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from before whom the veil is removed; to whose eyes are Examples

revealed the glories of heaven? Let your dress be sober, clean, and modest; not to set off the Why, for so many a year, has the poet and the philosopher beauty of your person, but to declare the sobriety of your mind; wandered amidst the fragments of Athens or of Rome; and that your outward garb may resemble the inward plainness paured, with strange and kindling feelings, amidst their and simplicity of your heart.

broken columns, their mouidering iemples, their rieserted In meat and drink, observe the rules of Christian temperance plains ? It is because their day of glory is passed; it is because and sobriety; consider your body only as the servant and their name is obscured; their power is departed; their influence minister of your soul; and only so nourish it, as it may best is lost! perform an humble and obedient service.

Where are they who taught these stones to grieve; where Condescend to all the weaknesses and infirmities of your fel- are the hands that hewed them; and the hearts that reared low-creatures; cover their frailıies; lore their excellences; en- them? rage their virtues; relieve their wants ; rejoice in their pros- Hope ye by these to avert oblivion's doom; in grief perity, compassionate their distress; receive their friendship; ambitious, and in ashes vain : overlook their unkindness; forgive their malice; be a servant Can no support be offered ; can no source of confidence be of servants; and condescend to do the lowest offices for the named? lowest of mankind.

Is this the man that made the earıh to tremble; that shook Struck with the sight of so fine a tree, he hastened to his the kingdoms; that made the worid like a desert; that deown, hoping to find as large a crop upon it; but, to his great stroyed the cities? surprise, he saw scarcely any thing, except branches, covered Falsely luxurious, will not man awake; and, springing from with moss, and a few yeilow leaves.

the bed of sloth, enjoy the cool, the fragrant, and the silent In sleep's serene oblivion laid, I've safely passed the silent hour, to meditat.un due, and sacred song night; again I see the breaking shade, again behold the morn- But who shall speak before the king when he is troubled ; ing light.

and who shall boast of knowledge when he is distressed by New-born, I bless the waking hour; once more, with awe,

doubu: rejoice to be; my conscious soul resumes her power, and soars, Who would in such a gloomy state remain longer than my guardian God, to thee.

nature craves; when every muse and every blooming pleasure That deeper shade shall break away; that deeper sleep shall wait withuut, to bless the wildly devivus morning walk ? leave mine eyes; thy light shall give eternal day; thy love, What a glorious inonument of human invention, that has the rapture of the skies.

thus triumphed over wind and wave; has brought the ends of In the sight of our law the African slare trader is a pirate the earth in communion; has established an interchange of and a felon; and in the sight of heaven, an offender far beyond blessings, pouring into the sterile regions of the north all the the ordinary depth of human guilt.

luxuries of the south ; diffused the light of knowledge and What hope of liberty is there remaining, if whatever is their the charities of cultivated life; and has thus bound together pleasure, it is lawful for them to do; if what is lawful those scattered portions of the human race, between which for them to do, they are able to do; if what they are

nature seems to have thrown an insurmountahle barrier ! able to do, they dare do; if what they dare do, they really Who that bears a human bosoin, hath not often felt, how execute; and if what th-y execute, is in no way offensive to dear are all those lies which bind our race in gentleness

together; and how sweet their force, let fortune's wayward It is not the use of the innocent amusements of life which hand the while be kind or cruel: is dangerous, but the abiise of them; it is not when they are occasionally, but when they are constantly pursued; when the

THE COLON. love of amusement degenerates into a passion; and when, from being an occasional indulgence, it becomes an habitual desire.

: The prevailing colour of the body of a tiger is a deep tawny, or orange yellow; the face, throat, and lower part of the belly 38. The Colon is composed of two periods placed one above

the other. are nearly white; and the whole is traversed by aumerous long black stripes.

39. Sometimes the passage ending with a colon is to be read The horse, next to the Hottentot, is the favourite prer of the with the voice suspended; but it shouid generally be read lion; and the elephant and camel are both highly relished; with the falling inflection of the voice. while the sheep, owing probably to its woolly Heece, is seldom 40. In reading, be careful to let the pause of the colon be a molested.

total cessation of the voice, and three tipies longer than that The horse is quick-sighted; he can see things in the night indicated by a comma. which his rider cannot perceive; but when it is too dark for his sight, his sense of smelling is his guide.

Examples. 37. The semicolon is sometimes used as a note of interrogation, within ; though folly may laugh, guilt will sting.

The smile of gaiety is often assumed while the heart aches and sometimes as an exclamation.

There is no mortal truly wise and restless at the same time : Examples.

wisdom is the repose of the mind.

Nature felt her inability to extricate herself from the conseHast thou not set at defiance my authority; violated the quences of guilt: the gospel reveals the plan of Divine interpublic peace, and passed thy life in injuring the persons and position and aid. properties of thy follow-subjects ?

Nature confessed some atonement to be necessary: the gosOh, it was impious; it was unmanly; it was poor and pel discovers that the atonement is made. pitiful!

Law and order are forgotten: violence and rapine are abroad: Have not you too gone about the earth like an evil genius; the golden cords of society are loosed. blasting the fair fruits of peace and industry; plundering, The temples are profaned : the soldiers curse resounds in the ravaging, killing without law, without justice, merely to gratify house of God: the marble pavement is trampled by iron hoofs: an insatiable lust for dominion?

horses neigh beside the altar. Art thou not, fatal vision, sensible to feeling as to sight? Blue wreaths of smoke ascend through the trees, and betray Or art thou but a dagger of the mind; a false creation, proceed the half-hidden cottage: the eye contemplates well-thatched ing from the heat-cppressed brain ?

ricks, and barns bursting with plenty: the peasant laughs at By such apologies shall man insult his Creator ; 'and shall the approach of winter. he hope to flatier the ear of Omnipotence? Think you that The necessaries of life are few, and industry secures them such excuses will gain new importance in their ascent to the to every man : it is the elegancies of life that empty the purse: Majesty on high; and will you trust the interests of eternity the superfluities of fashion, the gratification of pride, and the in the hands of these superficial advocates ?

indulgence of luxury, make a man poor. And shall not the Christian blush to repine; the Christian, My dear children, I give you these trees : you see that they

you!

gone.

are in good condition. They will thrive as much by your care determined to retire, and pass the remainder of their days in as they will decline by your negligence : their fruits will re- the country, ward you in proportion to your labour.

Notwithstanding all this care of Cicero, history informs us, A bee among the flowers in spring is one of the most cheerful that Marcus proved a mere blockhead ; and that nature (who, objects that can be looked upon. Its life appears to be all en- it seems, was even with the son for her prodigality to the joyment: so busy and so pleased: yet it is only a specimen of father) rendered him incapable of improving, by all the rules insect life, with which, by reason of the animal being half- of eloquence, the precepts of philosophy, his own endeavours, domesticated, we happen to be better acquainted.

and the most refined conversation in Athens. 'Tis a picture in memory distinctly defined, with the strong Natural historians observe (for whilst I am in the country I and unperishing colours of mind : a part of my being beyond must fetch my allusions from thence) that only the male birds. my control, beheld on that cloud, and transcribed on my soul. have voices; that their songs begin a little before breeding

Yet such is the destiny of all on earth : so flourishes and time, and end a little after. fades majestic man.

Dr. Clark has observed, that Homer is more perspicuous Let those deplore their doom whose hopes still grovel in this than any other author; but if he is so (which yet may be dark sojourn: but lofty souls, who look beyond the tomb, can questioned), the perspicuity arises from his subject, and not smile at fate, and wonder why they mourn.

from the language itself in which he writes. If for my faded brow thy hand prepare some future wreath, The many letters which come to me from persons of the best let me the gift resign: transfer the rosy garland : let it bloom sense of both sexes (for I may pronounce their characters from around the temples of that friend beloved, on whose maternal their way of writing) do not a little encourage me in the probosom, even now, I lay my aching head.

secution of this my undertaking: Do not flatter yourselves with the hope of perfect happiness : It is this sense which furnishes the imagination with its there is no such thing in the world.

ideas; so that by the pleasures of the imagination, or fancy But when old age has on your temples shed her silver frost, (terms which I shall use promiscuously), 1 here mean such as there's no returning sun: swift flies our summer, swift our arise from visible objects. autumn's fed, when youth, and spring, and golden joys, are The stomach (crammed from every dish, a tomb of boiled

and roast, and flesh and fish, where bile, and wind, and phlegm, A divine legislator, uttering his voice from heaven; an al- and acid, jar, and all the man is one intestine war) remembers. mighty governor, stretching forth his arm to punish or reward: oft the school-boy's simple fare, the temperate sleeps, and informing us of perpetual rest prepared hereafter for the spirits light as air. righteous, and of indignation and wrath awaiting the wicked : William Penn was distinguished from his companions by these are the considerations which overawe the world, which wearing a blue sash of silk network (which, it seems, is still support integrity, and check guilt.

preserved by Mr. Kett, of Seething-hall, near Norwich), and by It is not only in the sacred

fane that homage should be paid having in his hand a roll of parchment, on which was engrossed to the Most High: there is a temple, one not made with bands, the confirmation of the treaty of purchase and amity. the vaulted firmament: far in the woods, almost beyond the Again, would your worship a moment suppose (it is a case sound of city-chime, at intervals heard through the breezeless that has happened, and may be again), that the visage or counair.

tenance had not a nose, pray who would, or who could, wear As we perceive the shadow to have moved along the dial, spectacles then ? but did not perceive its moving; and it appears that the grass Upon this the dial-plate (if we may credit the fable) changed has grown, though nobody ever saw it grow: so the advances countenance with alarm. we make in knowledge, as they consist of such minute steps, To speak of nothing else, the arrival of the English in her are perceivable only by the distance gone over.

father's dominions must have appeared (as indeed it turned out Thou shalt pronounce this parable upon the king of Babylon; to be) a most portentous phenomenon. and shalt say: How hath the oppressor ceased!

Surely, in this age of invention, something may be struck

out to obviate the necessity (if such necessity exists) of so taskTHE PARENTHESIS, CROTCHETS, AND BRACKETS. ing the human intellect.

I compassionate the unfortunates now (at this very moment, 41. A Parenthesis is a sentence, or part of.a sentence, en- perhaps) screwed up perpendicularly in the seat of torture, closed between two curved lines, thus) 42. The curved lines in which the parenthesis is enclosed having in the right hand a fresh-nibbed patent pen, dipped ever

and anon into the ink-bottle, as if to hook up ideas, and under are called Crotchets.

the outspread palm of the left hand a fair sheet of best Bath 43, The parenthesis, with the crotchets which enclose it, is generally inserted between the words of another sentence, and post (ready to receive thoughts yet

unhatched), on which their

eyes are rivetted with a stare of disconsolate perplexity, infi. may be omitted without injuring the sense.

nitely touching to a feeling mind. 44. The parenthesis should generally be read in a quicker and lower tone of voice than the other parts of the sentence in of having only to grind an answer to one of one's dear five

O the unspeakable relief (could such a machine be invented) which it stands.

hundred friends! 45. Sometimes a sentence is enclosed in marks like these [ ], which are called Brackets.

Have I not groaned under similar horrors, from the hour 46. Sentences which are included within crotchets or brac. When I was first shut up (under lock and key, I believe) to in

dite a dutiful epistle to an honoured aunt? kets, should generally be read in a quicker and lower tone of

To such unhappy persons, then, I would fain offer a few voice. 47. Although the crotchet and the bracket are sometimes able in the hour of emergency.

hints (the indiscriminately used, the following difference in their use may be noticed :-Crotchets are used to enclose a sentence, or part relics, you may see Tassoni's bucket), stop at a palace near the

If ever you should come to Modena (where, among other of a sentence, which is inserted between the parts of another sentence: brackets are generally used to separate two subjects, or

Reggio gate, dwelt in of old by one of the Donati. to enclose an explanation, note, or observation, standing by the tire with Dr. Slop; and, Corporal Trim (a brave and honest

My father and my uncle Toby (clever soul) were sitting by itself. When a parenthesis occurs within another parenthesis, fellow) was reading a sermon to them.-As the sermon contains brackets enclose the former, and crotchets enclose the latter,

many parentheses, and affords an opportunity also of showing Examples.

you a sentence in brackets (you will observe that all the pre

vious parentheses in this lesson are enclosed in crotchets), I I asked my eldest son (a boy who never was guilty of a false- shall insert some parts of it in the following numbers. hood) to give me a correct account of the matter,

To have the fear of God before our eyes, and in our mutual The master told me that the lesson (which was a very diffi- dealings with each other, to govern our actions by the eternal cult one) was recited correctly by every pupil in the class. measures of right and wrong: the first of these will compre.

When they were both turned of forty (an age in which, hend the duties of religion ; the second those of morality, according to Mr. Cowley, there is no dailying with life), they | which are so inseparably connected together, that you cannot

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divide these two tables, even in imagination (though the at- machen, to make:

as, er machte mich laden, he made tempt is often made in practice), without breaking and mutu.

me laugh. ally destroying them both. [Here my father observed that nennen,

as, icy fann ilin nennen, I can name Dr. Slop was fast asleep). I said the attempt is often made;

him. and so it is; there being nothing more common than to see a reiten, to ride :

as, ich reite spazicten, I ride out for man who has no sense at all of religion, and, indeed, has so

exercise. much honesty as to pretend to none, who would take it as the thun, to do:

as, er thut nichts als schelten, he bitterest affront, should you but hint at a suspicion of his

does nothing but scold. moral character, or imagine he was not conscientiously just

Macher, however, cannot, as in English, be used to signify to and scrupulous to the uttermost mite.

make or cause by force: thus, to translate the English phrase, make

, physician in this case), to be neither of them men of much

precedes, in the example above. religion. Experienced schoolmasters may quickly make a grammar of

(2) The Infinitive with zu is employed : boys' natures, and reduce them 'all (saving some few excep- either by the preposition to with the Infinitive, or by of with a

a. After nouns and adjectives which, in English, are followed tions) to certain general rules,

Ingenious boys, who are idle, think, with the hare in the participle: as, ich war froh ihn zu sehen, I was glad to see him ; Sie fable, that, running with snails (so they count the rest of their haben Luft zu spielen, you have a desire to play; ich bin müte es zu school-fellows), they shall come soon enough to the post; Hören, I am tired of hearing it: though sleeping a good while before their starting,

(6) After verbs, to express the end or object of their action: as, io tomme mit Ihnen zu sprechen, I come to (i. e. in order to) speak with you: in which case, also, the particle um often comes

before zu, to render the expression more forcible : as, liebet die LESSONS IN GERMAN.-No. LXXXVI. Tugent, um glücklich zu sein, love virtue, in order (um) to be happy.

c. After the verbs following and others of like import : $ 146. RULE.

Anfangen, to begin.

Zögern, to delay. The Infinitive mood either with or without the particle zu (to) Aufhören, to cease.

Gewöhnen, to accustom. preceding, is used to represent the being, action or passion, in

Befehlen, to command.

Dienen, to serve. a manner unlimited : as,

Bitten, to beg.

Hinreichen, to suffice. Sterben ist Nidjte, doch leben und nicht sehen, daß ist ein Unglück, to die Eriparten, to expect.

Warneit, to warn. is nothing, yet to live and not to see, that is a misfortune Foffen, to hope.

Weigerit, to refuge. indeed.

Fürchten, to fear.

Erfennen, to acknowledge. Der Wunsch gelobt zu werden, the wish to be praised.

Drohen, to threaten.

Bekennen, to confess.
Sich freuen, to rejoice.

Scheinen, to appear.
OBSERVATIONS,

Sich schämen, to be ashamed. Wünschen, to wish.
Sich rühmen, to boast.

Serlangen, to desire. (1) The Infinitive without zu, (to) appears,

Bereuen, to regret.

Erlauben, to permit. Q. When, as a verbal substantive ($ 146, 3.), it is made either Pflegen, to be wont.

Gestatten, to allow. the subject or the object of a verb: as, Geben ist feliger als Fortfahren, to proceed.

Berdienen, to deserve. Nemen, to give is more blessed than to receive; das nennt er & Unterlassen, to neglect.

Wagen, to venture, Beiten, that he calls working:

Kaben, to have.

Wissen, to know. b. When it stands alone, as in a dictionary: as, loben, to Sein, to be.

Nußen, to be of use. praise ; lieben, to love.

Helfen, to help.

Frominen, to avail. C. After the verbs

Vermeiden, to avoid. Heißen, to bid : as, ich hieß ihn gehen, I bad him go.

Erkennen and bekennen are construed mainly with the preterit of helfen, to help: as, er hilft mir schreiben, he helps me to write. the Infinitive: as, er erfennt, sich geirtt zu haben, he acknowledges Lehren, to teach: as, er lehrt daš Sind lesen, he teaches the that he has been in error.

child to read.

d. After the prepositions ohne (without) and ftatt or anstatt (ina lernen, to learn : as, wir lernen tanzen, we learn to dance.

stead of), as, ohne ein Wort zu sagen, without saying a word; ana hören, to hear: as, ich höre sie singen, I hear them sing,

statt zu schreiben, instead of writing. sehen, as, ich fehe ihn kommer:, I see him come.

(3) The Infinitive in German, as intimated before, often fühlen, to feel: as, ich fühle den Puls ftplagen, I feel his pulse performs the office of a verbal substantive. It is then com

beat.

monly preceded by the neuter of the article, and has all the findent , to find : as, ici fand das Buch auf dem Tische liegen, I various cases: as, das Lügen ithatet dein Ligner am meisten, lying

found the book lying on the table. injures the liar most; ich bin des Sehens mūse, I am weary The verbs lehren and lernen form exceptions to the observation of walking; zum Reisen bist du nicht gescict, you are not fit for in the text: admitting, as they do sometimes, the particle zu journeying. between them and an Infinitive succeeding. The student will (4) The Infinitive active, in German, after certain verbs, as, note, also, that the Infinitive after all these verbs, is, in English, fein, Tassen, verbieten, befehlen, &c., is not unfrequently employed often best rendered by a participle : as, ex fühlte sein Blut gāhren, passively: thus, luß ihn rusen, which (literally) means, let him he felt his blood boiling.

cail, may, also, signify, let him be called ; es ist feine Zeit zu verlies d. After the auxiliaries of mood, mögen, können, lassen, dürfen, ren, there is no time to lose, or to be lost. follen, wollen and müssen, and after werden, when employed as an (5) The Germans often employ the Indicative or Subjunctive, auxiliary in forming the future tense.

preceded by daß, where, in English, the Infinitive, preceded by e. After the verbs following, in certain phrases,

to, is used: as, ich weiß, daß er der Mann ist, I know him to be Bleiben, to remain :

as, er bleibt fißen, he continues (literally, I know that he is) the man.

sitting (6) The Infinitive, in English, preceded by the words how, fahren,

to
go in a carriage; as, ich fahre spazierent, I ride out where, what, when, and the like, after such verbs as, tell, know,

for an airing. say, and teach, cannot be rendered literally into German: the gehen, to go or walk; as, er get betteln, he goes begging. Germans, in such cases, always using the Indicative or Subjunchaben, to have:

as, er hat gut reden, he has easy tive of such verbs as sollen, müssen, können : as, ich weiß, wie ich es

talking, i. e. it is easy for thun muß, I know how to do it, or (literally) I know how I must him to talk.

do it; lehren Sie mich, was ich sagen soll, teach me what to say. lagen, to lay :

as, id lege mich sálafen, I lay my. For the use of the Infinitive of mögen, wollen, sollen, &c., in place

self down to sleep. I of the past Participle, See § 74. 3.

to see :

the compound tenses, but may, also, be construed with nouns, $ 147, THE PARTICIPLES.

after the manner of Adjectives: as, (1) The Participles, in German, are varied by cases, follow

Ich habe heute das Buch gelesen, I have read the book to-day. ing the same rules of inflection as the adjectives. Having the Ein gelicbtes Kind, a beloved child. nature of adjectives, the Present in a few, and the Preterit in

Der Mann ist gelehrt, the man is learned. many instances, readily admit the degrees of comparison. (2) The use of the Participle, as such, however, in German,

OBSERVATIONS. is far more restricted than in English. For, in English, it is

(1) This Participle, in its character as an Adjective, is far commonly used to form a distinct clause of a sentence; and is more frequently employed in German than in English. Indeed, thus made to indicate the time, cause, or means of effecting many Preterites in German, having lost all character as Partithat which is expressed in the main clause : thus, we say: ciples, are now used exclusively as Adjectives. Walking (that is, by or when walking) uprightly, we walk surely.

(2) The Preterit, like the Present Participle, is sometimes This mode of expression can rarely, if ever, be adopted in used in an adverbial manner : thus, tas Buch ist verloren gegangen, German ; into which language, if we desire to translate the the book is lost (literally, gone, lost). above sentence, we must say: wenn wir aufrichtig wandeln, so wan

(3) This is especially the case with certain Participles em. delp wir sicher, that is, when we walk uprightly, we walk surely.

ployed with the verb fommen; as, er kommt gefahren, he comes (3) So, too, we say in English: Having given him the money, driven, i.e. driving in a carriage; er fimmt geritten, he comes he went

away;

but since there is nothing in German to cor- ridden, i. e. riding on horseback; 'er fömmt geflogen, he comes respond to this English compound Participle, it would be a flying; erkömmt gelaufen, he comes running, &c. gross error to attempt to render the sentence literally Resort

(4) Kindred to this, is its use, when connected with a verb, must be had, as in the other case, to a different structure : to express the condition or state of the subject: as, jeßt sterb' ich thus, als er ihm das Geld gegeben Hatte, ging er weg, that is, after or beruhigt, now I die content; in seine Tugend gehüllt, troßt er der Verwhen he had given him the money, he went away. In this way leumdung, wrapped in his virtue, he defies calumny. must all similar cases be managed: we must employ a verb in

(5) The Preterit Participle, usually in connection with the each clause, and connect the two together by means of suitable accusative, is in some phrases employed absolutely: as, bie conjunctions, such as, weil, wenn, als, ta and intem.

Augen gen Himmel gerichtet, his eyes being directed towards heaven; § 148. RULE.

den Gewinn abgerechnet the profit being deducted; diesen Fall aus

genommen, this case being excepted. The Present Participle, like an attributive adjective, agrees (6) This Participle is sometimes elliptically used for the Imwith its noun in gender, number, and case; and may, also, perative. (See $ 145. 3.) govern the same case as the verb whence it is derived : as, Der lachende Frühling, the smiling spring.

$ 150. RULE. Kühlendes Getränke, cooling drink.

The Future Participle is used, when the subject is to be re. Die alles belebende Sonne, the all animating sun, i. e. the sun presented as a thing that must or ought to take place : as, that animates all.

Eine zu lobende That; a deed to be (i.e. that ought to be) praised. OBSERVATIONS

OBSERVATIONS. (1) This Participle is seldom, if ever, otherwise employed

(1) What is called the Future Participle in German, is prowith a noun than in an attributive sense. Its predicative use is found almost altogether in those words that have so far lost can be formed from transitive verbs only, and is always to be

duced by placing zu before the present participle as above. It character as Participles as to be commonly recognised only as taken in a passive sense. It is chiefly to be found in the case adjectives : as,

of compound verbs: thus, Hochzuehrender Herr, the-highly-to-be Reizend, charming. Drüdend, oppressive.

honoured, i. e. the honourable, Sir. See Section XLII. Kränkend, mortifying.

Fließend, flowing: Einnehmend, captivating. Hinreißend, overpowering.

§ 151. THE ADVERBS. Dringenb, pressing.

RULE. Such a combination, therefore, as, I am reading, we are walking, and the like, which is so common in English, is wholly verbs : as,

Adverbs qualify verbs, participles, adjectives and other adinadmissible in German; save in the instance of those Participles that have lost, as just said, their true participial character: Se wat den Gegenstand portrefflich behandelt, he has treated the sub

Er schreibt felten, he writes seldom. die Noth ist dringend, the necessity is pressing. (2) The Present Participle, in connection with the article, is

ject admirably. often used substantively, the noun being understood; as der Dieses Buch ist felr gut

, this book is very good. Lesende, the reader, (literally) the (one) reading; die Sterbende

, Er arbeitet nicht gern, he works unwillingly. the dying (female).

OBSERVATIONS. (3) This Participle, however, cannot in German, as in English, be, by means of an article, turned into an abstract verbal Almost all adjectives in the absolute form are, in German,

But in order properly to render such phrases as, the employed as Adverbs. See § 102.3. For remarks on the reading, the writing, into German, we must use the present of position of Adverbs in sentences, see the section on the arrangethe Infinitive: thus, das lejen, das Schreiben.

ment of words, $ 158. (4) The Present Participle, as stated in the Rule, may govern the case of its own verb; but it must be noted that the word so

$ 152. THE PREPOSITIONS. governed always precedes the Participle: das uns verfolgende. Ge

RULE, schick, the us pursuing fate, i. e. the fate that. pursues us. In some instances, the words actually united, forming compounds:

The Prepositions anstatt, außerhalb, dies cits, &c. (See the List as, ehrliebend, honour-loving, that is, ambitious; gesebgebend, law. s 109.) are construed with the genitive. giving, &c.

OBSERVATIONS. (6) The Present Participle is sometimes used with the power of an Adverb; that is, to express some circumstance of manner (1) When the same Preposition governs several nouns in the or condition : thus, weinend sprady er zu mir, weeping (i. e. wee- same construction, it is put before the first only; as, ich bin von pirgly) he spoke to me; er feste fid sdweigend nieder, keeping silent meiner Heimaty, meinem Vaterlante und meinen Freunden getrennt, from (i. e, silently) he sat down.

my home, my country, and my friends, am I separated.

(2) For the right use and position of some of the Preposi. § 149. RULE.

tions, much attention is required. See the Observations on The Preterit Participle is not only used in the formation of those construed with the genitive: $ 110.

as,

noun.

Or.

nor.

so, or then.

Da,

Je,

as soon,

as.

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f. So, after such conjunctions as, weil, alß, da, wenn, nachdem, $ 153. RULE.

obgleich obichon, obwohl, wenngleich and wiewohl, introduces the subThe Prepositions aus, außer, bei, &c. (see List & 111.) are consequent clause. This is chiefly the case, when the antecedent strued with the dative. (See Obs. $ 112.)

clause is long, or consists of several members : Ex. Weil dich

Gott dies Alles gewahr werden ließ, so ist Niemand so weise als tu, since § 154. Rule.

God hath given thee to know all this, so (therefore) is no one

so wise as thou. So commonly, however, denotes comparison: The Prepositions durd, für, gegen, &c. (See List § 113.) are

as, der Snabe ist Tv gut, als das Macpen, the boy is so (as) good as construed with the accusative. (See Obs. $ 114.)

the girl.

So in the phrases, sowohl als aucs, or sowohl als, so (as) § 155. RULE.

well as : fobald alb, 80 (as) soon as, &c. With auch (fomaud) fol.

lowing, it signifies however : as, so groß die Schreden des Krieges audi, The Prepositions an, auf, Hinter, &c. (See List 115.) govern 2c., however great the terrors of war, &c.; so reich er auch ist, ic: the dative or accusative : the accusative, when motion or ten- however rich he is, &c. dency towards is signified, but in the other situations the dative.

g. The following are the more common correlatives • as, (See Obs. $ 116.)

Entweder,
either,

oter,
S 156. THE CONJUNCTIONS.

Weber,

neither, noch,
Wenn,
if,

fo,
RULE.

when
To,

then,
Conjunctions connects words and sentences in construction,

the,
ie,

the.
and show their mutual relation and dependence; as,

Je,
the,
rests,

the.
Srtalt,

als, Johann und Wilhelm gehen zur Schule, John and William are

Sowohl,

as well, als,
going to school.

Wie,
as,

so,
Ich fahes; daher weiß ich es, I saw it; therefore I know it.

So,

To,
Er ist älter als ich, he is older than I.

Nicht,
not,
sondern,

but.
OBSERVATIONS.

Nicht allein,
not only, ondern,

but.
Nicht nur,
not only, Tonterit auch,

but also.
(1) Under the general name of Conjunctions in this Rule,
must be included all words performing the office of Conjunc-

$ 157. THE INTERJECTIONS.
tions, whether properly such or not. Of these connective

RULE.
words three classes are to be distinguished: 1. those that do not
affect the order of the words of a sentence in which they occur

Interjections have no dependent construction.
($ 160. 8.) ; 2. those that always remove the copula to the end
of the sentence ($ 160. 7.) ; 3. and finally, those that do or do

OBSERVATIONS.
not remove the copula to the end, according as they stand be-

(1) Interjections stand generally before the nominative or the fore or after the subject ($ 160. 8.).

vocative; as, D! theuerfter Pater! But sometimes the genitive, (2) The true force and use of the Conjunctions is best learned and sometimes the dative, is preceded by an Interjection : as, from examples; of which see a large collection in Section C. D, der Freute! O the joy! Weh mir! Woe to me! We subjoin, however, a few remarks in explanation of the following:

a. Aber, allein, sondern. Aber is less adversative than either of
the others. It is often merely continuative. Allein always in-

FRENCH READINGS.--No. V.
troduces what is contrary to what might be inferred from
what precedes : as, er ist sehr fleißig, allein er lernt sehr wenig, he is

MLLE DE LAJOLAIS.
very industrious, but he learns very little. Sondern serves to in- .

SECTION II.
troduce what is contradictory. It is used only when a negatire
precedes; nicht edel, sondern fleinmüthig, not noble, but pusillani-

A ces cris, à cette action imprévue, l'Empereur s'arrête
mous; es ist weder ihnarz, noch braun, sondern grün, it is neither
black nor brown, but green.

en fronçant les sourcils.

-Encoro!.... s'écrie-t-il d'un ton d’impatience, j'avais 6. Daß, also auf daß, introduces a clause expressing the end, object or result; as, ich weiß, daß er konunt, I know that he is pourtant dit que je ne voulais plus de ces scènes-là ! 2

Et croisant ses bras sur sa poitrine, il voulut passer coming. This form of expression is more common in German than in English. When daß is left out, the copula comes im

outre.a mediately after the subject.

-Sire! cria la jeune fille, à laquelle la position de son c. Doc, introduces something unexpected or not properly pro- pere donnait une énergie au-dessus de son âge, je vous en ceeding from the antecedent: as, er ist sehr reich, und hat doch wenig conjure, écoutez-moi ! 3 au nom de votre inère, sire, genrbeitet, he is very rich, yet has he worked little. It is some écoutez-moi! au nom de votre père, accordez-moi la grâcó times elliptically employed to indicate certainty, entreaty, and du micn!.... C'est mon père, sire; il aura » été entraîné, the like: as, sagen Sie mir dech, tell me, pray.

séduit; pardonnez-lui! ....Oh! sire, vous tenez la vie de d. Je, like the definite article in English, is put before com- mon père, la mienne daus vous mains. Avez pitié paratives to denote proportion. It, then, has desto for its cor d'une inalheureuse enfant qui rous demande la vie de son relative: thus, je fleißiger er ist, desto geschrter wird er, the more dili- père. .... Sire! sire! grâce , pitié .... pardon. gent he is, the more learned he becomes. Desto sometimes - Laissez-moi, Mademoiselle, dit l'Empercur, la repouscomes before je : as, ein Sunstwerk ist desto schöner, je vollfommener es sant assezc rudement.4 ift, a work of art is the more beautiful, the more perfect it is. Sometimes je is employed before both comparatives : thus, ie tence trop chère), Mlle de Lajolais

, se traînant sur les

Mais, sans se laisser intimider, (il y allaitd d'une exismilr, je besser, the more, the better. Sometimes desto stands be- dallese de marbre de la galerie, criait avec angoisse : fore a comparative without je answering to it: as, ich erwartete nicht meinen Freund zu finden, desto größer aber war meine Freude, als ich Oh! jetez au moins un regard sur moi, sire!

-Oh! pitié, pitié, sire! .... grâce!. pour mon père! ihn faib, I did not expect to find my friend, but the greater was my joy when I saw him.

Il y avait quelque chose de si déchirants dans cette voix e. Obgleich, obschon, obwohl, indicate concession. The parts are d'enfant demandant la vie de son père, que l'Empereur often separated, especially by monosyllables : such as, ich, bu, cr, s'arrêta malgré lui, et regarda celle qui l'implorait avec es, wer, ihr, fie. Often two or three such little words come be. tant d'instance.? tween : as, ob er gleich alt ift, 2c., although he is old, &c.; ob ich Mlle de Lajolais était fort bien, mais, dans ce moment, sa mich gleich freue, ?f., although I rejoice, &c

beauté tenaiti de l'ange. Blanche comme un cygne, la

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