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FORANIIXIPERA IN XUYVULITIX LIMESTONE.

tus;

America, the boundless masses of calcareous marls that prea A KEY TO THE EXERCISES IN THE
vail in Upper Mi:souris and that stretch even to the Rocky
Mountains, are, throughout their entire depth and extent,

LATIN LESSONS. made up of the slulls of infusorial animals,

By JOIIN K. BEARD, D.D.

(Continued from page 59, vol. IV.) Among the lower or older series of tertiary rocka, there are several layers of limestone which consist of minn'e, fiat, and cir

Vol. III. p, 72.-ENGLISH-LATIN. cular pieces that look as so many very diminutive and even microscopic coins. As Nummulus iš the Latin for "little Reipublicae interest; mek refert; illorum interest; omnium coin,” this rock has. been called Yummulitic, as if it consisted interest; nerinis refert; se domum reversuruin esse certiorem me of " fossil inoney.'

This calcareous rock consists often of a fecit filius; maritum valere certiorem fecit matrem filia tua; animi compact crystalline marble full of rummulites, and these sum confusus; mali saepe confusi sunt animi; temporis et necesnummulites are only the shelle of those extremely minute sitatis senatum regina admonet; me suscepti negotii taedet; boni forms of molluscous animals called Foraminifera. Foramini- malorum miserentur ; illos taedet vitae ; ie uxorem habere mihi fera is the Latin for the numerous openings or pores with which venit in mentem ; praeteritorum recordatur ; rei militaris es peri

consciane recti est mens tua? consilii mei te faciam certiorem; the shields of this genera are covered.

literarum appetens puer fiet sapiens; piscibus scatet mare; mitis Nummulites are not all microscopic, though as a genera est ingenii soror tua; a plurimis divitiae magni aestimantur ; quanti they are diminutive. If you can imagine the size of a gold hunc librum enisti? non unius assis nre faciunt; nostrum est penny, or, better still, a gold farthing, you will be helped to imperare, tuum obsequi; proditionis est accusatus ; capitis damnaconceive of the various sizes of this -- fossil money" constituting bitur : claves urbis potestatis suae fecerunt hastes. immense mountains of limestone. The nummulite varies in

Vol. III. p. 95.--LATIN-ENGLISË. size from a minute point to a disc of an inch, or an inch anda half in diameter. When you look at it ontside, its surface is

Caesar said to Dumnoris that he pardoned the past misdeeds of generally smooth and inarked with fine undulating lines; but his brother Divitiacus; the abandoned woman cursed both; physiif the piece be split transversely, it is found to consist of several cians, while they minister to the whole body, cure not even the coils, which are divided into very many cells or chambers, by smallest part; Venus was married to Vulcan; Gabinius is reviled ; oblique partitions which have no communication with each I have reproved Trebatius because he does not regard his health other,

sufficiently; the unwilling are not easily persuaded; I am of this The extent to which these nummulitic rocks spread in opinion; a good citizen makes to the republic aj present of his different parts of the globe, has arrested the attention of all private hatreds; the Germans are given to labour and hardships; practical geologists. In Northern Italy, in a district near Nice, in dangers; the physician applied remedies to the wounds ; Caesar

I am satisfied that you are worthless; a good general is present is a rock remarkable for its nummulites. They are also found made war on Gaul; certain signs precede certain things'; father in the Apennines, on both flanks of the Pyrenees, and among compares small things with great; the consul preferred the safety the high Alps. They occur in Asia Minor, and may be traced of all to the safety of individuals; I set before myself all things ; at intervals along the wide tract of country which extends he esteemed his love for his son less than the public good; Quinfrom the Mediterranean to the borders of Vestern India, tius Fabius alone survived the slaughter of his family at Cremera; Thick deposits of the same calcareous nature are found in the senate bestowed honours on illustrious men; the virgin marGreece and in Egypt. Sir RODERICK MURCHISON has lately ried him whom Caecilia had had for a husband; thy keepers have shown in a paper read before the Geological Society of London, given thee the name of madman; the name of that disease is that these nummulitic rocks supply one of the chief connecting avarice; my name is Arcturus ; I have deliberated and determined links between the deposits of India and those of Europe. heard, read, discussed, and handled by the orator ; Alcibiades had

, “They extend,” he says, " at intervals through no less than such sagacity that he could not be deceived, especially when he twenty-five degrees of latitude, and near one hundred degrees purposely kept his mind on the watch ; majesty and love do not of longitude : its northernmost ridge on the north flank of the well agree, nor tarry in one avode; the father gave his son a dog:Carpathians being clearly identifiable with its southernmost the Rhine approaches the ocean; you do not know what man you known limb in Cutch, and its western masses in Spain and speak ill of; avoid the dog ; surely these things do not seem to you Morocco being similar to those of the Bramahpootra” in the suitable to a marriage ? the villas, built along the pleasant places East.

of the river, stand on its margin; the world obeys God, and the In the United States, a range of mountains near Suggs ville, seas and the lands obey hin, and the life of man obeys the comand which are about ihree hundred feet high, are entirely mands of the supreme law; I keep constant guard against thee; composed of one species of nummulites.

it is agreed between Dejotarus and myself [comma after convenit)

that he with his troops should be in my camp; he advised Pompey In our own country, especially in Sussex, the blue clay that to fear my house and be on his guard against me ; but it is agreed is found at Bracklesham and Stubbington, and the calcareous to by all that the Sibyl brought three books to Tarquinias Supersandstone that is dug up at Emsworth and Bognor, abound in bus; it is foolish to allow what you can prevent; neither the plan nummulites.

por the conversation suits me; an image of victory stood in the The facts which have been briefly stated in this lesson right hand of Ceres; the Parthians had taken the standards from show to you what an important influence the number, the Crassus; Caesar betrothed the granddaughter of Atticus to growth, and the decay of minute bodies and invisible agents Tiberius Claudius Nero ; it is advantageous to the country itself to have had in the slow but progressive formation of our Earth's have citizens who perform what they owe to their parents; no fool crust. The contribution of each is almost unappreciable eren by nor diskonest person can be well off'; Caesar made to his country the microscope, but the enormous masses produced by their a present of his grudges; Perseus familiarly smiled on person's numerical profusion are incalculable. Well might infinite whom he scarcely knew; the praise and the glory of other men are Power stand over these stupendous operations, and ask "who things; who has not heard of the watchings (vigiliae) of Demos

commonly objects of envy; you ought to have discerned these hath despis-d the day of small things? It is by means of thenes élet us always live as if we thought we had to give an account; these diminutive agents, that He has brought to pass the most in the school of Pythagoras silenco was imposed on disciples for astounding phenomena and the most magnificent results. five years; Aeneas is seen by no one ; Julianus and Apollinaris When we think ihut these minute animalculites have contri- in their lasciviousness and sloth, were like gladiators raiher than buted much more material for furnishing the cover of the globe, generals ; if my son sins ai all he sins against me; we wish to be than have been supplied by lions, and elephants, and whales, rich not only for ourselves but for our children, our relatives, our and leviathans, we cannot but think of the larguage of the friends, and, above all, for the commonwealth; I recommended Psalmist: “O Lori, how manifold are thy works! in wisdom peace to Pompey, and the senate; who is a witness of this thing? hast thou made thein ail; the earth is full of ihy riches ; so is what is Celsus doing, I wonder ? what do you wish? I do not underthis great and wide sea, wherein are things creeping and innu- thióg which men can neither give nor receive as a gift; it is base

stand what is the meaning of avarice in old age; virtue is the only merable, bosh email and great leasts. These wait all upon avd nefarious to make a gain of politics ; they blare me greatly Thee, that thou mayest give then their 'ineat in due season. Because I bewail the death of my friend; Pausanias went to 498ist Thou hidest thy face, they are troubled; thou takest a way the inhabitants of Attica; the Veientes go to aid the Sabines; their breath, they die, and return to their dust."

they chose this placé Às their residence; Caesar left behind ive

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cohorts to protect the camp; sleep is very like death; a physician ( dilegerunt; tibi subvenit medicus, sed mederi non potest; domo ministers to a sick body; but who cures the mind ? the lion has a me reliquerunt praesidio; vae mihi! quid facio > imperio Gal. terrible voice; Egypt was added to the Roman empire; he is liberal lico Italia est adjecta; fratris ingenium longe antecellit meum; who takes from himself what he gives to another; the genius of si peccas, tibi peccas; cave leonem; portae liber adjacet; copiae the Greek poets far excelled the poets of other nations,

fluminis ripae insistunt; mihi convenit liber; hostibus signa detrahent milites; impiis non est bene; mali malis maledicanı;

in doctum esse con convenit tibi; prae curru currit equus ; bona Vol. III. p. 95.--ENGLISH-LATIN.

omnia sibi ipsi proponunt; maximos forti duei honores deferret

senatus; volentibus multa facile persuadentur; vulneribus tuis Nomen tibi est Roberto; filio nomen do Roberto; simillimus remedia medicus adhibebit; Angli student laboribus; est in peripatris est filius tuus; alteri seris, non tibi; est mihi ager; divitias culo pater (patri est periculum); mulieri supplicanti condonavit; inihi affert ager; mihi auxilio advenerunt amici; ludos sibi ueprf l virginem mihi uxorem adjungam.

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thou mayst

he may

PLUR. SING,

We may

praise

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Present Tense Present Tense. Present, 2. Inbe eu, loben, to praise. lobend, praise thou.

praising. 13. lobe er, let

him praise. 1. Yoten mir,

let us praise
2. laber ihr,

praise ye.
3 (oben fie, let

them praise

they may

PLUR. SING.

praise.

Ferfict Tense.

Perfect. gelobt baberi, toamani, praised. have praised.

PLUR. SING.

gelobt.

gelobt,

we have you have

1 ich lobe,
I praise.

ich lobe,
2011 lobest, thou praisest. ou lobest,
3 ler lobt,
he praises.

er lobe, 1 wir loben, we praise.

mpir lobent, 2 ihr Lobet, you praise. ihr lobet,

you may 3 sie loben, they praise. jie loben, Imperfect Tense.

Imperfect Tense. i ich lohte, I praised. ich Yubete, I might 2 du lobteft, thou didstpraise du lobetest, thou mightst 3 er lobte, he did praise. er Inbete,

he might 1 wir lobten, we did praise. wir lobeten; we might 2 ihr (obtet, you did praise. ifr Yobetet, you might 3 fie tohten, they did praise. lfie lobeten, they might Perfect Tense.

Perfect Tense. 1 lich habe I have

ich habe

I may have 2 bu haft thou hast

du ħabest

praised, &c. 3 ler hat he has

er habe 1 wir haben

wir haben 2 ihr habet

ihr habet 3. fie haben they have

fie haben Pluperfect Tense.

Pluperfect Tense. I jich hatte I had

id uåtte I might have 2 du hatteft thou hadst

du hattest

praised, &c. 3 er hatte he had

er hätte 1 mir hatten

wir hätten 2) ihr hattet

ihr hättet
3) sie hatten
they had

fie Hätten
First Future Tense.
First Future Tense.

First Future.
id werbe I shall

id werde (if) I shall ist ivürte 2 tu wirst

thou wilt du werbeft praise, &c. tu svürteft 3) er wirs

he will
er werbe

er nyürde
1 wir werden

wir werden

wir würden 2 ihr merdet ihr werdet

ihr würtet
3 fte werben

they will
fie werden

fic würden
Second Friture Tense.

Second Future Tense. Second Future. 1{ich werbe I shall

olid werbe

(if) I shall ich würde
2 bu wirst thou wilt du werbest have praised du würdest

he will
er werbe

er würde
I wir werden we shall

wir werben

wir würden 2 ihr werdet ihr werdet

týr wurbet 3 sie werden they will

sie werben

fie würden

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we had you had

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loben,

we shall you will

'uso)

praise.

I should praise, &c.

3 er wird

&c.

PLUR. SING.

gelobt Haben,

gelobt haben,

gelobt haben,
I should have
praised, &c.

you will

S 81. TAE MIXED CONJUGATION

Perfect Participle, and at the same time, partaking of the New

Form, in that they assume, in the same parts, the teuse-sign (Embracing the Irvegular Verbs properly so called). te and the participial ending t. These are they which, strictly

speaking, are the irregular verbs of the language, and accordThere are a few verbs (sixteen in all), which have a sort of ingly, they are here so classed. They will be found, also, unised conjugation : partaking of the old Form, in that they in the gener al List of (so called) "irregular" verbs, which, change their radical vowels to form the Imperfect Tense and the for the sake of convenience, we have inserted,

PRESENT.

INFINITIVE.

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ZIG-ZAG (Spalding): His geowetrical trisection of an angle won't do; his $ 82. VERBS OF THE MIXED CONJUGATION. other queries are exceedingly small.-G.B.(Manchester) is right; he will find

the matter pul right at p. 89 of the same volume. ' See the 1st No. of vol. iv.--W.R, C. (Siepney): The Stadium differs in different places and with different ancient writers.-J.C.C.: We really cannot well advise without more definite information; if in tovi, a personal interview would save

immense trouble.-AN ADMIRER: See past Notices to Correspondents.-PARTI

X. 1. 2. (Liverpool): Study Latin well first, and then Greek. "UN ELEVE of the Indicative

(Birmingham): Here is a French song for you
Indicat. Subjunct CIFLE.

DopécALOGUE DE L'AMITIÉ.
Un ami tu te choisiras

Sang te presser'aucunement.
Brennen, to burn,
lict brannte ich brennte gebrannt brenne

Semblable à toi tu le voudras Bringen, to bring, ich brachte ich brächte gebracht

D'âge, de goûts, de sentiment. Denken, to think, od dachte ich dächte gedacht

A t'aimer tu le couvieras

En vivant charitablement. Dürfen, to be per- ich darf, du barfft, ich durfte ich dürfte geturft

'ton respect tu lui prouveras mitted, er darf

In le reprenant franchement, Haben, to have, ich Habe, du haft er ich hatte ich habe, bu haft erlich hatte ich hätte gehabt habe

Jamais au sien tu ne voudras

Qu'il prélère ton jugement. hat

du besoin tu le dé endras Steunen, to know, ich kannte ich fennte gekannt

Contre tous intrépidement. Stönnen, to be able, ich kann, du kannst , ich konnte ich fönnte gekonnt

A sa parole tu croiras

Comme à son entier dévouement. can, er fann

Beaucoup tu lui pardonneras Mögen, to be al. ich mag, du magst, ich mochte ich möchte geruocht

San vouloir qu'il t'en fasse autant. lowed, may,

Ses peines tu devineras

Pour les consoler seulement, Düssen, to be ich be ich muß, du muß, ich mußte ich müßte gemußt

l.es tiennes tu ne lui diras obliged, must, er muß

Que s'il y peut soulagement. Nennen, to name, ich nannte ich nennte genannt

Sa femme tu respecteras Renren, to run, ich rannte ich rennte gerannt

Et la tienne pareillement.

Avec lui tu partageras Sonten, to send ich sandte ich seubete gefandt

Tous tes biens frateruellement. Sollen, to be ich be ich full, tu sollft,

Et faisant ainsi tu seras

Sur d'être aimé bien tendrement. obliged, shall, er sol Wenden, to turn, lich wandte ich wendcteigewandt

F. H. J. (London) and J. E. H. (Kidderminster): Thanks.-J. DOWBLL Wisscn, to know, ich weiß, du weißt, ich wußte ich wüßte gewußt wisse

(Birmingham): I'hanks; the cause for a standing army 18 to keep the

balance of power in Europe, as well as for national defence. The second er weiñ

question is absurd.--CRETUS: We don't know the “Heir-at-Law Society." Wollen, to be wil. ich will, du willst,

J. RUTHERPORD (Buckden): The correct answer to a question implying an

affirmation is yes; and to one implying a negative, is o.--NIL DESPBling,

RANDOM asks too inuch of us.-W. B. HODSON (Lincoln): Series is both

singalar and plural; hence we can say both this series and these series. $ 83. PARADIGMS OF IRREGULAR VERBS.

W. W. B. (Taunton) and A FATHER (Burnley): We cannot undertake to recommend one Assurance Society more than another.--C, THOMAS (St.

Austell): Right.-J. THOMAS (Sheffield): We never undertake to answer (1) In order to a better display of the irregularities of some Betting questions.-J. C. JOHNSTONE: We mean that the whole New of these verbs, we append the following paradigms. They will Testanieni in French can be had for 6d. The specific gravity of silver, fine be found exceedingly convenient for ready reference. Some of and not hammered, is 10-474, and hammered, 10-511; of tin, pure and not these verbs, also have certain peculiar uses, which require spe

hardened, 7.291, and hardened, 7.299; that of water being 1.000. cial attention. For this reason we have, immediately after the

ALPHA (Farringdon): To differentiate y=(1+x2) (1 + x)4, paradigms, added a series of explanatory remarks, with copious apply the formula dy=d(uv)=ıdvtvdu, thus : examples illustrating the several ways in which they are dy=(1+22)3d:(1+x)+(1+x)(1+x2)3= employed.

(1 -**)4(1+xyds+ 1+x)*3(1+x2)(1+x)=

(1 +234(1-7)(1+2)x+(1+x)(1+x)(1+x)6xd. ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.

(1+2+)*(1+x)"{4+12° +6x+622d

(4+62+102?)(1+-22)(1 +-2)3dx.
UN ETUDIANT: The letter v is put at the end of words ending in a vowel
and coming before a word beginning with a vowel, whether a comma inter-
venes or not; but it may be omitted. The correction suggested was made
in answer to another correspondent, vol. iii., p. 344, where the meaning of

LITERARY NOTICES.
Xaipw (I rejoice) is given. The following is the translation of the lines of
Homer:

FRENCH “ For there 18 not anywhere a more miserable being than man among all the creatures that breathe and crawl upon the earth.' "And when the Now ready, price 48. in stiff Wrapper, or 58, strongly bound in ololle early rosy-fingered dawn appeared."

the First Part complete, consisting of the French and English, of CASSELL'S JACQUES KNX: We cannot answer the first query satisfactorily, but can FRENCH DICTIONARY: the entire work will be completed in Twenty-six only conjecture there may be some reasons of a local character for using a Threepenny Nuinbers, and will form one handsome Volume of eight hundred

The word dcs is used with a nominative and thirty-two pages. Price 88. 6d. bound in cloth, or the Two Divisions case in a partitive or indefinite sense to express some, any; as, des pommes, may be had separate. soine apples, or simply apples. See vol. i., pp. 3% and 63. We do not know

A COMPLETE MANUAL OF THE FRENCH LANGUAGE, by Professor Do which a in the word amans our correspondent means.

Lolme, just published, price 3s. neatly bound. This forms one of the A CONSTANT SUBSCRIBER: “ Which is the better of the two?" is

“ Which is the better of the tivo?is most simple, practical, and complete Guides to a thorough knowledge of the undoubtedly correct, and best is, strictly speaking, wrong; but it inay be French Language which has hitherto been published. The plan upon which questioned wliether usage, which is the only guide in language, does not it is conducted 18 adinirally calculated to accomplish the proposed object. afford the latter sanction enough to render it allowable.

In the first place, the Grammatical Principles of the Language are clearly TBRTIAN: We have not room for the complete parsing of the sentence laid down, and, secoudly, these Principles are copiously illustrated by suitable, referred to, nor do we see any difficulty in it.

Excrcises of English to be turned into French. AQUILA VULCHRA: The preposition ab is indispensable before names of

CASSBLL'S LESSONS IN FRENCH, in a neat volume, price 2s. in stiff covers lining agents, but is uot used before those of lifcless instruments, which are or 26.6d. neatly bound in cloth. siinply put in the ablative. Ad insulam could not be changed to insulæ, the A KEY TO CASSELL'S LESSONS IN FBBNCH, containing Translations of all dative case. The word to, after a word signifying motion, nuust generally the Exercises, with pumerous relerences to the Grammatical Rules, price be translated by ad, followed by an accusative, though the fireposition is 13. paper covers, or ls.6d. cloth, omitted before the diame of a town or small island. The French books

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CASSELL'S GERMAN DICTIONARY is now issuing in Numbers, at 3d, each be published soon, under the title of “ Lessons in German Pronunciation.” Monthly Parts, ls, cach. We have already published an“ Eclectic Gerinan Reader," containing select CASSELL'S LesSONS IN GERNAX, price 28. in stiff covers, or 28. 6. and varied extracts from German authors. Both these works have a dic- ! cloth. tionary of all the words at the end.

CASSELL'S LESSONS IN LATIX, price 23. in stiff covers, or 29. 6d, cloth. RACINB (Manchester): All rightsBALOPIAN (Shrewdbury): We do aut VASJELL'O KEY TO THE LAT'IY EXERCI889, now ready, pricè ls. in suis know-woramos (Amble): Noti

covers,' or l.. ta, sloth,

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FRANCE.

BOUNDARIES. NORTH English Channel. SOUTE:

Pyrenees, Mediter

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Departments. Chief Icons Doubs,

Besançois Drôme,

Valence. Eure,

Eveux. Eure-et-Loir, Chartres. Finisterre,

Brest. Gard,

Nisines. Garonne

Toulouse. (Haute-), Gers,

Auch. Gironde, Bouleaux. Hérault, Montpelier. Ille-et-Vilaine, Rennes. Indre,

Issoudun.
Indre-et-

Tours,
Loire,
Isère,

Grenoble.
Jura,

Dôle. Landes,

St. Sever. Loir-et-Cher, Blois. Loire,

St. Etienne. Loire,

(Haute-), Loire-Infe

Nantes. rieure, Loiret,

Orleans.

Calors. Lot-et

Garonne, Lozère,

Mende.
Maine-et-

Angers.
Loire,
Marche, Cherbourg.
Marne,

Rheims.
Marne

La (Haute-), Naveppe,

Laval. Meurthe, Nancy. Neuse,

Bar-le-Duc. Morbihan, L'Orient. Moselle,

Metz. Nièvre,

Nevers. Nord,

Lille. Oise,

Beauvais. Ome,

Alençon. Pas-de-Calais, Arras. Puy-de-Dome, Clermont. Pyrenees

Bayonne. (Basses-), Pyrenees

Tarbes.
(Hautes-),
Pyrenees

Perpignan.
Orientales.
Rhin (Bas-), Strasbourg,
Rhin (Haut-), Mulhausen.
Rhone,

Lyons.
Saone (Haute-), Gray.
Saone-et-Loire, Chalons.
Sarthe,

Le Mans, Seine,

PARIS.
Seine Inferieure, Rouen.
Seine-et-

Meau.
Marne,
Seine-et-Oise, Versailles.
Sevres (Deux), Niort.
Somme,

Amiens,
Tarn,

Castres. Tarn-et

Montaubar. Garonne

Toulon. Vaucluse, Avignon. Vendée, Fontenay, Vienne,

Poitiers. Vienne

Limoges. (Haute-), Vosges,

Epinal. Yonne,

Auxerre.

EAST : Germany, Italy,

Atlantic Ocean.

DIVISIONS, 1, According to the Old Provinces,

in Alphabetic Order. Provinces. Chief Towns. Alsace,

Strasbourg. Angoumois, Angoulême. Anjou,

Angers. Artois,

Arras. Aunis,

Rochelle Auvergne,

Clermont. Bearn,

Pau. Berri,

Bourges. Bourbonnais, Moulins, Bourgogne

Dijon. Bretagne,

Rennes. Champagne,

Rheims. Comte de Foix, Foix. Dauphiné, Grenoble. Flandre,

Lille.
Franche

Besançon.
Comté,
Gascogne,

Tarbes.
Guienne, Bordeaux,
Ile de France, PARIS.
Ile de Corsica, Ajaccio.
Languedoc, Toulouse.
Limousin, Limoges.
Lorraine, Nancy.
Lyonnais, Lyons.
Maine,

Le Mans.
Marche (La), Gueret.
Nivernais, Nevers.
Normandy, Rouen.
Orleanais, Orleans.
Picardy, Amiens.
Poitou,

Poitiers.
Provence, Marseilles.
Rousillon, Perpignan.
Saintonge,

Saintes.
Touraine, Tours.
Venaissin

Avignon.
Comté
2. According to the New Depare-

ments, in Alphabetic Order.
Departments. Chief Towns.
Ain,

Bourg.
Aisne,

St. Quentin.
Allier,

Moulips,
Alpes (Basses), Digne.
Alpes (Hautes), Gap.
Ardèche,

Annonay.
Ardennes, Sedan.
Ariége,

Pamiers.
Aube,

Troyes.
Aude,

Carcassonne.
Aveyron,

Milhau.
Bouches-du-

Marseilles.
Rhone,
Calvados,
Cantal,

Aurillac.
Charente. Angoulême.
Charente-In.

La Rochelle.
ferieure.
Cher,

Bourges.
Corrèze,

Tulle.
Corse,

Bastia.
Côte-d'Or, Dijon.
Côtes-du-Nord, St. Brieux,
Creuse,

Aubusson.
Dordogne, Perigneux.

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