Εικόνες σελίδας
Ηλεκτρ. έκδοση

being taken of the proper diameter, its edge is sharpened by a it remains to attach the length of India-rubber tubing to the few rubs of the file, and pressed against the cork under con- tobacco-pipe shank, and a few inches of glass tubing to that of tinuous rotatory motion, when it soon penetrates through the India-rubber, so that eventually an apparatus may result of the central core, escaping through the tube itself. As there is following shape, where a represents the point of attachment some little chance, however, that the side of the cork where the between the India-rubber tube, and tobacco-pipe shank; and. hole emerges may assume a ragged aspect, it is better to conimence the operation at une end of the cork, then without

Fig. 4. penetrating quite through withdraw the borer, and recommence at the other end, thus causing the operation to terminate in the middle. If the aperture be clean and smooth it may be considered finished ; if it be rugged and uneven, how. ever, it will require trimming with the rat’s-tail file. The aperture being made, we nowy come to the insertion of the tobacco-pipe shank, a matter of much siinplicity ; one would think that no special instructions were necessary. It is not 80:-—the operation requires to be set about in a systematic way; and although in this case, the operator might succeed after many attempts, and tobacco-pipes being cheap enough, these numerous attempts might be made without the objection of great expense; yet considering the necessity for performing similar operations under modified circumstances to which the a'the point of attachment between the latter, and the associated objection of expense and many others would strongly apply, glass tube. * Perhaps it is scarcely necessary to indicate that . it is better to cultivate the right habit at once. Remember, round or oval glass flasks will not stand upright without some then, tobacco-pipes and glass tubes are not like metal rods. kind of support; they may require to be supported whilst exWe cannot fit them tightly, by violently twisting, turning, and posed to heat or after removal from heat. In the former case pushing, nevertheless we must fit them air-tight. Our object rings or triangles are usually employed, attached to a vertical is accomplished by easing them in, to use a popular but an stand, and capable of elevation or depression (fig. 5). Instruexpressive word. I'heir accuracy of adjustment is secured by ments of this kind can be procured ready made, but every paying attention to various little circumstances of detail. I, experimenter possessed of moderate ingenuity can prepare them then, the end of the tobacco-pipe shank be ragged, as it most or their substitutes for himself. A carpet-rod, around onelikely will be, rub off those rigged inequalities by mtans of a extremity of which has been cast a block of lead, answers perfile. Had we been concerned with a thin glass tube instead fectly, and the rings may be made of stout iron wire, as: of a tobacco-pipe, the better plan of treatment would have represented in fig. 6. consisted in melting the extreme end of the saine by holding it for a few instants in the flame of a spirit-lamp or a jet or


[ocr errors]
[merged small][graphic][merged small][graphic][ocr errors][ocr errors]

Our present operations having reference to clay, not glass, we have not this resource; but on the other hand a tobacco.

An examination of the mechanical conditions to which the pipe shank is stronger than a glass tube, in consideration of wire ring is subjected will prove that it requires no screw of which I have chosen it, otherwise a piece of glass tube would other contrivance for fixing, when moderate weights have to have answered the purpose equally well.

be supported. Having finished the attachment of the tobacco-pipe shank,

Matters are now ready for the commencement of our operawe now come to the attachment of the cork itself, which is tions. The subject of this lesson is zinc, but it is iron which effected by accurate filing, a slightly conical form being im- must first claim our attention. We require to effect a cornbiparted to the cork, in order that it may tightly fit with the nation of this metal with sulphur, in order that something may minimum of pressure. This precaution is especially requisite be made where with certain properties of the zinc may be when a thin necked flask has to be corked. In this case a tested. The combination of sulphur with iron is called sulvery slight amount of pressure will infallibly break the neck phuret of iron, occasionally the sulphide of iron, and let the of the flask.

reader well remember that The cork I will now assume to have been accurately adapted, oy filing, to its orifice; but it is hard and rigid. Corks may be softened by immersion in boiling water, a treatment which will answer all present ends; but cases frequently present

A SULPHate. themselves when a cork, forming part of a chemical apparatus, must be absolutely dry, under which circumstances it must be the termination ide or urct express the same compound, but the softened by immersion in hot sand, or more extemporaneously, terminations ite and ate express two different compounds ; difbut less rapidly, by holding it for a few seconds in the flame ferent not only as niaterially becween themselves, but as. of a spirit-lamp. Having completed the arrangeinents to the extent described,

* The a to the right in the cut should be a'.




[ocr errors]

is not

or a

between themselves collectively and a sulphuret or sulphide. I a proper substitute must be found to take its place, and hence What is the difference? No matter. That point will come under the terms water-bath, oil-bath, &c. consideration by-and-by; we are not now treating of sulphur compounds, but of the metal zinc. If the collateral facts just

Fig. 7. mentioned choose to attach themselves to the learner's memory, well and good ; if not, let them pass, they will be made to attach themselves in the sequel. Sometimes, however, when one gives a collateral fact on the understanding that it may stick

[merged small][graphic]

A sand-bath consists of an iron dish (a saucepan answers very well) containing sand, and hung or rested over any convenient source of heat. A few pieces of lighted charcoal supply a very convenient source of heat; and by putting the lighted charcoal into a perforated earthenware flower-pot, strengthened by banding with copper or iron wire, we gain all the advantages of a fumace; a temporary grating may readily be made of strong wire, and the pots, pans, and other vessels to be heated may be supported on triangles of hoop iron, fig. 8.

Fig. 8.

[ocr errors]

in the brain or take flight just as best suits its own good pleasure, it sticks there all the firiner. I always give collateral facts an option of this kind. To affect the union of sulphur with iron, in other words, to make sulphuret of iron, it is imerely necessary to bring a white-hot bar of iron in contact with a roll of sulphur; then the iron drops into melted globules which seem like iron itself, but which in reality are a compound of iron and sulphur, and weigh heavier than the iron by the weight of the sulphur wherewith they have combined. The greater number of metals can be made to combine with sulphur, by a similar treatment to that now described, and, indeed, perhaps the act or combination just effected may have presented itself to the reader's attention under the aspect of natural magic. To melt a nail in a walnut-shell, is a proposition often constituting the subject of a wager. The learner now sees The preceding diagram represents a furnace of this kind, how that wager might be won. A nail being heated to white which may be worked on a table, the latter being protected ness, is dropped into a walnut-shell containing sulphur, when from heat by the intervention of a Welch tile or flat stone. Prothe fusion of the nail immediately takes place.

bably the_furnace will crack, owing to the intense heat Let the sulphuret of iron thus resulting be transferred to a within. It is, however, none the worse for this accidentbottle labelled Sulphuret of Iron, and put away,—we shall the binding wires prevent all separation between the various require it presently. We will now return to the zinc solution, pieces of which the furnace is composed; and, in short, the which has been so long neglected that the student may fear furnace is no less useful than before. the original subject of the lesson has been forgotten. Not so. Supposing the solution of zinc in oil of vitriol and water to Every point expatiated on, everything done, has had reference be placed in a saucer or porcelain dish, specially made for the to the inetal zinc.

purpose, under the name of evaporating dish ; supposing the I have already said that the metallic zinc employed remains solution and its dish to be embedded in the sand-bath, and in the solution; the next point, then, is to ascertain the con- the latter placed on its hoop-iron tripod over a fire, heat will ditions it has assumed, and this information may be obtained rapidly penetrate the sand,' and evaporation will ensue. If by driving off the liquid in which it is dissolved. This is the solution were to be evaporated very slowly, the saucer or accomplished by the application of heat, which, causing the pan would eventually contain white crystals. If, however, liquid to become steam or vapour, the latter is driven off, and the evaporation be more rapidly pushed, then crystals do not all bodies contained in the liquid, not capable of assuming appear, but a white confused mass. I suppose the latter to this vaporous condition, necessarily remain.

be the case. As soon as evaporation is complete, and the The application of heat in many processes of evaporation residue has become thoroughly dry, remove the saucer from and distillation requires many precautions. For the most part the sand-bath, allow it to cool, and when cold dissolve the naked fires are ineligible; frequently a sand-bath is the best evaporated material in distilled water. The liquid now returns means of applying heat, and it is the source of heat we shall to the state in which it originally was before evaporation, with employ now, fig. 7; but occasionally the heat capable of this difference, any excess of oil of vitriol orer and above the being imparted by sand would be injuriously high, hencel quantity necessary to dissolve the zinc, has been hiver away

by evaporation Pour the solution now into a wine-glass, and of the zinc has been effected, is a very offensive gas. It is, proceed as follows:

however, soluble in water, which solution is less offensive Into the Florence flask put about half an ounce of the than the gas itself, and sufficient for many purposes. Before, sulphuret of iron, broken small (about the size of peas); add therefore, disposing of our apparatus, iet us make a solution. a mixture of six parts by measure of water, and one part by Begin by taking out the terminal glass tube from the India measure of oil of vitriol: quickly replace the cork of the rubber, supply a clean glass tube in its place, and proceed as Florence Alask, and dip the end of the glass tube into the follows :vessel containing the zinc solution. From the contents of the Florence flask a very offensive, but at the same time a very

Pig. ll. useful gas will pass ;-it is called sulphuretted hydrogen, or hydro-sulphuric acid. The general disposition of the apparatus is represented in the accompanying wood-cut, fig. 9.


Fig. 9.

[ocr errors]


Observe now the result. The zinc solution immediately the vessel is about two-thirds full, then cause the gas to pass

Pour into the four-ounce phial cold distilled water, until deposits a white powder, and no other metal, except zinc, wouid, under the conditions of our experiment, have deposited'a white through it in bubbles – the operator agitating the bottle frepowder. Thus arises a most important addition to our know. quently, fig. 11. Continue the operation until the water refuses ledge concerning zinc. To obtain this white powder, which to dissolve any further portion of gas, which may be known by is called sulphuret of zinc, being a compound of sulphur and firmly, pressing the thumb against its mouth ; agitate briskly.

removing the bottle from the table on which it stands; grasp it zinc,--to obtain this white compound, I say, is the object to If the water be not yet satisfied, it will endeavour to suck in which

all our care and attention have been directed...all our the thumb, fig. 12. Give it, therefore, more gas, and when cork-boring, and furnace-making energies, brought into play,, fully charged, label it thus" Hydro-sulphuric Acid Solution,”

Perhaps some chemical beginner may think the result hardly justifies the trouble with which it has been achieved. and set it aside, fig. 13. Not so ; the result is all important, as will soon be perceived.

Fig. 12.

Fig. 13, One instance of its importance, slightly anticipating another part of our subject, I will now give.

Zinc is readily thrown down out of its solution in oil of vitriol and water, by transmitting through it a current of sulphuretted hydrogen gas, as we have seen. Most other metals are also capable of being thrown down by this gas, bút iron is one of a few exceptions. Hence, supposing iron and zinc had both been dissolved in oil of vitriol and water, and the proposition had been to separate the iron from the zinc, this might readily have been effected by pouring through the mixed solution a stream of sulphuretted hydrogen gas, which would have thrown down the zinc, but left the iron,

We have not quite left the zinc yet. We shall return to it hereafter; meantime, let the wine-glass be labelled “ Sulphuret of Zinc," covered with a pane of glass to protect it from dust, and set aside, fig. 10.



Fig. 10.




WHILE the subject of a proposition may agree with a qualifying

adjective and a limiting or defining article, it specially agrees with ZINC

the verb. The agreement is of two kinds, one of form, another of substance; one flexional, another logical.

We may express these facts differently, by saying that if the verb is in the plural number, its subject must be in the plural number; and if the subject is in the plural number, in the plural number must the verb be. In other words, both subject and verb take the same condition; and this is what I mean by stating that the subject and the verb must agree. Avoid, therefore, the error common with uneducated people, of joining together subjects and verbs of different numbers. This error most commonly consists in omitting the s where it should be placed, namely, in the third per

son singular, and putting the s where it should not be placed, The student will have noticed that the sulphuretted hydro- namely, in the third person plural. I subjoin the present tense : gem, or hydro-sulphuric acid gas, by which the throwing down in its


you loves


we love you love


It is she, it is he, it is they, it is w2.


Apposition may be regarded as a case of a compound sentence, 1. I loves

we loves

and so might bave been reserved until we treat of that part of our 2. thou loves

subject. Thus, in the instance 3. he love

they loves

“ But he, our gracious master, kind as just."--Barbaula.

may be written out in full in this way: 1. I love

He who is our gracions master and who is kind and just. 2. thou lovest


they love

The master and mistress is going to town. I loves to see boje In the third person singular and plural, nouns may take the at play. The consequence of your follies are that you will be

miserable. To die and to be no more is not the same thing. You place of pronouns ; thus, we say, Pronours :

gives the children too many sweetmeats. Let thou and I serve drinks

they they drink


the Almighty. Nouns : the man drinks the men drink the women drink

“Do not think such a man as me contemptible for my garb."The subject and the verb then must be in the same person. Addison. Now the only person that ends in s is the third person; conse

“ His wealth and him bid adieu to each other,"-Priestley. quently, an š put to the verb in any other person is an

" The Jesuits had more interest at court than him.-Smollett. ungrammatical addition.

We sorrow not as them that have no hope.”-Matarin. In general, then, the rule is this :

"A stone is heavy and the sand weighty ; bat a fool's wrath is The subject and the verb must be in the same number and person ; heavier than them both.”—(Prov. xxvii. 3.) or, to state the same fact differently, the subjects and their verb must

“ Better leave undone, than by our deeds acquire agree in number and person.

Too high a fame, when him we serve 's away.”-Shakspeare. Nouns of multitude, i, e., nouns signifying many, take their verbs “Now therefore come, let us make a covenant, I and thou."-(Gen. in the plural.

xxxi. 44 ) When, however, the idea of one predominates, that is, when you “ Yet I supposed it necessary to send to you Epaphroditus, my regard the object spoken of as a whole, and not as consisting of brother, and companion in labour, and fellow-soldier, but your mesparts, then a collective noun requires its verb to be in the singular senger, and he that ministered to my wants.—(Philipp. ii. 25.) number; as,

“ Amid the tumult of the routed train,
The Parliament was dissolved; but

The song of false Antimacbus were slain ;
The People were admitted to the Queen's presence ;

He, who for bribes his faithless counsels sold,

And voted Helen's stay for Paris' gold."-Pope's Iliad. for the word people gives the idea of many persons.

“ The first, the court baron, is the freeholders' or freemen's court." -Nouns are of the third person. But some grammarians have

Coke. ascribed all the three persons to nouns. In only one form of con

“ The angels adoring of Adam is also mentioned in the Talmud.”_ struction, however, namely, the form that bears the name of

Sale apposition, can nouns have a first, a second, as well as a third

" It was necessary to have both the physician and the surgeon's person ; e. gore

advice."--Cooper. Nours in the first person: It is I, your old friend.

"And love's and friendship's finely-pointed dart second Thou, the man of my heart.

Falls blunted from each indurated heart." Goldsmith. third He, the king of the Jews. Let me distinctly state that two or more nouns, or a noun and

SKELETON MAPS.--No, IV. a pronoun, are said to be in apposition, when, being in the same

AFRICA. number, person, and case, they refer to the same person or thing, Our Map of France, with the Railways, not being

ready for this and when the second is put in order to explain or add something number, we have inserted, for the use

of our Geographical Stuin meaning to the first. The essence of apposition is in the fact that a word or words are endeavour to fill up, as we trust they have done the former

dents, a Skeleton Map of Africa, which they would do well to apposed (ad, to, and pono, I put), with a view to explain, enlarge, Skeleton Maps, from the lists of the Latitudes and Longitudes or qualify a foregoing noun or pronoun,

Under the Observe that in every case of apposition there are two parts, the vacant space in the left hand corner at the bottom of this Map,

of places given on the margin or in the text. * apposed part, and the part to which the apposition is made. Thus, intended for the name AFRICA, is a scale of British miles, of in the sentence, “Richard, the king, lost his crown," the king is which each division stands for 100 miles distance on the Map. the apposed part, and Richard is the part to which the apposition The middle parallel of Latitude, marked 0 at both ends, is the is made, You will now readily see that the added part will partake of the 10, 20, 30, &c. on the sides, and proceed upwards to the top of

Equator; from this parallelthe Latitudes which person as well as the number of the part to which the addition is the map, are North Latitudes; and those which are marked 10, made. Call the latter the principal part; call the former the sub- | 20, 30, &c. on the sides, and proceed downwards to the bottom ordinate. Then the rule may stand thus :

of the map, are South Latitudes. The dotted parallels of LatiIn apposition, the subordinate part agrees with the principal tude are the tropics; the one in Lat. 23° 28' N. being the tropic part,

of Cancer, and the other in Lat. 23° 28' S. being the tropic of And this agreement will in general be not only in person and Capricorn ; between these two parallels, the sun shines vertically number, but also in gender and in case; so that if the principal at noon on every place of the torrid zone, two days in the year. part is of the feminine gender, in the feminine gender will the suba In laying down the Latitudes on this map, there will be ordinate part be; and whether the principal part stand to the verb little or no difficulty, inasmuch as the parallels of latitude have

of the proposition in the relation of subject or object, in the same been made parallel straight lines; only let it be observed that : relation will the subordinate part stand.

every 'black or white space on the sides of this Map must be In the sentences, “It is I; it is the Lord ; the Lord sitteth king reckoned two degrees of Latitude, that is, 120 Geographical for ever," and others in which the second noun or pronoun aids to miles, or about 140 British miles. In laying down the Longimake up the intended idea, the second must of course have the cudes, however, there will be considerable difficulty, owing to same grammatical relations as the first which it aids. Thus, king the curvature of the meridian lines. This will be obviated by has the same grammatical relations as the Lord. In other words, graduating with a pencil the Equator, or the parallel of Latithe rule may be stated thus :

tude marked 0 at both ends, exactly like the degrees of LatiThe ucrb TO BE, and other verbs which in themselves do not tude at the sides of the map; for on the Equator the distance Express a complete iden, take the same case after as before them. between one degree of Longitude and another is exactly equal

Consequently, to say " It is me,” in answer to the question to the distance between one degree of Latitude and another 6 who is that?" is ungranımatical.

* The list of the Latitudes and Longitudes of the Capitals or Remark, however, that it, used generally, is an exception so far Chief Cities in Africa will be found at page 62, vol. iii., of the as gender and number are concerned, for it is idiomatic to say “ Popular Educator."

on any meridian. Supposing, then, that the Latitude and The trigonometrical rule for the construction of this table, Longitude of a place are given, and you wish to find its place is to multiply 60 Geographical miles, the length of a degree of on the map in order to lay it down; supposing, also, that the Longitude on the Equator, by the cosine of the given Latitude, Equator has been so graduated as we have said, and that the product will be the length of a degree of Longitude in the the degrees of Longitude are marked at every 10 degrees, given Latitude. exactly like the degrees at the top and bottom of the map; then place a piece of whalebone, or other equally flexible substance, on the given degree of Longitude at the top, at the

LESSONS IN ITALIAN GRAMMAR. No. I. Equator or middle, and at the bottom, and it will assume

By CHARLES TAUSENAU, M.D., very nearly the proper curve form of the meridian ; while in of the University of Pavia, and Professor of the German and Italian this position, make a mark close alongside the piece of whale- Languages at the Kensington Proprietary Grammar School. 'bone at the given degree of Latitude, and this mark will repre

INTRODUCTION. sent the exact position of the place on the map whose Latitude and Longitude are given. Remember, however, that I propose to teach the grammar, structure, and vocabulary of every black or white space at the top and bottom of this map the Italian language by a method not commonly adopted by must be reckoned two degrees of Longitude, or 120 miles of Longi- the learned. A considerable experience in tuition has contude; these degrees or miles of Longitude vary in size according vinced me that a strict adherence to scientific forms, though to their position on the map, -a fact which must be sufficiently all-important in the cultivation of a language, does not tend to obvious to the attentive reader, seeing that the meridian lines the advantage of the learner. Writers of practical grammar err, taper towards the poles both northward and southward, and that for the most part, in studying system too much. They teach all meridian lines do actually meet at the poles on the globe itself. grammar as they would the pure mathematics, as if an abstract

The following table will show the exact size of the science of itself, and not as a practical guide through the degrees of Longitude in Geographical miles of Latitude idiomatic intricacies of living languages. Such instructions according to their distance from the Equator; if the size of may be very scientific in form, but they do not follow nature, these degrees be wanted in British miles, you have only There is no due separation of that which is the foundation, or to add to the number of Geographical miles given, one-sixth as it were the skeleton of a language, from those things which part of itself, for a first approximation to the truth ; to obtain are the ornaments, the delicacies, the accidents and exceptions the next approximation, a very close one, deduct one-tenth of of speech. A language should be taught as anatomy is the preceding sixth-part from the first approximation, and

taught. We must first thoroughly study the bones, if we

you will have the number of British miles required. Suppose, for would successfully trace the intricate ramifications of nerves example, that you wished to know the length of a degree of and arteries. The learner of a foreign tongue cannot for himLongitude in Lat. 40° north or south of the Equator. "Look in self judge of what is material or immaterial to his sure and me table, in the column marked Deg. Lat. for 40, and in the rapid progress. It will be adjoining column to the right marked Geog. miles, you will find loquial and natural, rather than a grammatical and purely 45.96; this shows that the length of a degree of Longitude in scientific method. Lat. 40°, is only about 46 Geographical miles, or exactly 45

The Italian language has for a long time been regarded in such miles and 96 hundredth parts of a mile. In order to find this country as a fashionable branch of education. Knowledge the number of British miles, take one-sixth part of 45.96, which of it has been reckoned an indispensable accomplishment of is 7.66, and add this part to itself; this gives 53.62 for a first cultivated society, but rather, as it would seem to me, as a approximation to the truth; next take one-tenth part of 7.66, serviceable attendant at Italian picture galleries and operas, which is •766 or 77 nearly, and deduct this part from 53.62, than as a guide to the philosophy of a Dante, the invention of the first approximation; this gives 52.85 for the next approxi- an Ariosto, or the sagacity of a Machiavelli. The present is mation. Thus, we find that a degree of Longitude in Lat. 400 perhaps the first considerable attempt that has been made to is only 52-85 British miles.

popularise this noble and melodious tongue.

The Italian is the first born of the old language of Rome, Table showing the Length of a Degree of Longitude on any Parallel and owns a strength and beauty worthy of its noble origin. of Latitude, between the Equator and the Poles :

In cultivation, it is the oldest of European tongues. When

Dante wrote, English, French, and German were comparatively Deg. Lat. Geog. Miles. Deg. Lat.Geog. Miles Deg. Lat.Geog. Miles. .Geo

rude dialects. To Italy, the world owes the preservation and regeneration of learning and the Arts; and its fine soil, the fertile

mother of great spirits of old, has produced to the latest times 28.17

men who have enriched every intellectual pursuit alike by their 50.88


genius and learning. The language in which they expressed 50.32 49 74

that infinite variety of thought and sentiment, contains a 59.85

literature, the rich mine of which is in foreign countries only 59.77 48 54 known to solitary and toilsome explorers.

The time may not 59-67 37 47.92


be distant when the increased intercommunication of nations, 59.55 47.28

21:50 and the progress of popular education, will lay these rich 8


treasures open to the many.

For its own intrinsic merits, however, as a language, Italian 72

deserves to be studied by every one who would enjoy the 73 17:54

pleasures of style, inexhaustible in variety: the energy of Dante, 22 58.69 43.88

the graphic power of Boccaccio, the lyrical grace of Petrarca, 15.53

the refinement of Ariosto, the ornament of Tasso, the satire 14

76 -15 57.95

of Berni and Aretino, the historical dignity of Guicciardini and

47 40.92

Botta, the point and perspicuity of Macchiavelli, the hilarity of 17 57.38


Casti, the music of Metastasio, and the Roman manliness of 18 57.06

10'42 Alfieri. And they who would cultivate language for its excel 56-73 38.57

lence must seek that of Italy for the ideal beauty of expression. 37.76

My method will be a natural, a simple, and, I trust, an easy 36.94


I shall discard, as much as possible, all the conventional 6.27

terms of grammar. I shall not travel by the old beaten path23 55 23 36.27

way through the parts of speech. My grammatical progress

will imitate the action of the mind in the formation of a sen25 54.38 56 33.53

87 57 32-68


tence, with a due regard to peculiarities of idiom. As a child

first learns the name of a thing, I begin with the noun, as soon 27

58 31.79 28 52.97

0.00 as I have clearly explained the

principles of pronunciation; and 29 52.48

as the child demonstrates its progress in thinking, by connect30 51.96 61 29.09

ing an action or suffering with the object named, I shall



« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »