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substitute for cultivated fruits. The first currants were served up at the table of Mrs. Hannah Sanborn, at a tea party, in 1794, and the event marked an era in the history of the place. The first Town Meeting was held in April, 1791. Israel Chapin was chosen Supervisor, and James D. Fish, Town Clerk. Among the first items of legislation, we find the following which were voted at that Town Meeting:

Voted, That swine, two months old and upward, shall have good and sufficient yokes." wolf killed in town, a bounty

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Voted, That for every full of thirty shillings shall be paid."

By the town records of 1794, it seems that Anannias M. Miller had a mill in operation on Mud Creek. In 1795, the sale of several slaves, the property of residents of Canandaigua, is recorded. The first Court of Common Pleas and General Sessions was held at the house of Nathaniel Sanborn, in November, 1794, Timothy Hosmer and Charles Williamson, being the presiding Judges, associated with whom, as Assistant Justice, was Enos Boughton. The Attorneys were, Thomas Morris, John Wickham, James Wadsworth and Vincent Matthews. There were a number of suits on the calendar, but no jury trial was had. A Grand Jury was impanelled and one indictment found. The next session of the court was in June, 1795, and Peter B. Porter and Nathaniel W. Howell, Attorneys of the Supreme Court, were admitted to practice in the courts of Ontario County, as also were Stephen Ross and Thomas Mumford. The first jury trial west of Herkimer county, was held at this Court; the case being the trial of an indictment, preferred at the previous session, for stealing a cow bell. John Wickham, as the County Clerk, was ex-officio District Attorney, but the prosecution devolved on Nathaniel W. Howell, while the defence was conducted by Peter B. Porter and Vincent Matthews. Canandaigua from the earliest period has been noted for the high reputation of her bar, which has at times included the very best legal ability of the State.

Although not entitled to it by population, in 1791, Ontario County was by special act entitled to a representative in the Assembly, and, in 1792, Gen. Israel Chapin was sent to that legislative body. Thomas Morris, son of Robert Morris, who purchased the pre-emption right of what was afterward the Holland Purchase and Morris Reserve, was an early settler at Canandaigua, and was the first representative in Congress from all the region west of Seneca Lake. John Clark came with Oliver Phelps to the treaty in 1788. His trade was that of a tanner and currier, and he manufactured the first leather made in the Genesee country. This was from the hides of cattle driven on to supply beef for the Indians at the treaty. His vats were formed of sections of hollow trees, and

from this small beginning, grew up a flourishing business which, in time, extended over a wide region. Luther Cole was the first mail carrier, his route being from Čanandaigua to Whitesboro. Phineas P. Bates, in 1800, was the mail boy from Canandaigua to Fort Niagara. The first birth was that of Oliver Phelps Rice, and the first death that of Caleb Walker, both of which occurred in 1790.— Samuel Gardner opened the first store, and the first school was taught by Major Wallis, in 1792. At the time of the sickness of Mr. Walker, Dr. Adams, of Geneva, was the nearest physician, and, on being sent for, visited the sick man. He was destitute of medicine, but obtained some by breaking open a chest left by a traveler. At the funeral, the physician being an Episcopalian, read the burial service, which was the first religious exercise after settlement was commenced in the Genesee country. In the same year, however, religious meetings were held in Judge Phelps' barn, sermons being read by John Call, singing was led by Mr. Sanborn, and prayers were omitted, as there was no one to make them. Dr. Moses Atwater settled in Canandaigua, in 1791, and was the first physician. He was an early Judge of Ontario County, and died in 1848, at the advanced age of 82 years.

In this hasty review of the early history of this beautiful village, scores of names, well known as pioneers, have been necessarily omitted, but in this connection, we desire briefly to allude to a man who, from his great charity, philanthrophy and benevolence, is entitled to remembrance, as the Howard of his region. We refer to William Wood, who, though not himself a pioneer, has done much to perpetuate the memory of the pioneers, and keep the recollection of their deeds fresh and green in the hearts of their posterity. Mr. Wood was a bachelor, and a native of Charlestown, Mass. At one time he was an importer in Boston, and subsequently became a cotton dealer in New Orleans, where he was noted for deeds of philanthrophy. Finally, becoming à resident of Canandaigua, he endeared himself to all, on account of his quiet, unostentatious manners and charitable deeds. The public edifices, streets, and the rural church-yard, all bear testimony to his public spirit. He was in the habit of occasionally visiting the jail, carrying apples, books and other acceptable presents to the inmates, and many a weary prisoner has had his hours of loneliness beguiled and cheered by the gentle kindness and sympathy of this most estimable man. cities and villages of this country and in England, he was instrumental in establishing libraries and schools, mainly for the benefit of mechanics, apprentices and clerks. He collected and placed in appropriate positions, in the Court House at Canandaigua, the portraits of the pioneers of the Genesee country. He has been dead some years, but his memory is held in respectful and affectionate veneration by all who knew him.

In many

Canandaigua has numbered among her inhabitants many distinguished men. Hon. Gideon Granger was Postmaster General, under Jefferson's administration; and his son, Hon. Francis Granger, held the same office under Harrison. Among the distinguished names of which this place may well be proud, we may mention Hon. M. H. Sibley, Hon. Joshua R. Giddings, Gen. John A. Granger, and Ex-Gov. Myron H. Clark.

Cheshire (p.v.) is a small village of about 20 houses, in the south part of the town. Centerfield is a hamlet, and Academy, near the south line, is a post office.

The first church was organized at Canandaigua, Feb. 4, 1799, it being St. Matthew's, Episcopal, now St. John's. The Congregational Church was organized Feb. 25, 1799. There are 11 churches in town. The amount of money expended for common schools in the town of Canandaigua in the year 1866-7, was $8,754.83; the amount of public money apportioned $2,088.24; the value of school property $14,800, and the average daily attendance 540.

EAST BLOOMFIELD was formed January 27, 1789, as Bloomfield. Mendon and Victor were taken off in 1812; its name was changed and West Bloomfield taken off in 1833. It is an interior town, lying north-west of the center of the County. The surface is rolling, with slight inclination to the north, the ridges rising 50 to 600 feet above the valleys. The soil is extremely fertile, consisting of deep, gravelly loam, in places mixed with clay. It is a superior agricultural section, raising fine grain. Grapes and hops are cultivated to a large extent, and considerable attention is paid to the cultivation and improvement of fruit, many young orchards having been set out within a few years.

$3,008.16 was expended for common school purposes in the year 1866-7. The amount of public money appropriated was $808.62; the value of school property is $5,250, and the average daily attendance of pupils 260.

Griffith's Mills, in the east, Brag Village, in the south-east, and Shepherd's Mills, in the north-east part of the town, are hamlets. East Bloomfield (p. v.) is a thrifty and growing village of about 600 inhabitants, three-fourths of a mile from East Bloomfield Station, on the N. Y. C. R. R. It contains three churches, a flourishing academy, incorporated in 1838, manufactories of agricultural implements and carriages, and an extensive furnace and machine shop. A large freight house, and a planing mill and machine shop are in process of construction. A Soldier's Monument was erected in East Bloomfield, January, 1867, by subscription. It is a plain shaft of gray stone, 60 feet high, surmounted by a full size statue representing a soldier in full uniform, and was erected at an expense of $6,000. On it is inscribed the name of every enlisted

soldier of the town, who died in the discharge of his duty as a defender of the national flag. The town lost heavily in the late sanguinary struggle, and this beautiful shaft, pointing upward in its solemn and silent eloquence, shall be an eternal memorial of the gallant deeds and heroic self-sacrifice of those whose ashes rest beneath its shadow.

"How sleep the brave, who sink to rest,
By all their country's wishes blest!
When Spring, with dewy fingers cold,
Returns to deck their hallow'd mold,
She there shall dress a sweeter sod
Than Fancy's feet have ever trod.
By fairy hands their knell is rung,
By forms unseen their dirge is sung;
There Honor comes, a pilgrim gray,
To bless the turf that wraps their clay;
And Freedom shall awhile repair,

To dwell, a weeping hermit, there."

The settlement of East Bloomfield was commenced at the same time as that of Canandaigua. The east township was purchased by Capt. William Bacon, Gen. John Fellows, Elisha Lee, Deacon John Adams and Dr. Joshua Porter. Deacon Adams was the pioneer settler and patriarch, as he brought with him a large family, consisting of his wife, his sons John, Abner, Joseph, William and Jonathan; his sons-in-law, Ephraim Rew, Lorin Hull, and Hecox, with their wives; and Elijah Rose, a brother-inlaw, and his family, and three unmarried daughters. Joined with these were Moses Gunn, Lot Rew, John Barnes, Roger Sprague, Asa Hickox, Benjamin Goss, John Keyes and Nathaniel Norton. The company was from Berkshire County, Mass., and early in the spring of 1789, they left Schenectady for the then wilderness, some traveling by water with the furniture and stores, and the others going with pack horses, following the Indian trails. In May they were joined by Augustus Porter, Thaddeus Keyes, Joel Steele, Eber Norton and Orange Woodruff, who, on their arrival, found the Adams family living in a log house 30x40 feet, which was the first dwelling erected west of Canandaigua after white settlement commenced. To accommodate so large a family with lodgings, berths, one above the other, were swung up on wooden pins driven into the walls. The emigrants fortunately brought on a good stock of provisions and a number of cows; and, wild game being plenty, they were enabled to live comfortably. Dr. Daniel Chapin was the early physician of Bloomfield, and was the second representative of Ontario County in the State Legislature. Amos Bronson was an early settler, and Benjamin Goss was in the new country as early as 1791. He married a daughter of Deacon George Codding, of Bristol, and theirs was the first marriage in

the town, and indeed in the whole Phelps and Gorham Purchase. Nathaniel Norton was from Goshen, Conn., and founded the mills bearing his name, on Ganargwa Creek, in Bloomfield. He was an early Sheriff and representative of the County.Daniel Gates located in Bloomfield in 1790, and built the first mill on Honeoye Creek. The first death was that of Lot Rue, in 1793. Gen. Fellows put up the first saw mill, on Mud Creek, in 1790, and the first store was opened in 1806, by Norton & Beach. Moses Sperry joined his fortunes to those of the new settlers in 1794, and James Sperry, one of his sons, furnished an interesting collection of reminiscences for the pages of Turner's History of Phelps and Gorham's Purchase, from which we make some extracts. Mr. Sperry says:-"Among the trials of the first settlers, there were none more irritating than the destruction of sheep and swine by the wolves and bears. Often whole flocks of sheep would be slaughtered in the night by the wolves. Bears preyed upon the hogs, that, from necessity, the new settlers were obliged to let run in the woods for shack. One of the Coddings, in Bloomfield, came pretty near having a clinch with one, while in the woods splitting rails. Stooping down to pick up his ax to cut off a sliver, he turned around and found himself confronted by a bear standing on his hind legs, with fore paws extended, to give him a hug. He declined the offer, struck the bear in the head with the ax, but making a glancing stroke, failed to penetrate the skull. The bear fled, bearing off the ax, which was held by the wounded skin and flesh."

"Although the privations of the first settlers were numerous and hard to bear; having often to go without meat, and sometimes bread; obliged to go on horseback to mill, often fifteen and twenty miles; to go with poor shoes and moccasins in winter, and barefoot in summer; yet, to their praise be it recorded, that they showed considerable zeal in the support of schools for their children. When our family arrived, in March, 1794, there was a school in the north-east corner of the town, kept by Laura Adams. The next spring a seven by ten log school house was put up about one and a half miles south-west of the center, where a school was kept by Lovisa Post. Betsey Sprague kept this school in the winter of '96 and '97. My eldest brother and myself attended this school in the winter, walking two and a half miles through the snow across the openings, not with 'old shoes and clouted' on our feet, but with rags tied on them to go and come in, taking them off in school hours."

Mr. Sperry speaks at some length of a young man, who, in the fall of 1797, came into the neighborhood one mile north of his father's, and introducing himself as a school teacher from the land of steady habits, proposed to the settlers that they form a new

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