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W O LTU ME THE FOJ R T H.

The Poets say, “Philosophy’ is “proud,” We own the guilt; if guilt it can be call’d,
As witness Campbell on the “Rainbow” cloud To give true liberty to minds enthrall’d;
Said in a haughty sense, it is not true, To teach men how to earn themselves a name,
For in this Volume, see what’s done for you. And win the prize, the lasting meed of fame.
Said in a sense becoming conscious pride, Pleasures that spring from learning and from truth,
In us, your EDUCATOR, and your guide, Are, in these pages, set before our youth;
"Who thus have ransack’d Nature’s wondrous stores, The honours which they yield, are greater far
To bring her treasures to your very doors, | Than all that circle round the name of Czar.

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T0 O U R RE A D E R S, *

IN bringing our Fourth Volume to a close, we heartily thank all our Subscribers for their steady and unwearied support. The letters of encouragement and of commendation which we have received during the past six months, have been more numerous and more gratifying than ever. We have endeavoured to show our sense of these favours, by labouring more earnestly to impart solid and useful instruction in various important branches of learning; we have, in fact, considered that we were entrusted by our readers with the responsible task of their education, and we Stave aimed at fulfilling our duties to their satisfaction. We have given a concise and popular summary of the leading facts in several branches of Natural Philosophy, as may be seen by consulting the Index; but many highly useful and interesting departments are soon to follow in their order; these are Caloric and Optics, or the doctrines of Heat and Light, including some of their most interesting applications, as the Steam Engine, the Telescope and Microscope, Daguerreotype and Photography; Magnetism and Electricity, including the nature of the Telegraph, the Electrotype, and other useful applications; and, as soon as possible, Astronomy, which is much in demand.

Chemistry has also been treated in a highly popular manner, and has converted a great number of our Subscribers into practical Students of that art. The elegant languages of ancient Greece and of modern Rome have also occupied our pages, and have been expounded with great care by the authors of the Lessons on these branches of Literature; nor have we forgot our Students in French, as a “Course of Readings” in that popular language is still appearing at convenient intervals. The Mathematics, including Algebra and Geometry, with Instrumental Arithmetic and Mathematical Illustrations, have also been progressing under our own care, and these branches will be still more vigorously pursued in our next Volume, where some of them, if possible, will be brought to a conclusion. Bookkeeping has already occupied a portion of our labours, and we shall conclude this branch in a few early Numbers, with the subject of Foreign Trade. The Lessons in Reading and Elocution will be rendered still more useful and attractive in our next Volume; but we cannot promise any new language till we have finished one or more of those now in hand; the German, however, is very near a conclusion. We are preparing for Lessons in Mechanical Drawing, and in various other branches which have been unavoidably, postponed, on account of the great demand for those which we have given, and which we are now carrying on. In closing these remarks, we can only say that we shall continue to place before our Readers, as we have always striven to do, those subjects which are the most in demand, and which are calculated to do “ the greatest possible good to the greatest possible number.”

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LESSONS IN ALGEBR.A.

Reduction and Addition of Fractions . . . . . . . .
Subtraction and Multiplication of Fractions ..
Division of Fractions; Simple Equations . . . .
Reduction of Equations by Multiplication, and
by Division; Numerical Substitution . . . . . .
Problems in Simple Equations
Involution of Powers; Binomial Theorem . . . .

BIOGRAPHY.

Zarah Colburn, the Calculating Boy . . . . . . . . . .
LESSONS IN BOOKKEEPING.
Home Trade; Memoranda of Transactions... 108,
Subsidiary Books; Cash Book; Bill Book; Bills
Receivable Book; Bills Payable Book ..
Day Book, from January till June
Cotton Book; Purchases; Sales ; Profits . . . .
The Journal, from January till June ; with the
General Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . e to e s e o e o 'o e o e

The Ledger; Posting; Balancing; Index to

Ledger A; Ledger A, from January till June;

Trial Balance 214,

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Protoxide of Tin ; Experiments . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Persalts of Tin; Formation of Sulphurets . . . .
Oxygen; its Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o
Properties of Oxygen Gas. . . . . . . . o o e o e o e - e o o to

The Results of Combustion in Oxygen . . . . . . . .
Experiments on Silver; Lunar Caustic ; etc. . . .
Method of obtaining Silver from a Metallic
Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . e ‘o e o e
Chloride of Silver ; Mercury, Calomel, etc. . . . . .
Chloride of Mercury; Calomel; Corrosive Sub-
limate; Poison ; Tests and Antidote . . . . . .
The Bichloride of Mercury; Detection of Poison
Economy of Heat, chiefly in reference to Gas
Principle of the Blast Furnace ; The Argand
Gas-Burner ; Distillation ; Still and Worm;
Flasks and Retorts . . . . . . . . . .

LESSONS IN FRENCH.

The Infinitive ; Government of Verbs; etc ....
Government of Verbs; the Past Participle ....
Remarks on the Foregoing Rules, etc. . . . . . . .
Adverbs of Negation; the Preposition . . . . . . . .
The Conjunction, its regimen ; Collocation of
Words. . . . . . e so to * * * *

F.R.ENCH READINGS.
Sections I. II., with Exercises, etc. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Seetions III., IV., and V., with Exercises, etc.
Section VI., with Exercise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Section VII. Le Chateau De Cartes; M. De
Lajolais, Section I. . . . . . . . . . • * * * e o e o e o e o e o e
M. De Lajolais, Section II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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III.

IV.

287

316

341

373

XLII. Icebergs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ................ . . . . . 23

XLIII. Botanic Agents; Plants and Trees ........ 29

XLIV. Animalculite Contributions to the Formation
XLv A: to G o 'o - * * * * * * * * * * * g e s e e s e a e & © e o e o e e 72
. Agency of Coral Insects in producing Rocks ..

XLVI. Results of the Agency of M. by o, 95

etc. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ,

XLVII. Classification of the Rocks in the Earth's Crust ;
XLVIII. Relative Position of Rocks in their vertical order 231
XLIX. Rocks of Recent Formation; Rocks in course
of Formation; Rocks formed since the Crea-
tion of Man and Animals .............. . . . . 262

L. The Tertiaries; their Lithological Character.... 313

LESSONS IN GEOMETRY.

XXIII. Lectures on Euclid, Book I. Props. XVI.,

XVII., XVIII.; with Scholia, Corollaries, and

Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .............. 49

XXIV. Book I. Props. XIX., XX.; with Scholia, Corol-
* laries, and Exercises ............ ..... . . . . . 194
XXV. Props. XXI., XXII., XXIII; with Scholia,
and Exercises ........................... . 254
XXVI. Props. XXIV., XXV., XXVI.; with Scholia
- Corollaries, and Exercises.................. 268

XXVII., XXVIII., XXIX; Props. XXVII., XXVIII;

with Scholia and Exercises; Discussion on

the Theory of Parallel Straight Lines; Thirty

different methods for removing the difficulty

of the Twelfth Axiom of Euclid's First

Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . & & e o 'o e s p * * * . 295, 311, 321

LESSONS IN GERMAN.

LXVIII., LXIX. Irregular Verbs ; Verbs of the New

- Conjugation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............. 18, 32

LXX. Paradigm of a Verb of the New Form; the 3.

Mixed Conjugation; Verbs of the same .... 75

LXXI., LXXII, LXXIII., LXXIV., LXXV., Paradigms

of Irregular Verbs; Passive Verbs 86,94, 112, 131,154

LXXVI. Paradigm of a Passive Werb; Reflexive Verbs (172

LXXVII. Paradigm of a Reflexive Verb; Impersonal

Verbs; Compound Verbs.......... ........ 187

LXXVIII. Compound Prefixes Separable; Paradigm of a

Compound Verb Separable .......... . . . . . . 205

LXXIX. Observations on the Paradigm of a Compound

- Verb; Inseparable Prefixes,................ 219

LXXX. Prefixes, Separable and Inseparable; the Ad-

verbs; the Prepositions .................. 238

LXXXI. Table of the Prepositions; the Conjunctions;

The Interjections ............ ........ 246

LXXXII. Syntax; the Articles; the Noun, etc........ 309

LXXXIII. Rules and Observations relating to Nouns, etc. 325

LXXXIV. The Pronouns; 1 the Adjectives; the Verbs 339

LXXXV. Use of the Tenses; Rules and Observations.... 358

LXXXVI. The Tenses; Participles; Adverbs; Preposi-

tions; Conjunctions; Interjections ........ 371

LESSONS IN GREEK. - -

VIII., IX, X2, XI. The Third Declension; Paradigms 10,39,55, 71
XII., XIII. The Second Declension contracted; the Three
Declensions reviewed; Exercises, etc......97, 115
XIV., XV. Comparison of Adjectives; General View 124, 170
YVI. Adverbs; Comparison of Adverbs............" i85

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YXIII. Conjugation; Augment; Ch * . * PAGIE –o-o:

• ***. 2 aracteriSt. * wo

XXIV ters; Flexional Terminations *...* 337 XIV, XV. Capillary Attraction; its Effects; Laws of IA®

.., XXV. Conjugation of a Pure Verb in w; Para. the Ascent and Depression of iiquids in Capil-

digm of the Active Personal Voice; Termi. lary Tubes, between Plates of Glass, in Siphons;

nations of the Active Voice; Paradigm of ofífiquids in Contact with solids, etc... 203, 21

the Middle Voice . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........ 352, 365 XVI. Endosmose, Absorption, and Imbibition: Ab. 3

INSTRUMENTAL ARITF y Y. sorption in Plants and Animals ...... ...o. 234

#: #: o Scale; it. ..o.o.o. 13 VII. Poio# to: the of ; Mag-
. The Plane Scal ... s.s.l... ." s s; Measure of Atmo-

IV. S o e * ro ; Principles of 89 #.o.o.; Torricellian Borso,

e cales Of V $ * ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * * y l & ent to o e o 'o e o os o o e o so e o e e o os

REY TO 8 FIOUIS Equal Paris to an Inch. . . . . . 375 XVIII. The Atmosphere ; its Pressure ; the Barometer. 241

Lessons o o IN EXERCISES. o Portable, and Siphon; Variations in
. . to e o so to e o a s a & * . . te &

Lessons L. to it." o::::::::: to on g o o o is to a o os os 57 *: §. f *: o ; its Relation to

Lessons LII. to LIII. . . . . ............" e g o os e o te 74 ImeterS : No. o and Aneroid Baro-

Lessons llss. to LVII o og o e o is s = * * g e o s is e 119 XIX. The Elasti ment of Heights, etc. . . . . . . 257

issons ivri, toix's.............. ........ : too."
7- to • Q & Q & is o o e e o e o e o e o 'o e to o e G r) e y S aw ; anometers . . . . . e

FCEY TO THE LESSONS IN GREEK J YX. Mixture of Gases and Liquids; Tostão 276

Lessons II. to VII. . . . . . . . . . . e to e o 'o to & © e . so o 161 XXI. P Balloons; the Parachute, etc.,... . . . . . . . . . . 289

LESSONS IN ITALIAN * * ki Po.

H. #. Pronunciation o 8 #. Rio # ountain in a Vacuum ;

* ronunciation Of Vo l e is a e o 'o on to o so . ... • * X. e I 'ay : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ; 301

jo. ... * **ś

# #. Pronouncing Table continued; Semivowels 41 Intermittent Fo: s Fountain;

$o * continued; Second Pronouncing XXIII. Fo ; # Suction Pump, Forcing Pump, 317

* -, - . . . . . . . . to e e o e o e o 'o o 'o e o e o e o os e e s to e o e o Q so to-o e * - 3. y

* Of Diphthongs; Third Pronouncing Table ; #...". 2 * ; Valves; Bramah's

VI: Fourth Pronouncing Table ......Roy . . . . $3 | xxIV. Acoustics: É.i. origiúšā. ... 333

VII, VIII. Fifth Pronouncing Table ........ ::::::::::103 i. tion of sound. †. ropagation, and Reflec-

*:: jo,Table, Accents, etc..... ’133; Apparatus for’ #.'s. d s:".

*** * © USe Oji los) e trophe ....'............ * g b ;

#: XII. The Articles; #. Nà ::::::::: i59 #. ...; Velocity of Sound; Laws of Reflected

III., XIV., ¥..." of the Éreposition of case sign” { YXW. Echoes and Ringing sounds: the Speaking and 349

so #.o.o.o.o.o.o.

VII.xviii. Úse of the Preposition bootc. ......" 365 § Toothed. Wheel. * §. Lines; Savart's

*::: Ho: o the Preposition. In ; etc.' .......... 9, 29s Machine ; the Siren; the Blowing

to Se O the Preposition Čon ; etc. . . * * * * * ~ * * © e os |XXVI. IPh. & e o e o 'o o e o is a s e : ..ge o 'o do so to * * * * * * * * * * * * * 36]

XXI. Use of the Preposition Per, and £xercises..... de ; g. too." *. 3. *o
YX. IESSONS ON MUSIC. i:iis, so
. Introduction to the Old Notation ; Relative cord; Pulsation; Tuning Fork; Vibrations
. o *:::: Absolute Length of Notes of Rods, Plates, and Membranes . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
ad Speed of Movement; Pauses of the Voice: LESSO
Time Signatures; Absolute Pitch i 6.: I o: IN READING AND ELOCUTION.
Keys and their Signatures......... 181 # *... o.o.o.o. . . . . 251
YXI. Of accidendal Flats, and Sharps, and Rules e * ; the Note of Interrogation; the
for recognising on the Staff the Notes of Tran- III. Th o of Exclamation; Rules apd Examples. . 285
sition, the Distinguishing Notes of Minor iv. #. §. Rules and Examples . . . . . . . . . . . 330
IKeys, and Chromatic Notes; other Symbols * * Semicolon; the Colon; the Parenthesis
of frequent occurrence . . . . . . . . . . y 225 Crotchets, and Brackets; Rules, etc."...... 370
XXII. M. . ë. Remarks on the Com: Đ SKELETON MAPS.
ale; Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 IV. Description of th & *
to e o O to . . . 273 ption of the Skeleton Map of Af
LEssons IN NATURAL PHILOSOPHY. Table of Latitudes and o o;
I. Object of the Science; Definitions ..... l W. D. the Length of Degrees in Different Latitudes 7
II. General Properties of Material Bodies; Prelimi. . Description of the Skeleton Map of South Ame-

III o:£o. on Force and Motion... 21 rica, with Table of Latitudes and Longitudes 295

. on the composition and Resolution of Forces. to SKETCHES FOR Y

IV. On Gravity and Molecular Attraction; ..o. 35 IV. Milton : Intell OUNG THINKERs.
sity, Weight, Centre of Gravity, Equilibrium 45 v. Alfred ntellectual Excellence, etc. ... . . . ... 16
W. i. s: o: Bodies, intensity of Gravity do #: o“. . Isaac Newton; Wesley;
In Cllri € anie Atwood’ M * g ; : g ; 1In Onlides • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . to e o 'o e

oo: , y o .

VH . Laws of Gravity; the Pendulum ... . . ......... Ši VII Li o ; s Qlycarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

. Molecular Forces; Particular Properties of VIII. I. *E ; Salmasius; Caesar Borgia; Pascal lé3

Solids; Tenacity of Metals, etc. .....: 100 $ oil. acon; Locke; Boyle; Lyttleton; West;

VIII. Hydrostatics; Properties of Liquids ; Fiesome. \SOI! - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 175
£o: Principle of Pascal; Pressure in MATHEMATICAL ILLUSTRATIONS
Ix. o.o. from Gravity; Hydrostatic Paradox 105 I. Asymptotes to C ~~~
. On the Equilibrium of Liquids, in single and se g. § es to Curves; the Conchoid; the Conic
communicating vessels; the Hydraulio Press • ctions, etc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
:** Levelling; Fountains and Arte. MISCELLANEA i
o & • . . . . . . . . . . . . to e o 'o o o e e o 'o & e is e e o 'o e © On Pre arin Sh ll • $ * 3 y *
X. Boi. immersed in Liquids; , Principle of I21 se: # o, †i. o 132. French
rchimedes; Hydrostatic, Balance; Meta- 220,288,345, Poetry: “Curiosity,” 393 os, IV, V., and Yos,
YI centre : Specific Gravity; the Areometer .... 137 tions, 347. wo y, . Mr. Cassell's Publica-
. Specific Gravity; Tables of the Specific Weights CORRESPONDENCE
XII of Solids and Liquids; use of these Tables ... 157 . On Bathi *
. Areometers; Nicholson's and Baumé's Areome- l n Bathing when Heated, 27. Arithmetic,59. Sloane's Ba:
XIII ters; Gay-Lussac's Densineter ......::..: ; 168 i. Solutions, 60. The Gift of Oratory, 120. University of
, Hydrodynamics; Efflux of. Liquids; Liquid 2i. on: Lectures to Schoolmasters, 224. Industry and Charity
Mi. o ena Contracta;. Theorem of Torri- #o . {. 288. Tonic Sol-Fa Association, 300. †utuai
celli; Discharge, wheoretical and effective, etc. 188 jects, Co.#. 331. University of London: Classical Sub-

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