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Fig. 15.

the several components. In other terms, convert cach of these from that centre, it follows that the intensity of gravity will compound sentences into simple sentences. Distribute each simple increase or decrease, according as the bodies approach to, or sentence into subject and predicate, distinguishing the verb (the recede from, the general level of the earth's surface. This variacopula) and the attribute. Next, exhibit each compound tion, however, is not apparent in the ordinary phenomena which sentence in its several members, showing what are principal, what are observed at the surface of the globe, because, its radius accessary, and what appended, what interposed; together with being nearly 4,000 miles, the distance from the centre is sensibly the accessaries to the subjects and objects, and the adverbial the same when a body is elevated by a few hundred yards. objects. Finally, give the grammatical analysis of the whole. But when the heights of bodies above the earth's surface are very

considerable, gravity can no longer be considered as having the game intensity. It is necessary, therefore, to remember that the

laws of falling bodies already explained are only true for heights ON PHYSICS OR NATURAL PHILOSOPHY. within certain appreciable limits. No. VI.

2. The second cause which modifies the intensity of gravity is

the centrifugal force. A force which produces a curvilinear motion, LAWS OF GRAVITY; PENDULUM.

and which gives to bodies under the influence of this motion á

tendency to fly off from the axis of rotation, is called centrifugal. (Continued from page 63.)

It is demonstrated in treatises on Rational Mechanics, that the

centrifugal force is proportional to the square of the velocity of Formulæ relating to Falling Bodies. The second and third laws rotation ; whence it follows that, under the same meridian, it of falling bodies may be respectively represented by the formulæ increases as we approach the equator, where it reaches its maxivagt, and sgt2. For, let g be the velocity acquired at the end mum, because there the greatest velocity takes place. At the of a second by a body falling in a vacuum, and v its velocity poles the centrifugal force is zero. At the equator, the centrifuafter ť seconds ; then, the velocities being proportional to the gal force is directly opposed to gravity, and is equal to zgo of its times, we have g:v::1:t; whence v-gi (î). Again, a body intensity. Now 289 being the square of 17, it follows that, if the which falls during t seconds by a motion uniformly accelerated, motion of rotation in the earth were 17 times slower than it is, the with an initial velocity equal to zero or 0, and a final velocity centrifugal force at the equator would be equal to that of gravity, equal to gt, will describe the same space as if it fell during the and all bodies on its surface in this latitude would be on the whole time t by a uniform motion, with a mean velocity between point of being projected into space. O and gt, that is, with the velocity ? gt. Now, in the latter As we proceed from the equator towards the poles, gravity is the motion being uniform, the space desoribed is equal to the less and less affected by the centrifugal force. This happens chiefly product of the velocity and the time; whence, denoting this space because the centrifugal force decreases in proportion as we recede by s, we have s=igt xt=19(2). The demonstration of from the equator, and also because that, at the equator, the conthese theorems is given mathematically in treatises on Dynamics; trifugal force is directly opposite to that of gravity, whereas, in sve Whewell's Mechanical Euclid, and other elementary works proceeding towards the poles, its direction becomes more and of the same description.

more inclined to that of gravity, and thus loges intensity. Thus, If in the formula (2) we make t=1, we have s=19, whence in fig. 15, in which pa represents the axis of the earth, and Er the 9=28; that is, the velocity acquired at the end of a unit of time is double the space described in that unit of time. This value of

is called the measure of gravity. Thus, in the latitude of Lon. don, it has been found that a body falling near the surface of the earth, in a vacuum, describes about 16 it feet in the first second of its fall; hence, the measure of gravity of London is about 32% feet; in other words, after a body has fallen 161, feet in 1 second, by the force of gravity, it would, if the attraction of the earth were removed or counteracted, continue to fall ever after with a uniform velocity of 327 feet per second.

In formula (1) the velocity v is expressed in a function of the time; that is, an expression involving the number denoting the time; but we can likewise express it in a function of the space described, by eliminating t from the two formulæ (1) and (2). For, from the first, we have t=%, whence t2

; now substig2

equator, at any point A, the centrifugal force is represented by tuting this value of t2 in formula (2), we have s=*9X

the straight line A B perpendicular to the axis at K; now the ga force of gravity which acts in the direction of the radius CD, is

diminished by a quantity represented not by AB, but by AD, ; and multiplying both sides of this equation by 29, we have which is the composant of the centrifugal force acting in the 29

direction AD. v2=2g8; and extracting the root, we have finally, v=V 298; hence, we conclude that, when a body falls in a vacuum, the

3. The intensity of gravity is also modified by the depression velocity acquired at any given instant is proportional to the of the earth at the poles; for, in the vicinity, and at these points, square root of the height of the fall.

bodies are nearer to the centre of the earth, and consequently The formulæ v=gt, and 8 = gta, having been determined by

more subject to its attraction. considering gravity as an accelerating force, and consequently in Measure of the Intensity of Gravity.-after the preceding cona case where motion is uniformly accelerated, they may be considerations, gravity may be considered in the same place, and in sidered as general formulæ for this kind of motion. But it cases where the heights of the fall are inconsiderable, as a conmust be observed, that as g. denotes the acceleration of the stantly accelerating force; and that the measure of its intensity velocity imparted in each second by the accelerating force, the is the velocity imparted in one second of its fall to a body falling value of g will vary with the intensity of the force.

in a vacuum, without regard to its mass, seeing that in a vacuum Carises which Modify the Intensity of Gravity-Three causes

all bodies fall in the same time. This velocity is represented in have an effect in making the intensity of gravity vary ; 1st, the general by. 29: it increases from the equator to the pole, and at elevation of the place above the ground, or general level of the London it is 324 feet. earth's surface; 2nd, the centrifugal force due to the earth's The Pendulum.-The general name of pendulum is given to rotation on her axis; 3rd, the depression of the earth's surface every solid body suspended at one point on a horizontal axis, near the poles.

around which it oscillates. There are two kinds of pendulum; 1. Since terrestrial attraction acts upon bodies as if the whole the simple and the compound. mass of the globe were collected at its centre, and this attraction The simple pendulum (which exists only in idea) is that which acts upon them in the inverse ratio of the square of their distance I would be formed by a heavy material point suspended by a per

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fectly rigid rod, inextensible and without weight, at a point that is, that they are sensibly equal in the same time, so long as ruund which it freely oscillates. Of course this pendulum cannot their amplitudes do not exceed a certain limit, namely 20 or 3% be put in actual practice, because it is purely theoretical, and is of the circle. employed only to determine by calculation the laws of the Galileo was the first who established the isochronism of the oscillations of the pendulum.

small oscillations of the pendulum. It is said that, when a young The compound pendulum may be varied in its form in any man, he first made this discovery by observing the motions of : manner whatever, but it is generally made of a metallic lens or lamp suspended in the dome of the cathedral at Pisa. bob, suspended by an iron or wooden rod, and moveable round a 2. In pendulums of the same length, the duration of the oscillahorizontal axis, such as the pendulum of a clock, the pendulum tions are the same, whatever be the substances of which they are x, in fig. 13 of the preceding lesson, or that exhibited in the composed. Thus, simple pendulums of which the material point following cut, where o is the point of suspension, and o the point is composed of cork, lead, or gold, perform the same number of

of oscillation; in other words, c is the point oscillations in the same time, if they are of equal length.
where a simple pendulum would produce the 3. In pendulums of unequal length, the durations of their
same oscillations as the compound pendulum. oscillations are proportional to the square roots of their lengths.

Compound pendulums are suspended either Thus, if the lengths of pendulums he respectively 4, 9, 16, &c.,
on a knife-edge, on the same principle as that times that of a given pendulum, the duration of their oscillations
of balances, or by means of a thin and flexible will be respectively 2, 3, 4, &c. times that of the oscillation of the
steel spring, which is bent slightly at every given pendulum.
oscillation.
In order to explain the oscillatory motion oscillations of a pendulum of the same length are in the inverse

4. At different places of the earth's surface, the durations of the
of the pendulum, we shall first notice the ratio of the square roots of the intensities of gravity.
simple pendulum cm, fig. 16. When the
material point m is below the point of suspen- These laws are deduced from the formula t=TV, which is
sion c on the vertical passing through that

29 point, the action of gravity is destroyed, or derived from the application of the calculus to the motion of the rather counteracted; but if the point be simple pendulum. In this formula, t denotes the duration of an transferred to m, its weight P will be decom- oscillation ; !, the length of the pendulum ; 29, the intensity of posed into two forces, the direction of the one gravity, that is, the velocity acquired at the end of the 1st second

being in the straight line cm produced to B, by a body falling in a vacuum. Also, a is a constant quantity P

and that of the other in the tangent m D to which denotes the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its teracted by the resistance of the point c, but

The first two laws of the pendulum are deduced at once from the composant m D urges the material point to descend from the formula taTV ; for this formula contains the values in to m. When it reaches this point, the pendulum does not

29 stop; for, in consequence of its inertia, it proceeds in the neither of the amplitude of the oscillation, nor of the density of

the substance of which the pendulum is composed, the value of Fig. 16.

being independent of the values of these quantities. As to the third and fourth laws, they are also comprehended under the formula, since, in the radical expression, 1 is the numerator, and 291 the denominator of the fraction.

Length of the Compound Pendulum.-The preceding laws and formulæ are applicable also to the compound pendulum; but in this case it is necessary to define what is meant by the length of the pendulum. Every compound pendulum is formed of a heavy rod terminating in a larger or smaller mass, according to its form and purpose; now, all the different points of such a pendulum tend, according to the third law of pendulum motion, to describe their oscillations in times differing from each other, and increasing in duration in proportion to the square roots of their distances from the point of suspension. But all these points being invariably, connected together, their oscillations are necessarily performed in the same time. Hence, it is evident that the motion of the points nearer to the axis of suspension is retarded, and that of the

points more remote from that axis is accelerated, Between direction » Now, if the same construction be made at any these two extremes there are some points which are neither point of the arc un, it will be found that the grayity which accelerated nor retarded, and which oscillate as if they were not acted from m to M with an accelerating force will now act connected with the rest of the mass. These points being all at from u to n with a retarding force. It will take away, there the same distance from the axis of suspension, form together an fore, successively from the moveable the velocity acquired in axis of oscillation parallel to the former; now the distance of the its descent, so that, when it reaches the point n at a height axis of oscillation is called the length of the compound pendu fum. equal to that of the point m, the velocity will become zero, as Hence, the length of a compound pendulum is the same as the it was at the latter point. Whence it follows, that the length of a simple pendulum which performs its oscillations in same series of phenomena will be repeated, and the pendulum the same time. Thus in the preceding figure of the compound will continually oscillate. In practice, this result is prevented pendulum, the point o is the centre or place of the axis of suspenby the resistance of the air, and the rigidity of the cord, obstacles sion, and op the length of the compound mass ; all the points of which can never be completely annihilated in compound pen- this mans between 0 and o are retarded, and all the points dulums.

between p and o are accelerated; but all the points at o are Laws of the Oscillation of the Pendulun.--The passage of the neither accelerated nor retarded, and therefore the point c is the

centre or place of the axis of oscillation. pendulum from one extreme position or point m to the other is n called an oscillation'or siding. The are m n is called the amplitude the axis of suspension;

that is, if we suspend the penduluım by

The axis of oscillation possesses the property of reciprocity with of the oscillation, and the length of the simple pendulum is its axis of oscillation, the duration of the oscillations will be the the distance of the point of suspension from the material

same as before ; in other words, the axis of suspension wil then point m.

become the axis of oscillation. By means of this property, the In treatises on Rational Mechanics, it is demonstrated that the length of the compound pendulum can be found experimentally. oscillations of the simple pendulum are regulated by the four This is done by inverting the pendulum and suspending out by following laws.

means of a moveable axis, which is placed, after several trimis, ir 1. In the same pendulum, the omanll oscillations are asochronous ; ( such a manner that the number of oşcillations performed in the

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same time may be exactly the same as they were before its ( as we have seen above, that gravity acts upon all bodies with the inversion. When this object has been attained, then the distance same intensity. They also enable us to determine the intensity between the second axis of suspension and the first, is the true of gravity at different points of the earth's surface, and conselength required. If we now substitute the value thus obtained, quently the true form of the earth itself. The isochronism of instead of l, in the formula relating to the simple pendulum, this the oscillations Tenders it applicable as a regulator of timepieces. formula becomes applicable to the compound pendulum, and the Lastly, M. Foucaud has recently employed it in the experimental laws of oscillation are the same as those belonging to the simple demonstration of the diurnal rotation of the earth. pendulum,

In order to measure the intensity of gravity by means of the penThe length of the seconds pendulum, that is, the pendulum which beats 60 times in a minute, varies at every place, accord-dulum, we ascertain the value of 2g, from the equation t=rV ing to the intensity of the force of gravity at that place: thus,

을 at the Equator, it is 39.0137 inches; By squaring both sides of this equation, we have th=7

29 at London, it is

*27 at 10° from the Pole, it is 39.2106

whence, by reduetion, we have 2g = Thus, we see that, Verification of the Laws of the Pendulum.-The laws of the in order to find the value of 2g at any place, we must measựre the simple pendulum can only be verified by means of the compound length of the compound pendulum at that place, and then the pendulum; and this is best done by constructing the latter in duration of its oscillations; this may be found by ascertaining such a manner that it may fulfil

, as much as possible, the condi- how many oscillations it makes in a given number of seconds, tions of the former; as, for instance, by suspending at the end of a and dividing the latter number by the number of oscillations. very fine thread,, a small sphere of an extremely dense substance, such as lead or platinum. A pendulum of this construction different points on the earth's surface. Hence, by calculation, we

By such experiments the value of 2g_has been determined at Oscillates almost exactly like a simple pendulum, whose length is deduce from the value of 2g at each place, the distance of that place

suspension and the

from the centre of the earth, and consequently the form of the centre of the small sphere.

earth itself. In order to verify the law of the isochronism of small oscillations, a pendulum of the preceding construction is made to oscil. Huygens, a Dutch philosopher, was the first who applied the late, and the number of oscillations which it performs in equal pendulum as a clock-regulator, in 1657, and the spiral spring to times is noted when the amplitude is 3°, 20, or 10. By this watches in 1675, When the pendulum is employed as a regulameans it is ascertained that the number of oscillations is in these tor, it is furnished with an anchor escapement, as explained in cases exactly the same,

the description of Atwood's Machine. In order to prove the second law, several pendulums B, D, C, fig. 17, are constructed as suggested above ; that is, having their

LESSONS IN ITALIAN GRAMMAR.--No. VI.

Fig. 17.

By CHARLES TAUSENAU, M.D., of the University of Paria, and Professor of the German and Italian

Languages at the Kensington proprietary Grammar School.

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FOURTH PRONOUNCING TABLE,

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FOR ADDITIONAL EXERCISE IN THE VOWELS.

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1. Words that contain a, e, i, o, or repeated u:-
Italian.
Pronounced.

English.
Calafatata kah-lah-fah-tahtah Calked
Abbacinata ahb-bah-tchee-nah-tah Blinded
Accanalata ahk-kah-nah-lah-tah Channelled(column)
Salainandra sah-lah-máhn-drah Salamander
Abbraciava ahb-brah-tchah-vah I kindled
Cavalcava
kah-pahl-kah-yah

I rode
Persevererete per-sai-vai-rai-rai-tai

You will persevere
Dependentemente dai-pen-den-tai-mén-tai Dependent
Pretenderete prai-ten-dai-rai-tai

You will pretend
Eccellentemente et-tchel-len-tai-mén-tai Excellently
Insipidissimi in-see-pee-dís-see-nee Most insipid
Ticinissimi vee-tchee-nís-see-mee Very near or vicinal,
Inimicissimi ee-nee-nee-tchís-see-mee Very hostile or in-

imical
Mirifici
mee-rée-fee-tchee

Wonderful, mirac

culous Distintissimi dee-stin-tís-see-mee Very clearor distinct Difficilissimi dif-fee-tchee-lís-see-mee Very difficult Odoroso 0-do-ró-80

Fragrant, odorous Doloroso do-lo-ró-so

Painful, dolorous lengths in fine thread, equal and terminated in spheres of the

Pomocotogno* po-mo-ko-tón-nyo Quince same diameter, but of different substances, as lead, ivory, or

Tumultuo
100-móol-too-

I excite a tumult brass. Neglecting the resistance of the air, it is found that all

Cuccurucu kook-koo-r0o-koo A word imitating these pendulums make the same number of oscillations in the

the cock-crowing same time; whence it is. inferred that gravity acts on all sub

00-200-froot-too-o Ị have or enjoy the stances with the same intensity fact which has been formerly - fact which has been formerly Usufruttuo

temporary use proved to the student.

The third law is verified by making pendulums oscillate, whose 2. Words comprising the five vowels :-
lengths are to one another respectively as the numbers 1, 4, 9, &c.;

Italian,
Pronounced.

English,
when it is found -that the oscillations of these pendulums are to
one another respectively as the numbers 1, 2, 3, &c.

Affettuosi
ahf-fet-too-ó-si

Kind, affectionate The fourth law, relating to the oscillations of pendulums, cannot Communicare kom-moo-nee-káh-rai To communicate be correctly proved by experiment.

Uses of the Pendulum. --The oscillations of the pendulum show, i The sound of the on will be explained in another lesson

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cate

Entusiasmo
Fulminatore

Procuratrice

tors

Italian.
Pronounced.

English.

ciurma (tchóorr-mah), a mob, a crew of. galley slaves'; giallo Delicatuzzo dai-lee-kah-too-tso Over-refined, deli-(jáhl-lo), yellow; giorno (jórr-no), day; giudice (jóo-dee-tchai),

judge; giustizia (joo-stée-tzeeah), justice ; giubilo (jóo-bee-lo), en-too-zee-ah-zmo Enthusiasm

joy, jubilee. fool-mee-nah-tó-rai One who fulminates

When e follows the letter s, thus forming the combination sc, Lusingheranno loo-zin-gai-ráhn-no They will flatter

and when at the same time it precedes the vowel a, 0, and u, or pro-koo-rah-trée-tchai A solicitor's wife

the consonants / and r, it will be clearly apparent that thec in this Republicano rai-poo-blee-káh-no

Republican

case will follow the general rule, and be sounded like k; as, sca, Saluberrimo sah-loo-bêrr-ree-mo Very wholesome or

salubrious

SCO, scu, scla, &c., scri, &c., pronounced skah, sko, skoo, sklah, &c.,

skree, &c. When, however, the combination sc immediately Speculatori spai-koo-lah-tó-ree

Thinkers, specula- precedes the vowels e and i, the sound of the c is less com

pressed than without the s before it; and se in such cases is Subordinare soo-bor-dee-náh-rai To subordinate

sounded like sh in English words. The combinations sce and Superlativo soo-per-lah-tée-vo Highest, superla- sci will be, therefore, pronounced shai, or she and shee. But

tive

when c with an s before it, and with e or i to follow, is to retain It is necessary that I should now explain with some degree the sound of k just as before a, 0, and 2, recourse is had to the of minuteness certain peculiarities of the most frequent occur- same auxiliary letter h to indicate the preservation of the sound rence, and consequently of the highest importance in the of c like k; and the combinations sche and schi are pronounced pronunciation of the letters c, y, and s, when they enter into skai, or skệ and skee. When on the other hand c with an s certain combinations with other letters.

before it, and with the vowels a, 0, and 2 to follow, is to be With regard to the letters c and g, I have already stated and pronounced not like skah, sko, skoo, but like sh, recourse illustrated by examples in the first pronouncing table, that must be had to the letter in which is interposed between se and when c and g are placed before the vowels a, o, and u, c is a, 0, and 26, just as in those cases where, as we have seen, sounded like k, and g like the English g in the words game, go, church before a, 0, and w; and the combinations thus arising

standing by itself, is to have the compressed sound of c in and gull.

But suppose that it should be necessary in the declension of nouns, the conjugation of verbs, &c.; to give to The previous observation holds good in this case likewise, that

scia, scio, and sciu, will be pronounced shah, sho, and shoo. the c and g before the vowels e and i the same sound

that c and in more studied pronunciation the letter j is in these combinag have before a, o, and u; it is obvious that some sign must be tions slightly touched, though the voice must rapidly glide to used to mark that pronunciation of the c and g, and avoid confusion. This sign is no other than the letter h, which, as has the enunciation of the vowels a, o, and u. Examples : scarpa been remarked, is a mere soundless, written sign, and on that (skáhrr-pah), shoe ; scoppiare (skop-pêeah-rai), to burst, crack; account pre-eminently suited to the purpose. In this way we

scuffia (skóof-feeah), a woman's cap; scherno (skérr-no) arrive at the combinations ch and gh; and from what has been mockery; schifare (skee-fáh-rai), to avoid, to have an aversion said, it is obvious that the sound of ch before e and i can be for; sclamare (sklah-máh-rai), to exclaim; scrivere (skrée-vaino other than the sound of k; and the sound of għ before e and rai), to write; scelto (shél-to), selected; scevro (shái-vro), e, that of g in the English words game, go, and gull. And, separated; sciame (shah-mai), a swarm of bees; coscia (kóindeed, it is a fundamental rule of Italian grammar, which shah), thigh; sciolto (shôl-to), ungirded; sciocco (shộk-ko), cannot be too strongly impressed on the mind of the reader, stupid ; asciutto (ah-shóot-to), dry. that whenever a grammatical necessity arises in the inflexions The combinations gl, gn, and some others, I shall explain by or terminational changes of a word, for retaining the sound notes, as they occur in the next pronouncing table. of the c which in the root sounded like k, and the sound of which in the root sounded like gin game, go, and gull, before the vowels e and i; I must be placed between c and g, and the vowels e and i, and the combinations thus resulting will be che, chi, and

SKETCHES FOR YOUNG THINKERS.. ghe, ghi, pronounced kai or kê, kee; gai or ghế, ghee. For example, banche (pronounced báhn-kai), banks, offices; stecchi

(Continued from page 55.) (sték-kee), thorns, prickles ; Tedeschi (tai-dai-skee), Germans ; Turchi (toorr-kee), Turks; oche (ô-kai), geese ; vecchio (vêk

CHAPTER II. keeo); an old man; perchè (per-kai), why; fianchi (feeáhnkee), flanks, sides ; Gherardo (gai-ráhrr-do), Gerard; ghetto (ghét - to), a jewry; glorlanda (ghi r - lahn - dah), garland; Ghibellino (ghi-bel-lée-no), Ghibellin; alberghi (ahl-bêrr-ghee), It is the object of this chapter to show that Goodness is better hotels; maghe (máh-gai), sorceresses; impieghi (im-peeê-ghee), than Greatness, and to define the meaning of true wisdom. We employments.

have already seen how men can overcome difficulties in intellectual But suppose a necessity arises for giving to the letter c before pursuits, and rise superior to social circumstances; we now turn a, o, and ï the sound of in the word church, and to g before to inquire, whether moral excellence is dependent or independent a, u, and o the sound of g in ginger. Evidently a sign must be of the influences by which we are surrounded. In the outset, used to indicate that, or else c would be sounded like k, and a one or two explanatory observations may be necessary to shorten like g in game. Now this sign is the vowel i. In common

the ground, and show the position which we occupy. Mental conversation this i is scarcely heard, serving the purpose only and moral excellence are by no means antagonistic or incompatible. of a mere soundless, written sign; but in the more measured or In thousands of instances they have been found in the same studied pronunciation of the pulpit, the stage, public

assemblies, individual, brightening, strengthening, and regulating each other. and even frequently in the conversation of cultivated

, if the i is slightly touched in the enunciation, while the voice were almost inseparable. No mistake can be more egregious. rapidly glides to the pronunciation of the vowels a, 0, and u. Facts bear out the statement, that many of the brightest ornaHence another fundamental rule of Italian, which goes side by ments of the race have been among the most virtuous, godly, and side with the one above stated, that whenever à necessity exemplary characters. Without further introductory remark, we arises for giving to the c before a, o, and u the compressed sound proceed to substantiate this proposition. The cases referred to will of c in the English word church, and

to g before a, 0, and the be treated with much the same brevity as in the former chapter, compressed sound of g in ginger, the letter i (an auxiliary letter since they are quoted as corroborative and illustrative, rather than in this case) must be placed between c and the vowels a, o, and as biographies of the persons whose names are recorded. U, and between g and the vowels a, 0, and u, and the combina- Of CYRUS, the Lord said :- “He is my shepherd and shall pertions thus arising will be cią, cio, ciu, and gia, gio, giu, form all my pleasure.” He is universally regarded as the most pronounced tchah, tcho, tchoo, and jah, jo, joo. For example, accomplished prince whose name profane history has handed down ciascuno (tchah-skoo-no), every body ; ciancia (tcháhn-tchah), to us. His intellect was gigantic, and his skill in controversy only foolery ; cio (tchô), that, what; cioe (tchoe), that is to say; equalled by his power in execution. The Almighty chose him as bracció (bráht-tcho), arm; ciuffo (tchốof-fo), I catch, I snap;ltho instrument of punishing wicked nations, and carrying out

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MORAL EXCELLENCE.

His own inscrutable designs. We will not follow him through wise than my duty requires." He bravely suffered, he drank the all the devious way along which he walked, but will come to his hemlock, and died in the possession of perfect peace. deathbed, and hear his dying words. History tells us that he These instances, quoted-from the history of heathen philosophy, convened his children, and the chief officers of state, and gave abundantly testify that mental and moral excellence can exist in expression to many excellent observations. He appointed his son the same individual. Others might be quoted in profusion, but Cambyses to be his successor, and observed “that the chief if those already given tend to arouse the inquisitiveness of the strength and support of the throne were not vast extent of country, young thinker, and lead him to examine the historical records number of forces, nor immense riches, but just veneration towards himself, the object of the writer will be completely answered. God, good understanding between brethren, and the acquisition If these men, living in barbarous ages, were distinguished for of true and faithful friends." These sentiments were highly learning and virtue, does it not become a serious question, what honourable to the mind and heart of this magnanimous Persian manner of persons ought we to be? They lived early in the king. It would be unfair to judge bim by the standard of the morning, with no light but the feeble glimmering of the stars, nineteenth century, but if we carefully collate the history of the and that light often obscured by the murky gloom

and vapour of career, we must be satisfied that he combined, in no ordinary lion and folly; and we live at a time when the sun of degree, a cultivated mind and a heart steadfastly fixed on the diaa splendour! True, at that period there were many learned purposes of God,

and noble men, there were also numerous resorts of learning; but CONFUCIUS, the renowned philosopher of China, is always no man of moderate intelligence will contend that the same pointed to as an example of the union of intellectual and moral facilities existed then as do now. They had the Academy, the excellence, and, we think, with some fair show of propriety. Lyceum, and various schools of learning, but they had no Judging him by the light of the New Testament, our estimate of Mechanics' Institutes, no peoples' reading rooms, they had not his character might be comparatively low; but when we remem- that free and mighty press which causes learning to "flow as a ber that he was born upwards of 550 years before the incarnation river,” and popular intelligence “ as the waves of the sea." of Christ, we are amazed at the beauty of many of his maxims, Learning was then the privilege of the few; Pythagoras was conand applaud much of his wonderful philosophy. In his childhood tent to lecture behind a curtain, without condescending to appear he is said to have been grave, affectionate, and obedient, and before his disciples. But now we live in a different age; the always to have offered his food to the " Supreme Lord of heaven," oligarchy of literature is abolished, the curtain is removed, the before venturing to partake of it himself. To his relations he press is at full work, and no man need be ignorant who has the ever paid the most patriotic regard; he commenced at twenty-three perseverance to acquire knowledge. Men must be tried according years of age to introduce a general reformation of manners. An to the advantages which they have possessed. The law is inelegant writer has well said of Confucius, that “he was every- violable, that " to whom much is given, of him shall much be where known; his integrity and the splendour of his virtues made required.”. According to this law, and it is a just one, how great him beloved. Kings were governed by his counsels, and the people is the condemnation of those who are content to dwell in the lowreverenced him as a saint.” Be his tenets what they may, his lands of ignorance, narrow-mindedness, and bigotry, instead of historians have not failed to chronicle one fact which will ever rising to the mountain-top of knowledge, magnanimity, and largeredound to his credit. He was no hypocrite; what he taught to heartedness. A cheap literature, an instructive lecture-room, and other's he invariably practised himself. His sincerity was trans- a liberal education are among the chief glories of the century in parent; his countrymen had implicit confidence in his fidelity, which we live. It is an age of progress, not of power; of learning, and many of them courageously avowed themselves his disciples, not of fighting;

of schools, art, and union, not of soldiers, arms, and walked according to his laws. He expired in the seventy- and discord. The young thinker has much to do with this state third year of his age, greatly lamented by thousands of survivors. of society; it is from his ranks that all vacancies are to be supLet this Chinese philosopher be fairly judged in a spirit of candour, plied, that all offices in civil, political, and religious society are to and few will be the men who will deny that he was the wonder be discharged, therefore his mind must be filled with information, of his age, and worthy of more praise than some are willing to and strengthened by severe and searching discipline.

We now come to the Christian era, and briefly refer to a few Turning from China to Greece, we find there SOCRATES, who has more examples bearing out the subject under discussion. The been justly designated the greatest of the ancient heathen philo- first name which meets our eye, as particularly worthy of observasophers. Socrates was pre-eminently a practical man. He tion, is that of IGNATIUS, who was born in Syria, and afterwards possessed wonderful natural talents, and a most extraordinary became Bishop of Antioch, History represents him as having amount of knowledge. He was at once a profound philosopher, been brought up under the supervision of the Apostle John, and an honourable citizen, and a popular instructor. He looked at occupying the bishoprio of Antioch for upwards of forty years. philosophy, however, as a means rather than an end ; hence he Such a man of eminent piety and learning was not to be tolerated lived out his learning in his everyday transactions. He was not in that age of ferocity and persecution. The Emperor Trajan fond of wasting his energies in abstruse speculations and learned knew him, and had cruelly designed to put him to death. He was refinements; he sought rather to be useful, to elevate his species, ordered to be thrown among wild beasts, to be devoured by them. and to dignify philoscphy, by showing how applicable it was to all Did his moral excellence desert him in the prospect of this cruel the affairs of practical lite. His benevolence was as remarkable fate ? Far from it. Instead of cooling his zeal, it only tended to as his learning was extraordinary. To all who applied, he com- increase the feryour of his love, and in the fulness of his heart he municated his knowledge freely; in house, market, or prison, he blessed his God that he had been found worthy of such a death. was alike ready to instruct, encourage, and bless his fellow-men. He joyfully undertook his voyage to Rome; he begged the prayers It is even recorded of him, that he instructed his pupils without of his fellow-Christians, and before being thrown to the savage any gratuity." The chief men of Athens were his stewards; beasts that were to destroy him, he cheeringly said: “Now indeed they sent him provisions as they apprehended he wanted them. I begin to be a disciple; I weigh neither visible nor invisible He took what his present necessities required, and returned the things in comparison of an interest in Jesus Christ.'

He met rest. Observing at a particular time the numerous articles of his antagonists, and exchanged mortality for life. luxury which were exposed to sale at Athens, he exclaimed: Immediately following Ignatius is the name of the venerable

How many things are here which I do not want! Good man! POLYCARP. He succeeded Ignatius in Antioch, and discharged he fell a victim to the wounded pride and villany of some of his every duty with characteristic fidelity and apostolic zeal. He countrymen, and was condemned to die! In these circumstances lived in troublous times. In 167, Smyrna was raging with per-" We will presently see one of the most overwhelming proofs that secution, and the bloodthirsty opponents of Christianity cried for moral excellence is independent of social position, and superior to vengeance on Polycarp. He was brought in old age before the the fear of death. One of his most violent persecutors privately tribunal of the proconsul, and with unfaltering confidence avowed informed him, that it he would desist from censuring his conduct, his attachment to Christian truth. On being requested to deny that steps should be immediately taken to prevent his execution. the truth and disavow the Lord Jesus, he boldly answered: How did the philosopher now act? Did his cowardly heart quail Eighty and six years have I served Christ, and he has never at the prospect of death? “No!” Socrates replied, with the deserted me; how then can I blaspheme my King and Saviour ?" dignity of a philosopher and the confidence of injured innocence; Trembling with age, he was brought to the stake; he poured out "Whilst I live I will never disguise the truth. nor speak other his heart in fervent prayer, and his ransomed soul rode inte

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