere, ree-sól-vai-rai, to dissolve ; presumere, prāi-S60-mai-rai, to presume: risorgere, ree sórr-jai-rai, to rise again; trasustanziato, trah-soo-stahntseeč-to, transubstantiated. There are other exceptions which I shall take occasion to point out as examples occur.
Further, 8 has the mild sound when it immediately precedes
the consonants b, d, g, l, m, n, r, w; as, for example, sbarra, pronounced zbahrr-rah, bar, barrier; sólire, zdée-rai, to retract; sguarda, zgwāhrr-do, look; slontanare, zlon-tah-nāh-rai, to remove; Smania, zmáh-neeah, madness; snervare, Znerr-vāhrai, to unnerve; sradicare, zrah-dee-kāh-rai, to eradicate; swelto, zvél-to, lively, clever, nimble, easy. I have stated that the particles dis and mis before consonants have the sharp, hissing sound. There is no deviation from this rule, and these particles retain the sharp, hissing sound even before the lastmentioned consonants; for example, disbandire, pronounced dis-bahn-dee-rai, to banish; disdire, dis-dee-rai, to retract; disgombrare, dis-gom-brāh-rai, to empty; disleale, dis-laiāh-lai, disloya; ; dismettere, dis-mét-tai-rai, to dislocate an arm, to dismiss (an affair); disnervare, dis-nerr-váh-rai, to unnerve; disradicare, dis-rah-dee-kāh-rai, to eradicate; discentre, dis-vainée-rai, to swoon; misgradito, mis-grah-dee-to, disagreeable; 'mislease, mis-laiāh-lai, disloyal; misvenire, mis-vai-née-rai, to 3WOOIl, When: ss is between two vowels, it does not follow the rule of the single s, but must be sounded with a sharp, hissing sound; as, for example, fosso, pronounced fos-So, a ditch, a canal; rosso, rös-so, red; posso, pós-so, I can. I have not yet spoken of the letter H. It is named in the alphabet acca (pronounced ah'k-kah). According to its alphabetical sound, and because its two syllables are substantially one, only placed inversely, it might be classed as a semi-vowel; but as it is only an auxiliary letter to modify the sounds of e and y, as I shall have occasion to explain fully hereafter, it is a mere soundless, written sign, not a letter. It also serves to distinguish the words ho, I have, from 0, or ; hai, thou hast, from ai, dative plural of the article; ha, ne has, from a, the preposition to ; and hanno, they have, from anno, the year. This distinction is, however, only for the eye, for in pronouncing, the h is quite mute; and some purists, headed by Metastasio, instead of an h, put the grave accent in those first four words.
The Italian has no aspirates, which essentially distinguishes it from the leading languages of Europe. Only in the middle, and at the end of some few interjections, a kind of aspiration is heard, which is only produced by the prolongation of the sound of the vowel, or of the transition of the voice from one vowel to another, principally, however, by a more emphatic emotion by which such interjections are thrown out; as, for example, ah ahi deh ahimè eh oh! ehi ! ohi ! ohimè. doh
In the early period of the language, the Italians wrote all words manifestly of Latin origin with an initial h; as, for example, habile, now abile; hinno, now inno; hora, now ora; historia, now istoria. This insignificance of the h has given rise to some proverbial expressions: as, “Questa cosa non vale wn' acca,” “this is not worth an h; ” or, as an Englishman would say, “not worth a fig or a farthing; ” or “Non m'importa un'acca,” “I don't care an h for it; ” or, as an Englishman would say, “I don’t care a straw for it; ” or “Non ne saper wn' acca, “not to know an h of something; ” or, as is often said in England, “an iota of it.” When an Italian has to pronounce the h in another language, it is only with the greatest difficulty he can master it. . To complete my remarks on the alphabet, I must now say something of the letters IX, W, X, and Y, important letters in English, but which do not occur in Italian.
Instead of k, the Italians use before consonants and before the vowels a, o, and w, the letter c; and before the vowels e and 2, ch. For example, instead of Kalend, the Italians write Calende.
The English letter w does not occur at all in Italian.
The letter X, which represents properly speaking a com#. sound (ks), is unknown in pure Italian words, and the
glish sound is never heard. In words of foreign origin, which would have this sound in English, the Italians place an s or ss, or c ; as for the word example (from the Latin exemplum), the Italians write esempio; for extreme (from latin extremus), they write estremo; for Xenophon, Semofonte; for Xerxes, Serse; for Alexander, Alessandro. The letter c replaces the a. in words which are the compounds of the prefix ex, when c follows it; for example, for excellent, they write evcellente; for excess, eccesso, &c. Custom has, however, sanctioned the use of the as in a few words of Greek origin, for Xantippe and Xanto (Xanthus, the river in Asia Minor)
Italian. Pronounced. English.
Fere fé-raio Beasts, fairs
Refe rāi-fai Thread
Foce fö-tchai Jaws
Cefo tehé-fo A monke
Fugo föo-go I put to flight
Gufo góo-for A horned owl
Lago lâh-go Lake
Gola gó-lah Throat
Leso laí-zo Hurt
Sole só-lai Sun
Lice lée-tchai It is permitted
Ce!? tehé-lee The heavens
Lode 16-dai Praise
Delo dé-lo Delus
Luine 1óo-mai Light
Mule móo-lai Mules
Maro mâh-ro Wild basil
Roma ró-mah Rome
Mese- Ināi-zai Month
Seme Sāi-mai Seed
Mira mee-rah The sight in artillery, aim
Ram: rāh-mee Branches
Modo mö-do Manner, mode
Domo dó-mo Tamed
Muro móo-ro Wall
R&ino rôo-mo I reconsider
Nave nāh-wai Ship
Pena vái-mah Wein
Nera, nāi-rah Negress
Rame rāh-nai * Frogs
Nice née-tchai Berenice, a woman's Ilal Ilê
Cent tehāi-nee . Thou suppest
IWome nó-mai Name
Meno mâi-no Less
Muca, nóo-kah Nape of the neck
Cuna kóo-nah Cradle
Rado rāh-do Thin, rare
Jora dó-rah He gilds
Rese rāi-zai Surrenders (of towns)
Sere sé-rai Mr., Master
Rido rée-do I laugh
JDori dó-ree Thou gildest
Roba rö-bah Property, victuals, merchandise, robe
Paro bâh-ro A cheat *.
Rude rôo-dai Bude
Dure dôo-rai Durations
Sara sāh-rah Sarah
Basa rāh-Zah Erased
Seco sāi-ko With himself
* That my pupil readers may thoroughly exercise themselves in pronunciation, in order to give a complete illustration of the junction of vowels and semi-vowels, in natural order, I have selected words of two syllables, in which the first syllable of the first word is the same as the concluding syllable of the second.
+ The vowel w in Italian, as a final letter, is only to be found in monosyllables; as, tu, thou ; fu, was ; or in those words that have the grave accent on the last, syllable; as, virtù, virtue; Coryū, Corfu. I am therefore compelled, by the use of the word gufo, and others to follow, to depart from the strict system,