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English money is reckoned in pounds, shillings, pence, and farthings; sometimes also in guineas; thus,

TABLE.
- 4 farthings (far.) = 1 penny (d.).
4

= 1 shilling (s.).
20 shillings

= 1 pound (£). 21 shillings = 1 guinea.

12 pence

PROBLEMS.
Reduce £1 to shillings, pence, and farthings.

£1
20

£1 = 20 shillings.
20 shillings.

£1 = 240 pence. 12

£1 = 960 farthings.

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960 farthings. As there are twenty shillings in one pound, there will always be twenty times as many shillings as pounds; and as there are twelve pence in every shilling, there will be twelve times as many pence as shillings; and four times as many farthings as pence.

COR.-A higher denomination is reduced to a lower one by multiplication.

Reduce 960 farthings to pence, shillings and pounds; thus,

4) 960 farthings.
12 ) 240 pence.
20 ) 20 shillings.

1 pound. As four farthings make one penny, there will be one

fourth as many pence as farthings, one-twelfth as many shillings as pence, and one-twentieth as many pounds as shillings.

COR.—A lower denomination is reduced to a higher one by division.

Reduce 1095 farthings to pence, shillings, and pounds.

4 ) 1095 farthings. 12 ) 273 ... 3 far. 20 ) 22

9d.

£1 28. 9d. 3 far. The first remainder is farthings, the second pence, and the third shillings. Reduce £1 2s. 9d. 3 far. to farthings.

20
22 shillings.
12

273 pence.

4

1095 farthings. In reducing a higher denomination to a lower one, begin by multiplying by the number of the next lower denomination that makes one of the higher, and if it be a compound number, add to the product the number of the lower denomination, and continue this process until you reach the lowest denomination.

In reducing a lower to a higher denomination, divide by the number of the lowest denomination that makes one of the next higher, and if there be a remainder, it will be of the lowest denomination, etc.

COR.-In the computation of compound numbers, instead of carrying a unit to a higher order for every ten, as in abstract numbers, a unit is carried to a higher denomination as often as the sum reaches the number that it takes of the lower denomination to make one of the next higher denomination; thus, as 4 farthings make 1 penny, as often as the sum of the farthings reaches four, one must be carried to the

pence;

and as 12 pence make 1 shilling, in computing pence as many must be carried to shillings as the number of times 12 is contained in the number of pence; 1 from shillings to pounds for

every 20.

In division, the order is reversed, as then we begin with the highest denomination and descend.

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The sum of the first column is 9 farthings, which is 2 times 4 and 1; the 1 is farthings, and must be placed under the farthings; the 2 is carried to the next denom.ination and added with the pence, the sum of which is 35; that is, 2 times 12 and 11, that is, 2 shillings and 11 pence; the 2 is added with the shillings, making the sum 45, which is £2 58.; the shillings are placed under the shillings and the 2 carried to the pounds, the sum of which is 24.

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£25 18s. 10d. 2 far. As you cannot subtract 3 farthings from 1 farthing, fou must borrow 1 penny, which is 4 farthings; this 4 and the 1 make 5; then 3 from 5, 2 remains; the 1 penny borrowed must be carried to the 6, which makes 7, which cannot be subtracted from 5; 1 shilling, that is, 12 pence, must be borrowed and added to the 5, which makes 17; 7 from 17, 10 remains; 1 shilling to carry to 7 makes 8, which cannot be taken from 6; 1 pound, that is, 20 shillings, must be borrowed and added to the 6, making 26, from which subtract 8 and 18 remains; and £1 to carry to 28, making 29, which is subtracted from 54 and 25 remains.

REM.—When the subtrahend is less than the minuend, the difference can be taken directly. ·

£

d. far. 3. Multiply 4

6

5 3 by

5 £21 12s. 4 3

8.

4 5

6 5

5
5

3 5

21
20 ) 32

25 4) 15
£1 12s.

3

3d. 3 far. 12 ) 28

28. 4d. COR.— Multiply each denominate number, and divide the product by the number of this denomination that it 4) £5

takes to make one of the higher, and carry the number of times it is contained to the higher denomination, and place the remainder under its kind.

4. Multiply £48 12s. 7d. 2 far. by 6. 5. Divide

6s. 3d. 1 far. by 4.

£1 6s. 6d. 31 far. 4 is contained in 5, once and £l over; this £1 is 20 shillings, which added to the 6 shillings make shillings, into which 4 is contained 6 times and 2 shillings over; this 2 shillings is 24 pence, which added to tàd's pence, makes 27 pence, in which 4 is contained 6 times and 3 pence over, which is 12 farthings, and l. more make 13, in which 4 is contained 31 times. 6. Divide £754 158. 9d. 3 far. by 27.

27 ) £754 158. 9d. 3 far. ( £27

54

214
189
25

20
515 ( 198. Add the 158.
27
245
243

2 12 33 ( 1d. Add the 9d. 27 6 4 27 (1 far. Add the 3 far.

27 Quotient £27 19s. 1d. 1 far.

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