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America, the boundless masses of calcareous marls that preVail in Upper Missouri, and that stretch even to the Rocky Mountains, are, throughout their entire depth and extent, made up of the skells of infusorial animals.
TOR AMINIFERA IN NUYi Yi U LETTY, T.I.M. FSTONE,
Among the lower or older series of tertiary rocks, there are several layers of limestone which consist of minis' e, fiat, and cir
cular pieces that look as so many very diminutive and even ;
microscopic eoins. As Nummulus is the Latin for “Little coin,” this rock has.been called Nummulitic, as if it consisted of “fossil money.” This calcareous rock consists often of a compact crystalline marble full of nummulites, and these nummulites are only the shells of those extremely minute forms of molluscous animals called Foraminifera. Foraminifera is the Latin for the numerous openings or pores with which the shields of this genera are covered. Nummulites are not all microscopic, though as a genera they are diminutive. If you can imagine the size of a gold penny, or, better still, a gold farthing, you will be helped to conceive of the various sizes of this “fossil money” constituting immense mountains of limestone. The nummulite varies in size from a minute point to a disc of an inch, or an inch anda half in diameter. When you look at it outside, its surface i generally smooth and marked with fine undulating lines; but if the piece be split transversely, it is found to consist of several coils, which are divided into very many cells or chambers, by oblique partitions which have no communication with each other, The extent to which these mummulitic rocks spread in different parts of the globe, has arrested the attention of all practical geologists. In Northern Italy, in a district near Nice, is a rock remarkable for its nummulites. They are also found in the Apennines, on both flanks of the Pyrenees, and among the high Alps. They occur in Asia Minor, and may be traced at intervals along the wide tract of country which extends from the Mediterranean to the borders of Western India, Thick deposits of the same calcareous nature are found in Greece and in Egypt. Sir ROBERICK MURCHIson has lately shown in a paper read before the Geological Society of London, that these nummulitic rocks supply one of the chief connecting links between the deposits of India and those of Europe. “They extend,” he says, “at intervals through no less than twenty-five degrees of latitude, and near one hundred degrees of longitude : its northernmost ridge on the north flank of the Carpathians being clearly identifiable with its southernmost known limb in Cutch, and its western masses in Spain and Morocco being similar to those of the Bramahpootra’’ in the East. In the United States, a range of mountains near Suggsville, and which are about three hundred feet high, are entirely composed of one species of nummulites. In our own country, especially in Sussex, the blue clay that is found at Bracklesham and Stubbington, and the calcareous sandstone that is dug up at Emsworth and Bognor, abound in nummulites. The facts which have been briefly stated in this lesson show to you what an important influence the number, the growth, and the decay of minute bodies and invisible agents have had in the slow but progressive formation of our Earth's crust. The contribution of each is almost unappreciable even by the microscope, but the enormous masses produced by their numerical profusion are incalculable. Well might Infinite Power stand over these stupendous operations, and ask “who hath despis -d the day of small things P’’ It is by means of these diminutive agents, that He has brought to pass the most astounding phenomena and the most magnificent results. When we think that these minute animalculites have contributed much more material for furnishing the cover of the globe, than have been supplied by lions, and elephants, and whales, and leviathans, we cannot but think of the language of the Psalmist: “O Lord, how manifold are thy works in wisdom hast thou made thern all; the earth is full of thy riches; so is this great and wide sea, wherein are things creeping and innooverable, both smail and great beasts. These wait all upon thee, that thou mayest give thein their meat in due season. Thou hidest thy face, they are troubled; thou takest away their breath, they die, and return to their dust.” . . . . .
Reipublicae interest; mea refert; illorum interest; onnium interest; neminis refert ; se domum reversurun esse certiorem me feeit filius; maritum valere certiorem fecit matrem filia tua ; animi sum confusus; maki saepe confusi sunt animi; temporis et necessitatis senatum regina admonet; me suscepti negotii taedet; boni malorum miserentur ; illos taedet vitae; le uxorem habere mihi venit in mentem; praeteritorum recordatur; rei militaris esperitus; consciane rectiest mems tua consilii meite faciam certiorem; literarum appetens puer fiet sapiens; piscibus scatet mare; mitis estingenii soror tua ; a plurimis divitiae magni aestimantur; quanti hunc librum emisti 2 non unius assis me faciunt; nostrum est imperare, tuum obsequi; proditionis est accusatus; capitis damnabitur ; claves urbis potestatis suae fecerunt hostes,
Vol. III. p. 95.-LATIN-ENGLISH.
Caesar said to Dumnorix that he pardoned the past misdeeds of his brother Divitiacus; the abandoned woman cursed both; physicians, while they minister to the whole body, cure not even the smallest part; Venus was married to Vulcan; Gabinius is reviled; I have reproved Trebatius because he does not regard his health sufficiently ; the unwilling are not easily persuaded; I am of this opinion; a good citizen makes to the republic as present of his private hatreds; the Germans are given to labour and hardships; I am satisfied that you are worthless; a good general is present in dangers; the physician applied remedies to the wounds; Caesar made war on Gaul; certain signs precede certain things; father compares small things with great; the consul preferred the safety of all to the safety of individuals; I set before myself all things; he esteemed his love for his som, less than the public good; Quintius Fabius alone survived the slaughter of his family at Cremera; the senate bestowed honours on illustrious men; the virgin married him whom Caecilia had had for a husband; thy keepers have given thee the name of madman; the name of that disease is avarice; my name is Arcturus; I have deliberated and determined; all things belonging to human life ought to have been investigated, heard, read, discussed, and handled by the orator; Alcibiades had such sagacity that he could not be deceived, especially when he purposely kept his mind on the watch ; majesty and love do not well agree, nor tarry in one abode ; the father gave his son a dog;. the Rhine approaches the ocean; you do not know what man you speak ill of; avoid the dog; surely these things do not seem to you suitable to a marriage 3 the villas, built along the pleasant places of the river, stand on its margin; the world obeys God, and the seas and the lands obey him, and the life of man obeys the commands of the supreme law; I keep constant guard against thee; it is agreed between Dejotarus and myself [comma after convenit] that he with his troops should be in my camp; he advised Pompey to fear my house and be on his guard against me; but it is agreed to by all that the Sibyl brought three books to Tarquinius Superbus; it is foolish to allow what you can prevent; neither the plan nor the conversation suits me; an image of victory stood in the right hand of Ceres; the Parthians had taken the standards from Crassus; Caesar betrothed the granddaughter of Atticus to Tiberius Claudius Nero ; it is advantageous to the country itself to have citizens who perform what they owe to their parents; no fool nor dishonest person can be wesl off; Caesar made to his country a present of his grudges; Persous familiarly smiled on persons whom he scarcely knew; the praise and the glory of other men are commonly objects of envy; you ought to have discerned these things; who has not heard of the watchings (vigiliae) of Demosthenes?let us always live as if we thought we had to give an account; in the school of Pythagoras silence was imposed on disciples for five years; Aeneas is seen by no one ; Julianus and Apollinaris in their lasciviousness and sloth, were like gladiators rather than generals; if my son sins at all he sins against me; we wish to be rich not only for ourselves but for our children, our relatives, our friends, and, above all, for the commonwealth; I recommended peace to Pompey and the senate; who is a witness of this thing 2 what is Celsus doing, I wonder P what do you wish P I do not understand what is the meaning of avarice in Gld age; virtue is the only thing which men can neither give nor receive as a gift; it is base and fiefarious to make a gain of politics; they blame me greatly because I bewail the death of my friend; Pausanias went to assist the inhabitants of Attica; the Veientes go to aid the Sabines; they ehose this place as their residence; Caesar left bohind five
cohorts to protect the camp; sleep is very like death; a physician dilegerunt; tibi subvenit medicus, sed mederi non potest; domo ministers to a sick body; but who cures the mind P the lion has a me reliquerunt praesidio ; vae mihi quid facio F imperio Galterrible voice; Egypt was added to the Roman empire; he is liberal lico Italia est adjecta; fratris ingenium longe antecellit meum; who takes from himself what he gives to another; the genius of si peccas, tibi peccas; cave leonem; portae liber adjacet; copiae
the Greek poets far excelled the poets of other nations. fluminis ripae insistunt; mihi convenit liber; hostibus signa detrahent milites; impiis non est bene; mali malis maledicunt; Vol. III. p. 95.-ENGLISH-LATIN. "in doctum esse con convenit tibi; prae curru currit equus ; bona
omnia sibi ipsi proponunt; maximos forti duci honores deferret senatus; volentibus multa facile persuadentur; vulneribus tuis remedia medicus adhibebit; Angli student laboribus; est in periculo pater (patri est periculum); mulieri supplicanti condonavit; virginem mihi uxorem adjungam.
Nomen tibi est Roberto ; filio nomen do Roberto ; simillimus patris est filius tuus; alteri seris, non tibi; est mihi ager; divitias mihi affert ager; mihi auxilio advenerunt amici; ludossibiueprf
L E S S O N S IN G E R M A. N.—No. LXX.
*06en, to praise.
-* * speaking, are the irregular verbs of the language, and accord
There are a few verbs (sixteen in all), which have a sort of ingly, they are here so classed. ... They will be found, also,
mixed conjugation: partaking of the Old Form, in that they in the general List of (so called) “irregular” verbs, which, change their radical vowels to form the Imperfect Tense and the for the sake of convenience, we have inserted,
UN ETUDIANT: The letter v is put at the end of words ending in a vowel and coming before a word beginning with a vowel, whether a comma intervenes or not; but it may be omitted. The correction suggested was made in answer to another correspondent, vol. iii., p. 344, where the meaning of Xalpe (I rejoice) is given. The following is the translation of the lines of Piomer :“For there is not anywhere a more miserable being than man among all the creatures that breathe and crawl upon the earth.” “And when the early 1osy-fingered dawn appeared.” JAcques KNox: We cannot answer the first query satisfactorily, but can only conjecture there may be some reasons of a local character for using a feminine noun to designate a man. The word des is used with a nominative case in a partitive or indefit;1te sense to express some, any; as, des pommes, some apples, or simply apples. See vol. i., pp. 32 and 63. We do not know which a in the word amans our correspondent means. A ConstANT SUBSCRIBER: “Which is the better of the two 7 ° is undoubtedly correct, and best is, strictly speaking, wrong; but it may be questioned whether usage, which is the only guide in language, does not afford the latter sanction enough to render it allowable.
TERTIAN: We have not room for the complete parsing of the sentence referred to, nor do we see any difficulty in it. Aquí LA 1 olcHRA: The preposition ab is indispensable before names of living agents, but is not used before those of lifeless instruments, which are simply put in the ablative. Ad insulam could not be changed to insula, the dative case. The word to, after a word signifying motion, must generally be translated by ad, followed by an accusative, though the preposition is omitted before the name of a town or small island. The French books mentioned are good aud cheap. H. STYLE: We are now preparing an easy German reading book, which will be published soon, under the title of “Lessons in German Pronunciation.” We have already published an “Eclectic German Reader,” containing select and varied extracts from German authors. Both these works have a dictionary of all the words at the end. RAGINE (Manchester) : All right-8Alopian (Shrewsbury) t We do not know.--It SoFAMUs (Amble) ; Not
ZIG-ZAG (Spalding): His geometrical trisection of an angle won't do; his 9ther queries are exceedingly small.—G. B. (Manchester) is right; he will find the matter put right at p. 89 of the same volume. see the 1st No. of vol. iW. W. R. C. (Stepney); 'The Stadium differs in different places and with different ancient writers.-J. C. C.: We really cannot well advise without more definite information: if in towu, a personal interview would save immense tromble.—AN ADM 1 RER : See past Notices to Correspcndents.— X.Y. Z. (Liverpool): Study Latin well first, and then Greek." UNElevs (Birmingham): Here is a French song for you :—
DoDécALOGUE De L'AMITI6.
Unami tu te choisiras
F. H. J. (London) and J. E. H. (Kidderminster): Thanks,—J. Dowell (Birmingham): Thanks ; the cause for a standing army is to keep the balance of power in Europe, as well as for national defence. The second question is absurd.—CRETUs: We don't know the “Heir-at-Law Society.”— J. RUTHERFORD (Buckden): The correct answer to a question implying an affirmation is yes; and to one implying a negative, is no.—NIL DESPERANDUM asks too much of us.-W. B. Hopson (Lincoln): Series is both singular and plural; hence we can say both this series and these series.— W. W. B. (Taunton) and A FATHER (Burnley): We cannot undertake to recommend, one Assurance Society more than another.—C, THoMAs (St. Austell): Right.—J. THOMAS (Sheffield): We never undertake to answer Betting questions.—J. C. JoHNSTONE: We mean that the whole New Testament in French can be had for 6d. The specific gravity of silver, fine and not hammered, is 10-474, and hammered, 10.5ll ; of tin, pure and not hardened, 7.291, and hardened, 7.299; that of water being 1.000.
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