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LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.--No: IV. solution, they admit of separation by transmitting through

the solution hydro-sulphuric acid, which throws down all the The only tests we have hitherto employed in our chemical zinc, and leaves the manganese, which latter may be subseinvestigations, are hydro-su phuric acid, and hydro-sulphate quently wanted, thrown down by means of hydro-sulphate of of ammonia. Let the student now obtain the following: ammonia. Another method of separating the two will riot

1. A solution (saturated) of prussiate of potash, also called readily occur to the reader. Both may be thrown down at ferrocyanide of potassium.

once by hydrosulphate of ammonia, and the sulphuret of zinc 2. Infusion or tincture of gall nuts.

redissolved by means of acetic acid. 3. Hydro-sulphuret* of ammonia already prepared, by trans- to describe in greater detail the numerous analytical processes

It would be undesirable at this early period of our studies mitting sulphuretted hydrogen gas through liquor ammonia which may be had recourse to for accomplishing the separa(hartshorn), until the latter refuses to dissolve any more.

tion of zinc and manganese, supposing both to exist in one 4. A solution of potash procurable at the druggist's, under solution, and supposing the manganese to be in the condition the name of liquor potassæ. It must be kept in a glass stop- of a protosalt. pered bottle, and not exposed to the air more than absolutely Recapitulation.--1. Two solutions yield respectively precipi. necessary.

tates with hydro-sulphate of ammonia; therefore, these solu5. A solution of carbonate of soda (washing soda).

tions contain metals of the calcigenous class. 6. A solution of carbonate of ammonia (smelling salts).

2. The precipitates are white, therefore the metals in ques 7. A solution of ammonia (hartshorn).

tion are either manganese or zinc.

3. One solution yields a white precipitate, with hydro-sulThe preceding, in addition to hydro-sulphuric-acid gas and phurate of ammonia, though not with hydro-sulphuric acià ; solution, may be regarded as the principal tests for metals. therefore it must contain manganese. Others will occasionally come under our notice, but these are 4. One solution yields a precipitate both with hydro-sulthe chief.

phuric and hydro-sulphate of ammonia; therefore it must Having disposed of the effects developed on the solutions of contain zinc. manganese and zinc already employed by hydro-sulphuric-acid 5. Sulphuret of manganese may be separated from sulphuret and hydro-sulphate of ammonia, let the student next observe of zinc, by the agency of acetic acid (distilled vinegar), in the result of adding to each of these solutions respectively a which sulphuret of zinc is insoluble. solution of prussiate of potash. He will discover that this Distinction between the Moist and Dry Processes of Analysis.re-agent determines a white precipitate with either metal; and The moist process and the dry process are terms which, as a general rule it may be remembered, that yellow prussiate from long use, have become popularly familiar, though they of potash (there is a red prussiate) determines a white preci, by no means admit of any precise line of demarcation. There pitate with all common or calcigenous metals. To this general are few chemical analyses involving metals which do not rule there are very important exceptions, which, however, had require the agency of fire at some stage of their performunce ; best be fixed in the memory as exceptions: thus, probably, again, there are few so called dry processes which do not

even in the foregoing testing experiments the require as adjuncts the employment of acids, and other moist Pig, 19.

reader may observe that the precipitate yielded chemical re-agents. As a general rule, it may be stated that
by prussiate of potash is tinged bluish; if so, the dry or igneous processes of chemistry are restricted to
this result will depend upon the presence of operations on the large scale-such, for example, as the smelt-
iron, a metal which will scarcely be altogethering of metals. To this general rule, however, the blowpipe and its
absent from the solutions of zinc and man- employment constitute one remarkable exception, all the pro-
ganese prepared by a novice in chemical cesses conducted by means of this instrument being essentially
operations. Let the student now proceed to small and delicate, sometimes almost microscopic. The blow-
test portions of zinc solution, and manga- pipe is now invaluable to the chemist, although its employ-
nese solution, made according to preceding ment in this way dates from very recent periods.
directions, with all the tests mentioned in the

Description of the Blow-pipe.--The greater number of my
beginning of this article, and let him make readers will have seen a blow-pipe, and probably will have seen
notes of the results. Most of the tests will it used, being employed very extensively by gas-fitters, jewel-
produce precipitates with both solutions, as lers, and some other artisans. The instrument consists in its
the reader will see ; and the prevailing cha- simplest form of a bent tube, terminating in a fine jet, as
racter of the results is whiteness, or a tint ap- represented in the accompanying diagram, fig. 20, and is
proaching to whiteness. The operation of test-
ing may be performed in conical wine-glasses,

Fig. 20. in test tubes, as they are called--instruments

of the following shape, fig. 19, being glass tubes, open at one end, closed at the other, and so thin that the flame of a spirit lamp may be applied without danger of causing fracture. A third method of conducting test operations, and it is a very good one, consists in the employment of Hat strips of window glass, upon which a single drop of the intended to cause the deflexion, by blowing through it, of solution to be tested is laid, and another drop of the test

or -, .

The solution, added to it by means of a straw, or a glass rod. In Aame thus diverted from its upward course is necessarily this way testing operations may be conducted with great limited in extent, but its heat in certain parts is very greai, facility. Care must be taken, however, when straws are employed, never to use one straw for more than one operation. enabling the operator to obtain (on the small scale) most of

the effects of a furnace. Take next a solution of manganese, and a solution of zinc prepared as already described. Add hydro-sulphate of am trade acquire far more dexterity in its employment than

Generally speaking, artizans who use an instrument in their monia to either solution, and a sulphuret is of course the result. philosophers or amateurs. So far as relates to the blow-pipe, To either sulphuret add now, without necessarily decanting the fluid from which it has been thrown down, some distilled however, there is a remarkable exception to this rule. The vinegar (acetic acid), and observe that all the sulphuret of gas-fitter and jeweller use the blow-pipe as follows : -Taking manganese is soluble in this fluid, whereas all the sulphuret of a deep inspiration, they blow as long as the one charge of air zinc remains undisturbed. We have already determined that, lasts; then stopping, they inspire a fresh draught of air ; after

wards they set to work again. This would nerer do for the supposing zinc and manganese † to exist in one and the same

chemist, whose operations demand the solution of the up* Still with greater propriety termed hydrosulphurate.

parently impossible problem: to breathe and to blow uninter+ The remark applies to manganese in that kind of solution, which ruptedly. It is not possible to describe by mere words how results from the treatment already described, and others attended with this is accomplished, farther than the description is conveyed a similar result; in other words, to prolosalts of manganese.

in a general direction, to consider the cheeks as a pair of

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double bellows: alvvays blow- charcoal has been thus fixed, a little excavation should be made ing from the mouth, never from at the point by means of a knife, and in this excavation the

substance to be operated upon should be laid. The facility with which a Tho Platinum Wire-loop.-In a vast number of blow-pipe exgood jėt can be produced and periments, the jet is not directed upon the unmixed substance, maintained, greatly depends but upon a mixture of it and another substance with which upon the size of the terminal it shall form a glass on fusion, and the nature of the substance orifice, which, if tõo large, will is deduced from the colour of the resulting glass. In such require more air than can be cases, the support most generally employed, is a loop of platia readily supplied by the reser- num wire. A portion of the substance to be examined being voir of the mouth alone. All fusexi iinto the loop, together with a flux, a glass results, filling

delicately made blow-pipes the loop as it would the frame of a window. Various other are supplied with several jets of different sizes, but such refine- blow-pipe supports are known to cheĩnists, but the two already ments as these are unnecessary to the novice, who may proceed described are the most important, ånd will answer our present to a gas-fitter's shop, and purchase a blow-pipe for sixpence. purpose, Haviny purchased it, let him now determine the distance from Blou-pipe examination of Zinc and Mangariese. --In our moist his eye at which vision is most perfect; which being settled, investigations on zinc and manganese, great care was taken to let him cist the blow-pipe to correspond. This is a somewhat obtain these metals in certain states of combination : no such important direction, and should not be neglected.

precautions will be necessary in our blow-pipe inquiries on The Blow-pipe-jet, and its Characteristics. If a jet of air by the same. The zinc specimen may be a piece of the metal means of the blow-pipe be directed across the flame of a lamp itself; the manganese specimen a portion of black, or binoxide, or candle, just above, or a little on one side of the wick, a jet otherwise called peroxide; in other words, the ordinary black will be produced which will have, or should have, the follow- manganese-ore of commerce. * Lay a small fragment of meing characteristics.

tallic zinc (about the size of a barleycorn) upon the charcoal, Fig. 22.

and direct upon it the interior blow-pipe flame; remark how the zinc burns, and how a white powder remains: remark too

this white powder is yellow whilst hot. Remember well these b points, and compare them with the results to be obtained here

after, by treating lead in a similar manner. It will be made up of a small central blue conical flame, ex. into some powdered carbonate of soda : remove it: fuse the

Take the platinum loop, moisten it with the tongue, dip it tending from a to B, fiv. 22, lying within a second and larger carbonate by directing upon it the apex of the blue coñe: let cone, a, b, consisting of a reddish-yellow scarcely perceptible halo, the fused bead cool : When cool inoisten it with the tongue It is not always that the jet can be obtained so pure as here again, and apply to it a portion of powdered black oxide of described ; but this degree of purity should be always aimed

at, manganese—but a very small portion, just as much as could be and will sometimes even by a novice be accomplished. The taken up on the point of a needle. Direct now the outer flame most hearing portion of the flame thus developed corresponds of a blow-pipe jet on the loop, and observe the result. The with the point B; consequently, if our object be the mere

fusion bead fuses, it becomes green when hot, and bluish green when of a refractory body, to the action of this point should it be cold. Repeat the experiment, substituting borax for carbonate exposed. This portion of the flame, moreover--indeed every of soda : the bead is now violet red in the external, colourless in part of the blue cone, possesses a deoxydizing power, that is to

the internal flame. These appearances are characteristic of say, it takes away oxygen from any substance which may be exposed to it. The external faint halo, on the contrary, im- manganese, but the appearances lately described are characterparts oxygen, and is therefore called the oxydizing flame. similar treatment: the student may therefore form some The blow-pipe is not only useful to the chemist as a means of effeeting the fusion and working of glass tubes, but it enables opinion already, concerning the value of the blow-pipe as an

instrument of chemical analysis. him to operate in the dry way on all the metal or minerals containing them, giving rise to characteristic appearances from with double bellows worked by the foot, and blow-pipe, lamp.

[The following is a representation of a Glass Blower's table, which the existence of any particular substance may be &c. Such an apparatus can be had in London, complete, for inferred.

four guineas.] Apparatus necessary to be employed in connexion with the Blowpripe. In the first place, we require a source of flame, and this varies according to the different purposes for which the blow: pipe is employed. If used for glass-blowing operations, the tlanie is usually such as results from the burning of a large mass of cotton wick, placed in a pan containing tallow, or a tin dish, and the blow-pipe having a very large jet, is usually worked by means of a pair of bellows. This, at least, is the arrangement usually employed by artizans in glass, such as buronicter-makers, thermometer-makers, &c. In laboratories, gas is sometimes used as the source of flame, being ráore conrenient ; hut the result is not so good. This bellows blow-pipe the student need not possess; all the glass blowing that he'ivin require inay be accomplished by the mouth blow-pipe, as will he described hereafter. For purposes of mineral analysis, and 30% such we are especially directing our attention at present, the very best flame, according to our opinion, is that of a wax or spermacetti candle; but the flame of a cominon tallow do wili unser Klost purposes.

Supports.-Charcoal. -"the inaximum heat which theblow-pipo jet cun exert results from the contact of the blue 'aper with a , piece of well burned charcoal. Of course, some means must be devises for holding this charcoal, and consequently there are instruments sold under the name of charcoal-holders ; they are unnecessary, however--charcoal-holder satisfactory in every respect may be constructed for the occasion, by taking a slip of tin plate about six inches long by two inches wide, and bending one end twice at right angles on itself, in such a manner that * Comincrcial black oxide of manganese, lowever, is never pure, ic may grasp and 'firmly hold a piece of charcoal. When the l always containing iron, lime, and otlicr extraneous materials,

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LESSONS IN GREEK.No. XI.

Δωρον, ου, τo, a gift.

Βεβαίος, α, ον, irm, sure. Bporos, n, ov, mortal ; di sporo, Moves, 1; Ov, alone, single. mortals.

Διάφορος, ον, different.
By JOWN R: BEARD, D.D.

EXERCISES, GREEK-ENGLISH,
THE THIRD DECLENSION-(Concluded.).

Ασελγεια τικτει υβριν. . Εν ποσεί και βρωσει πολλοι εισίν CONTINUING the subject, I proceed to words in ίς, ί, ύς, ύ. έταιροι, εν δε σπουδαία πράγματι ολιγοι. “Ο πλούτος σπανίως The Towel of the stem Termains only in the accusative and | και ενδειας τους ανθρωπους λυέι. Επου τη φύσει.

At απο του vocative singular, in the other cases it passes into €. genitive singular the masculines and feminines take ως, απα σωματος επιθυμιαι πολεμους και στάσεις και μαχάς παρεχουσιν. in the genitive plural ων ; e.g., η πόλις, α city : ο πήχυς, αν

Εν ταις πολέσιν αι αρχάι νομων φυλακές εισιν. Απέχεσθε, ω Οι Neuters end in σος in the genitive singular; as το σινάπι, | πολίται, στασεων. Ορεγέσθε, ω άνδρες, καλων πράξεων. Διάmustard και το αστυ, αeity. :

φοροι εισιν αι των βροτων φύσεις. Εξ ύβρεως πολλά κακά S. Ν. πολις

πηχυς
σινάπι

Κακου ανδρος δώρα ονήσιν ουκ έχει. Δοξά και
πολεως
πηχε-ως

πλουτος ανέυ συνεσεως ουκ ασφαλή κτήματά εισίν. πολεί

συκων καρποι γλυκείς εισιν. Αρετής βέβαιάι εισιν αι κτήσεις Α. πόλιν πήχυν

ΙΙολλα αστη τειχή έχει. Οι του αστέος πυργοι βεβαιοι πολι

Oi Ρ. Ν. πολεις

πυργοι τα αστει κοσμος εισιν. πήχεις G. πολείων

πηχε-ων D. πολε-σι

ENGLISH-GREEK.
πήχέ-σι
Ε. πολεις πηχεις

Riches free from (λύω) want. We have friends in eating D. ν. πολεις πήχεις

σινάπη

and drinking, but not in misfortune. In the city the king is πολέπηχε-ε

the guardian of the laws. Obeš, O young man, the magisπολε-Οιν πηχε-Οιν

trates. O child, strive after honourable deeds. The possesHere belong the adjectives in vs, ela, v, which in declensiun sion of virtue is alone sure. The city has (to the city are) depart from that of masculine and femininë substantives in many towers. Good laws bring honour to the city Follow this only, that the genitive of the masculine singular has nature. The soldiers fight for the deliverance (oornpia) of the common form eos, and not €ws, and that the neuter plural the city. O citizen, avoid insurrection.

There are some nouns of the third declension which cannot has εα: thus, γλυκυς, seet. Singular.

be classified, and the differential points of which must therePlural,

fore be given separately; they are these .Ν. γλυκυς γλυκειαγλυκο γλυκείς γλυκειαι γλυκεα G. γλυκε-ος γλυκειας γλυκε-ος γλυκεων | γλυκέιων γλυκέων

Exceptional Nours of the Third Declension. D. γλυκεί

γλυκεια γλυκεί γλυκεσι γλυκειάις γλυκεσί Α. γλυκυν

1.--4νη), ανδρος, ανήκει και γάλα, γάλακτος, mil και γονυ, γονάτος, γλυκειαν γλυκυ γλυκείς γλυκειας γλυκεα

α knee ; δορυ, δορατος, α εpear ; ους, ωτος, αν και και χειρ, ν. 7\γλυκεια γλυκυ, γλυκείς γλυκέΐαι γλυκέα

χειρος, α hand; the peculiar forms of which have been Dual γλυκεε γλυκεια γλυκεε

already set forth. γλυκεοιν γλυκειαιν γλυκεoιν

2.--Γνή, ή, a married woman, a wife, G. YUväik-oß, D. yuvalk-l, Here also belong the adjectives in ύς, ύ, g., εος, which are

Α. γυναικ-α, V. γυναι; Ρ1, γυναικες, γυναικων, γυναιξί,

γυναίκας. declined as γλυκυς, γλυκυ, only that the neuter plural is con-3.-Ζευς, Zeus, Jupiter, G, Διος, D. Διϊ, Α. Διά, V. Ζευ. tracted into η like αστή; as o, , διπηχυς, το διπηχυ, τα ειπηχη, ειυο elis Cong.

4.- θριξ, ή, air, G. τριχος, D. τριχι, &c. D. ΡΙ. θριξι. Some substantives in is, as well as the adjectives in ις, ι, 5.- Kλεις, ή, a kery, G. κλειδος, D, κλειδι, Α. κλειν; ΡΙ. Ν. as copis, edot, skilful, have the regular inflexion, without ony

ελ:d D. κλεϊς, also κλειδες, κλειδάς. change of the radical vowel, e.g. ο, ή, πορτις, α calf or heifer; | 6.-Κυων, ο, ή, a dog, &, κυν-ος, D, κυνι, Α. κυν-ας V. κιόν; ΡΙ. ö, j, ois, a sheep ; also in the singular) » Eyxelus, an cel.

κυνες, κυνων, κυσι, κυρας. S. Ν. πορτις

εγχελυς

οίς

7.- Μαρτυς, ό, α eitness (our martyr'), G. μαρτυρος, D. G. πορτι-ος εγχελυ-ος

μαρτυρι, Α, μαρτυρα, V. μαρτυς ; D. ΡΙ. μαρτύσι.
,
πορτι-ι, πορτι. εγχελυεϊ

8.-Ναύς (Lat. aάtis) ή, ά ship, G. νεως, D. 1ϊ, Α. ναύν;
πόρτιν
εγχελυν

Dual, G. and D. νεόϊν (the N, and A. do not occur) ; πορτι

εγχελυ
oig

ΡΙ. νήες, νεως, ναυσι, ναύς και compare γράυς aid βασιΡ. V. πορτιές, πορτίς: εγχελεις

αίες

λευς.
πορτι-ων
εγχελε-ων

9.--Υδωρ, το, εξέr; G. υδατος, D. υδάτι, &c.
D.
πόρτι-σι

εγγελε-σι .
Α.
πορτι- ας, πορτής εγχελεις

VOCABULARY:
οΐας, οίς
πορτι-ες, πορτής εγγελεις

οίες

Εκκλησια, ας, ή, an assembly ; | Οικια, ας, ή, a dwelling. πορτι»ε εγχελε

the New Testament word | Κτεις, κτενος, o, a comb. πορτι-Οιν εγχελε- οιν. οιοι

for church.

Κτελειζα, Icont.

Μαρτυρια, ας, ή, testimony, Σταγων, ονος, ή, a drop. VOCABULARY. .

Πετρα, ας, ή, a tock, hence Αιθιού, όπως, ai Airlaiopian, Βρωσις, εως, ή, eating.

Peter.
Αρχή, ής, ή, 8 beginning,

Καστωή, ορός, Castor,
Κτησις, εως, ή, acquisition. government; plural, magis- Ωφελεια, ας, ή, advantage, Δεησις, εως, ή, a Tequest, ei -
Ονησις, εως, ή, assistance.

ability. ΕΙόσις, εως, ή, drinkidis. Κτημα, ατος, τo, a possession. | Κιστη, ης, ή, a chest,

Απιςτι, δη, αλfaithfind, iral Πραξις, εως, ή, doing, deed. Τειχος, ους, τo, a wall. Αίδης, ου, ο, Hades, god of the missible Σπανις, εως, ή, want. . Ασελγεια, ας, ή, τε:ι2 βολλess. lower world (Pluto). 1000), I make straight, I

direct. Στασις, εως, ή, iinsurrection, & Ενδειά, ας, ή, want:

Κυβερνήτης, ου, ο, steershian. rising .

Επιθυμια, ας, ή, desire. . ΙΙολυδευκης, ου, ο, Polydeukes, ΚρελαϊκώI haviite : Συνεσις, εως, ή, understanding. | Καρπος, ου, ο, fruit.

Pollux.

Κομιζω, I carry, bring. Υβρις, εως, ή, pride, arrogance, Κοσμος, ου, ο, order, beauty, Αθηναιος, ου, o, Athenian. Σωζω, I save, reselle. insult. the world; ornament. Αιακος, ου, ο, Eacus.

Σωτήρ, ήρος, o, a gamibit, Φυσις, εως, ή, nature. . Nófog, ov, ó, law. Ιστος, ου, o, a loom.

deliverer. ξυλάξ, άκος, ο, 8 watchiman, πολεμος, on, o, war.

Κυβος, ου, ο, (our cube) a die. Δεχομαι, I receive.
TIvayos, ovo, a tower.

Οικος, ου, o, a house.

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αιδως πρεπει.

δους εχουσιν.
Εν Αιγυπτω πολλη σιτου αφθονια ην.

“Η EXERCISES.GREEK-ENGLISR.

θαλαττα μεγαλη εστι. Μεγα παθος προσαγορευομεν Ιλιαδα Αι γυναίκες το κοσμο χαίρουσιν. Οι Ελληνες σεβονται Δια

Κροισω ην πολυς πλουτος. Πολλακις εξ ολιγης ηδονης και Ποσειδω και Απολλω και αλλους θεους. Ταις γυναιξιν η

μεγα γιγνεται αλγος. Πραεσι λογοις ηδειως εικομεν. Τα Oi κυνες τον οικον φυλαττουσιν. Ο κυβερνητης μεγαλα δωρα της τυχης εχει φοβον.

μεγαλα δωρα της τυχης εχει φοβον. Πολλων ανθρωπων εθη την ναυν ιθυνει. Αι σταγονες του ύδατος πετραν

κοιλαινουσιν

εστι πραεα. Πονος αρετην μεγα οφελλει. Οι παιδες τους πραους Της γυναικος εστι τον οικον φυλαττειν. Γυναικος εσθλης εστι

πατερας και τας πραειας μητερας στεργουσιν. Ομιλιαν εχε τοις σωζειν οικιαν. Αει ευ πιπτουσι Διος κυβοι. Οι κυνες τοις

πραεσιν ανθρωπους. Αι γυναικες πραειαι εισιν. Αλεξανδρον, ανθρωπους ωφελειαν και ηδονην παρεχουσιν. Αι των μαρτύρων | τον Μακεδονων βασιλεα, μεγαν απαγορευσιν οι πολλοι. μαρτυριά πολλακις απιστοι εισιν. Ιστοι γυναικων εργα και ουκ εκκλησιαι (sc. εισιν). Κομιζε, ω παι, την της κιστης κλεϊν,

ENGLISH-GREEK. Ω Ζευ, δεχoυ την του ατυχους δεησιν. Καστωρ και Πολυδεύκης Abstain from much wine. Bad men delight in much wine. των νέων σωτηρες ησαν,

Γυναικι παση κοσμον ή σιγη φερει. | Much wine injures men. Kings have great incomes. The Οι Αιθιοπες την τριχα μελαιναν εχουσιν. Ω γυναι, σωζε την income of the kingdom is great. Egypt has much corn. Many

Strive after Το κτενι τας τριχας κτενιζομεν.

Αιακος τας Αιδου have much wealth, but little understanding.

mild manners. The manners of the women are mild. (There) κλεϊς φυλαττει.

is beauty in (to) mild manners. Alexander, the king of the

Macedonians, is often called the great.
ENGLISH-GREBK.

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ON ANIJALCULITE CONTRIBUTIONS TO TRE FORMATION

OF ROCKS.

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Ornament becomes a woman.

Ornament becomes women, It is the business of women to guard the house, They

LESSONS IN GEOLOGY-No. XLIV. bring the keys of the house. The keys of the house are brought to the mother. The Athenians had (to the Athe. By Thomas W. JENKYN, D.D., F.R.G.S., F.G.S., &c. nians were) many ships. Jupiter had (to Jupiter were)

CHAPTER IV. many temples. The fish emerge out of the water. The steersman guides the ship. The ship is guided by the steers. ON THE EFFECT OF ORGANIC AGENTS ON THE EARTH'S You worship Jupiter and Apollo.

CRUST,

SECTION II. There are also some

Irregular Adjectives, the forms of which I must set before you, as πραος, πραεια, of vegetable life, have contributed to the formation of the

You have seen how the growth, the decay, and the successions πραον, soft ; πολυς, πολλη, πολυ, much, pl. many 5 μεγας, crust of the earth. You are now invited to examine the contri- . μεγαλη, μεγα, great; as follows :

butions which animal life has made to produce some of the rocks S. Ν.

on our globe. There are animal organisms which are really the πραος

πράεια G.

spontaneous and hard-working architects of rocks and moun. πράου

πραξίας

πράου

tains. This lesson will not refer to those which are piling up D. πράω

πράει

πραω

rocky masses by their direct agency, but to those whose πράον

πραξιαν

πραου ν.

remains contribute to the forination of soil, plains, and hills, πράος, πραε

πραεια

πράον Ρ. Ν. πραοι, πραείς

πραειαι

πλαεα

We will begin with the contributions of the smallest and G.

the minutest animal existences, the majority of which can be πραέων

πραειων D. πράοις, πραεσι

πραείαις

πραεσι

detected only by powerful microscopes, and with those of some Α. πραους, πραείς πραειας

others that are just visible to the naked eye. These diminutive

πράεα V. πραοι & πραείς πραειαι

organisms are callecl animalculæ, or little live things. They

ποαεα Dual

are sometimes called Infusoria, on the ground that they are πραω

ποαεια

πραω

discovered in all vegetable infusions, in the waters of the seas, πράσιν

πραειαιν

πρασιν

rivers, lakes, ponds, and puddles, and in liquids used for S. N. πολυς

domestic purposes. πολλη πολυ

μεγας

μεγαλη μεγα G. πολλου πολλές πολλου μεγαλου μεγαλης μεγαλου

ou

These agents cannot be seen with the naked eye. They D. | πολλά πολλη πολλω μεγαλα μεγαλη μεγαλα heluny, as Dr. Mantell has said, to an “invisible world.' Α. πολυν πολλην πολυ

μεγαν
μεγαλην μεγα

Thoy make their in visible agency to be known by their works. .) πολυ πολλη πολυ

μεγα
μεγαλη μεγα

The Sacred Scripiures teach us that “the things which are Ρ. Ν. πολλοι πολλαι πολλα μεγαλοι μεγαλα μεγαλα

seen were not made of things which do appear.' This is G. πολλων πολλων πολλων μεγαλων μεγαλων μελαλων | a primary article in the creed of every intelligent geologist.

He applies it to account for the creation of all the worlds of The other parts are regular,

matter as the results of the power and skill with which the

Supreme Artist combines invisible gases, and says "let the dry VOCABULARY. .

land appear.” The same article can be applied to the large Αφθονια, ας, ή, freedom from | Ιλιας, αδος, ή, the Iliad. and innumerable rocks and hills which have been produced, envy (a, not abundance.

Αλγος, ους, τo, pain, grief. not of course by one iminediate fiat, but by the slow and Αιγυπτος, ου, ή, Egypt. Edos, ovp, ro, custom ; plural, invisible agents which He had created and appointed to execute Αλεξανδρος, ου, ο, Alexander. manners, morals; hence our the work. Κροίσος, ου, ό, Croesus.

ethics.

The forms, the structure, and the instincts of these animal. Προσοδος, ου, ή, approach, in- | Παθος, ουρ, τo, suffering. . culites belong to the science of Palæontology. Our concern now

Oleyos, , ov, small; pl. few. l is, to exhibit them as contributing agents to the formation of Σιτος, ου, ο, wheat, corn, Opellw, I nourish, augment, the earth's crust. The science of chemistry, and the microscope, Φοβος, ου, ο, fear και φοβον εχειν,

aid. .

have shown that some extensive rocks and high mountains are to have fear, that is, to | Προσαγορευω, Iname, call. nothing but enormous masses of animalculite relics, or im. cause fear.

Meya, adverb, greatly, very. mense sepulchres in which their remains are entombed. So Μακεδων, ονος, o, a Macedo

extensively and so abundantly are their relics found in soils nian,

and rocks, that you may well ask, with the poet Young,

where is the dust that has not been alive?" The composiEXERCISES.GREEK-ENGLIBH.

tion of several rocks show that the different tribes of these ani. Πολυν οινον πινειν κακον εστιν. Οι βασιλεις μεγαλας προσο- | malculites were countless, that various kinds of them appeared

come. .

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ANIMALCULITES IN CHALK,

on the earth successively, that they lived and worked here for the inhabitants mingle this fossil meal with the four of corni, indefinite periods, and then vanished, and made way for other or with meal made of the bark of trees, ground for fuud. Luis kindred generations.

Bergmehl, or fossil flour, is one mass of animalculites. The most distinguished student of animalculites is EHREN- same kind of rock is found at San Fioro in Tuscany. BERG of Berlin, who is the Lord Rosse of the microscope. In the neighbourhood of Eyra, in Bohemia, chero is dug up a These tiny animals exist in ten million times ten millions, and fine white earth, which lies about three feet under the surtace. millions of millions, and are found living in all water and when this earth is dry, it has all the appearance of pure magna liquids. Wherever you see a spot of yellow or ochreous scum nesia ; but when it is examined by the microscope, it is seen in a pond, or ditch, or any stagnant water, that scum consists to be formed entirely of an elegant species of intusorial shells of an aggregation of hosts of animalculæ.

called Campilodisca. The living thing itself that is called an animalculite, or an In North America, one of the most celebrated places for infusorian, is a soft, juicy, fleshy, or mucous substance, that, infusorial rocks, is a district that lies between the cities of for the most part, lives in a case which forms its house and Richmond and Petersburg in Virginia. The city of Richhome. This case is sometimes called its shield and sometimes mond is built on a stratum of flinty marls, having a thickness of its shell; and by technical writers it is called the carapace. more than twenty feet, extending as far as Petersburg, and Some, however, exist without such cases, but are naked and spreading out into sterile tracts along the sides of the hills. have a flexible skin.

These formations are supposed to belong to the older tertiaries, The cases or shields of animalculites differ in different species. the meiocene or the eocene. The whole of these deep and In one class, the shields are calcareous or limy; in others sili- extensive marls are composed of infusorial remains. “When," ceous or flinty; in others, ferruginous or irony. Their forms says Dr. Mantell, in “Medals of Creation," p. 225, " and shapes are innumerable, but frequently of great beauty and grains of this marl are prepared, and mounted on a glass, symmetry. The Xanthidia are a hollow globe of fiinty matter. almost all their varieties will be manifest, so largely is this The Pyxidiculæ have a case like a saucer which is filled with earth composed of the skeletons of animalcules : in fact, very their body. The Bacillariæ look like a dozen cards placed in tew inorganic particles are intermixed with the orgauisms. zigzag row, one touching the other at a point. The Naviculæ The merest pellicle or stain, left by the evaporation of a drop have a bivalve shell with six openings. The Gaillonellæ of water in which some of the marl has been mixed, teems have a bivalve case, but of a cylindrical and half globular form. with the most beautiful structures." You will find the rich and beautiful variety of their shapes well illustrated in Dr. Mantell's Medals of Creation," and especially in his “İnvisible World,

Few of the rerelations of geology have been more astonishIt is these shields or cases of the animalculite, and not the ing than the discovery,that a large proportion of the purest white animalculites themselves, that claim the attention of the geolo- chalk consists of minute chambered shells and microscopic gist, for it is these shields that he discovers mineralised, and corals, all of which are of the most complete and exquisite which, in a fossil state, constitutes vast rocks in the crust of the structure. If you scrape or brush a piece of chalk in water, earth. Ehrenberg has found them in fint, in opal, in chalk, and examine a small patch of the sediment by a microscope, and in many other rocks. They are found in vast profusion you will see that it consists of a vast abundance of the cases or in rocks of different periods such as the tertiary series, and in shells of Polythalamia, Foraminifera, and Polyparia. Neverthe chalky and other secondary deposits .

theless, even these microscopic creatures must appear colossal
Fossil animalculites are those which had shields; for the when you think that these animalculæ live upon infusoria more
races that were naked and had a flexible skin had nothing diminutive than themselves. A cubic inch of white chalk
enduring in their structure. Our lesson will embrace not only contains, according to Ehrenberg, more than one million of
the fossils which belong strictly to the infusoria, but also other well-preserved shells of animalculites.
minute organisms with which they are associated. One class This thought is almost overwhelming, when you consider, in
of these are called Polythalamia, because their shells have connection with it, the vast extent and the great depth of the
many chambers in them, and are not like that of the snail, chalk formation on the surface of the globe. All the Chalk
which has only one. The other are called Foraminifera, Downs of England, and the cretaceous rocks of the earth, are
because their cases or shells are covered with pores, or because only an accumulation of exceedingly minute organisms, which
the different chambers of their shell are connected by a pore, are so closely packed together, that a piece of soft chalk, that
and not by a siphuncle that runs through each.

you use in making a mark or drawing a line, has half its bulk
formed by fossil bodies. This is the case with our English

chalk; but in the chalk of the South of Europe, the protusion
At the bottom of many swamps and peat bogs, whether rest of animalculite remains is in much greater proportion.
ing on modern soils or on ancient rocks, there are generally

There is, of course, in every mass of chalk, a quantity of found layers of white, marly, or flinty paste or clay. This matter where no animalculite organisins appear in the field of paste or clay is made up entirely of the shields of infusoria. the microscope. This inorganic matter does not owe its oriThey are found in abundance under the bogs of Ireland, in gin to a precipitation of line that was previously held in soluLough Island, near Newcastle, and in many parts of North sion by the water, but it is the result of the artrition and dis. America.

integration of the infusiorial organisms into a more pulverized This statement refers to peat bogs of the present age; but mass of calcareous particles, which have been afterwards when we examine the deposits of the tertiary period, the ani. reunited by crystallisation. malculite relics far surpass, both in multiplicity of forms and The upper part of the chalk formation abounds in nodules of in extent of distribution, any infusorial strata of modern timnes. fiint, Geology has lately shown that these nodules of Hints have And even the profusion which is found in the tertiaries of originated in an accumulation of the pulverised and ground parEngland is not to be compared with thuse of the continent, ticles which have been derived from the siliceous or finty shields such as France and Germany, and also those of North America. of animalculites. The late Dr. Mantell distinguished himself The rocks of the Paris basin abound with marine sands. These much by his researches, chemical and geological, amung these sands are so full of microscopic animalculites, that a cubic inch infusoria. He says that the most abundant microscopical of themthat is, a mass cut and squared like a dice an inch forms of animalculæ discovered in the chalk and flinis of each way--would contain sixty thousand Foraminifera and England are two kinds of Polythalamia, called the Rotalia und Infusoria. This is particularly the case with the sands Texitularia. Associated with these are immense numbers brought from Grignon in that neighbourhood. In the district of the class called Foraminifera. of Bilin, in Northern Germany, there is a rock cailed “polish- These animalculite families are found to be most extensively ing slate.”. The rock is of considerable extent, and is fourteen distributed in the rocks of every part of the globe. In the feet in thickness. It consists entirely of the flinty shields of East, they have been discovered in the Mount of Ontes near Gaillonellæ. These shells are so minute, that a cubic inch of Jerusalem, in the Plains of Damascus, in the Hiils of Anulia the slate contains forty-one thousand millions, 41,000,000,000 of banus, and in the rocks about Beyrout. In the South, it has animalculites. in Lapland there is a rock of fossil four, which been ascertained that a large proportion of the sunui us the luide is called Bergmehl, or mountkin meali When broad In donroe, Yan derert of Africa consists of microscopie shells. In Norila

ANIMALCULITES IN SOILS AND SANDS.

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