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48. In an action for libel against a newspaper, extracts from such newspaper may be given to show its circulation, and the extent to which the libel has been published. The jury, in estimating the damages, are to look at the character of the libel, and whether the defendant is rich or poor. The plaintiff is entitled, in all cases, to his actual damages, and should be compensated for the mental sufferings endured, the public disgrace inflicted, and all actual discomfort produced.

49. Delivery of a husband's goods by a wife to her adulterer, he having knowledge that she has taken them without her husband's authority, is sufficient to sustain an indictment for larceny against the adul

terer.

58. A married woman can neither sue nor be sued on any contract made by her during her marriage, except in an action relating to her individual property. The action must be commenced either by or against her husband. It is only when an action is brought on a contract made by her before her marriage, that she is to be joined as a co-plaintiff, or defendant, with her husband.

59. Any contract made with a person judicially declared a lunatic is void.

action, with a knowledge of the facts, can60. Money paid voluntarily in any transnot be recovered.

61. In all cases of special contract for services, except in the case of a minor, the plaintiff can recover only the amount stip

50. The fact that the insurer was not informed of the existence of impending liti-ulated in the contract. gation, affecting the premises insured, at the time the insurance was effected, does not vitiate the policy.

51. The liability of an innkeeper is not confined to personal baggage, but extends to all the property of the guest that he con

sents to receive.

52. When a minor executes a contract, and pays money, or delivers property on the same, he cannot afterwards disaffirm such contract and recover the money, or property, unless he restores to the other party the consideration received from him for such money or property.

53. When a person has, by legal inquisition been found an habitual drunkard, he cannot, even in his sober intervals, make contracts to bind himself or his property, until the inquisition is removed.

54. Any person dealing with the representative of a deceased person, is presumed, in law, to be fully apprized of the extent of such representative's authority to act in behalf of such estate.

55. In an action against a railroad company, by a passenger, to recover damages injuries sustained on the road, it is not compulsory upon the plaintiff to prove actual negligence in the defendants; but it is obligatory on the part of the latter to prove that the injury was not owing to any fault or negligence of theirs.

56. A guest is a competent witness, in an action between himself and an inn-keeper, to prove the character and value of lost personal baggage. Money in a trunk, not exceeding the amount reasonably required by the traveler to defray the expenses of the journey which he has undertaken, is a part of his baggage; and in case of its loss, while at any inn, the plaintiff may prove its amount by his own testimony.

57. The deed of a minor is not absolutely void. The court is authorized to judge, from the instrument, whether it is void or not, according to its terms being favorable or unfavorable to the interests of the minor.

her husband, to prove the contents of a lost 62. A wife is a competent witness with trunk, or when a party.

63. A wife cannot be convicted of receiv

ing stolen goods when she received them

of her husband.

otherwise, does not cover loss by lightning 64. Insurance against fire, by lightning or when there is no combustion.

65. Failure to prove plea of justification, in a case of slander, aggravates the offence.

66. It is the agreement of the parties to sample, not the mere exhibition of a specisell by sample that constitutes a sale by men of the goods.

67. An agent is liable to his principals for loss caused by his misstatements, tho' unintentional.

68. Makers of promissory notes given in advance for premiums on policies of insurance, thereafter to be taken, are liable there

on.

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71. Testimony given by a deceased witness on first trial, is not required to be repeated verbatim on the second.

72. A person entitling himself to a reward offered for lost property, has a lien upon the property for the reward; but only when a definite reward is offered.

73. Confession by a prisoner must be voluntarily made, to constitute evidence against him.

74. The defendant in a suit must be served with process; but service of such process upon his wife, even in his absence from the State, is not, in the absence of statutory provisions, sufficient.

75. The measure of damages in trespass for cutting timber, is its value as a chattel on the land where it was felled, and not the market price of the lumber manufactured. 76. To support an indictment for malicious mischief in killing an animal, malice towards its owner must be shown, not merely passion excited against the animal itself.

89. Contracting parties are bound to disclose material facts known to each, but of which either supposes the other to be ignorant, only when they stand in some special relation of trust and confidence in relation to the subject matter of the contract. But neither will be protected if he does anything, however slight, to mislead or deceive the other.

90. A contract negotiated by mail is 77. No action can be maintained against formed when notice of acceptance of the of a sheriff for omitting to account for money fer is duly deposited in the post-office, proobtained upon an execution within a reas-perly addressed. This rule applies, although onable time. He has till the return day to the party making the offer expressly rerender such account. quires that if it is accepted, speedy notice of acceptance shall be given him.

78. An interest in the profits of an enterprise, as profits, renders the party holding it a partner in the enterprise, and makes him presumptively liable to share

any loss.

79. Males can marry at fourteen, and females at twelve years of age.

91. The date of an instrument is so far a

material part of it, that an alteration of the the date by the holder after execution, makes the instrument void.

92. A corporation may maintain an action for libel, for words published of them and 80. All cattle found at large upon any pub-relating to its trade or business, by which lic road, can be driven by any person to the it has incurred special damages. public pound.

81. Any dog chasing, barking, or otherwise threatening a passer-by in any street, lane, road, or other public thoroughfare, may be lawfully killed for the same.

82. A written promise for the payment of such amount as may come into the hands of the promisor, is held to be an instrument in writing for the payment of money.

93. It is unprofessional for a lawyer who has abandoned his case without trying it, a term or two before trial, to claim a fee conditional upon the success of his client, although his client was successful.

94. Although a party obtaining damages for injuries received through the default of another, was himself guilty of negligence, his negligence contributed to cause the inyet that will not defeat his recovery, unless

83. The declaration of an agent is not admissible to establish the fact of agency.-jury. But when other proper evidence is given, tending to establish the fact of agency, it is not error to admit the declarations of the agent, accompanying acts, though tending to show the capacity in which he acted. When evidence is competent in one respect and incompetent in another, it is the duty of the court to admit it, and control its effects by suitable instructions to the jury.

84. The court has a general power to remove or suspend an attorney for such immoral conduct as rendered him unworthy of confidence in his official capacity.

85. Bankruptcy is pleadable in bar to all actions and in all courts, and this bar may be avoided whenever it is interposed, by showing fraud in the procurement of the discharge, or a violation of any of the provisions of the bankrupt act.

86. An instrument in the form of a deed, but limited to take effect at the termination of the grantor's natural life, is held to be a deed, not a will.

87. A sale will not be set aside as fraudulent, simply because the buyer was at the time unable to make the payment agreed upon, and knew his inability, and did not intend to pay.

88. No man is under an obligation to make known his circumstances when he is buying goods.

95. A person may contract to labor for another during life, in consideration of receiving his support; but his creditors have the right to inquire into the intention with which such arrangement is made, and it will be set aside if entered into to deprive them of his future earnings.

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96. A grantor may by express terms exclude the bed of a river, or a highway, mentioned as boundary; but if without language of exclusion a line is described as along, or upon,' or as 'running to the highway or river, or as 'by,' or 'running to the bank of the river; these expressions carry the grantee to the center of the highway or river.

97. The court will take pains to construe the words used in a deed in such a way as to effect the intention of the parties, however unskillfully the instrument may be drawn. But a court of law cannot exchange an intelligible word plainly employed in a deed for another, however evident it may be that the word used was used by mistake

for another.

98. One who has lost his memory and understanding is entitled to legal protection, whether such loss is occasioned by his own misconduct or by an act of Providence.

99. When a wife leaves her husband voluntarily, it must be shown, in order to make him liable for necessaries furnished to her, that she could not stay with safety. Personal violence, either threatened or inflicted, will be sufficient cause for such separation.

100. Necessaries of dress furnished to a

discarded wife must correspond with the pecuniary circumstances of the husband, and be such articles as the wife, if prudent, would expect, and the husband should furnish, if the parties lived harmoniously together.

101. A fugitive from justice from one of the United States to another, may be arrested and detained in order to his surrender by authority of the latter, without a previous demand for his surrender by the executive of the State whence he fled.

102. A watch will not pass under a bequest of "wearing apparel," nor of household furniture and articles for family use."

103. Money paid for the purpose of settling or compounding a prosecution for a supposed felony, cannot be recovered back by a party paying it..

104. An innkeeper is liable for the death of an animal in his possession, but may free himself from liability by showing that the death was not occasioned by negligence on his part.

105. Notice to the agent of a company is notice to the company.

111. A man charged with crime before a committing magistrate, but discharged on his own recognizance, is not privileged from arrest on civil process while returning from the magistrate's office.

112. When one has been induced to sell goods by means of false pretences, he cannot recover them from one who has bona

fide purchased and obtained possession of them from the fraudulent vendor.

113. If the circumstances attendant upon a sale and delivery of personal property are such as usually and naturally accompany such a transaction, it cannot be declared a legal fraud upon creditors.

ment by way of seal, is good as a seal, if it 114. A stamp impressed upon an instrucreates a durable impression in the texture of the paper.

115. If a party bound to make a payment use due diligence to make a tender, but through the payee's absence from home is unable to find him or any agent authorized be incurred through his failure to make a to take payment for him, no forfeiture will tender.

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A sixteenth section, a quarter of a mile square, 40 acres.

The sections are numbered from one to corner, thus:

106. An employer is not liable to one of thirty-six, commencing at the northeast his employees for an injury sustained by the latter in consequence of the neglect of others of his employees engaged in the same general business.

107. Where a purchaser at a Sheriff's sale has bid the full price of property under the erroneous belief that the sale would divest the property of all liens, it is the duty of the court to give relief by setting aside the sale.

108. When notice of protest is properly sent by mail, it may be sent by the mail of the day of the dishonor; if not, it must be mailed for the mail of the next day; except that if there is none, or it closes at an unseasonably early hour, then notice must be mailed in season for the next possible mail.

109. A powder-house located in a populous part of a city, and containing large quantities of gunpowder, is a nuisance.

110. When the seller of goods accepts at the time of the sale, the note of a third person, unindorsed by the purchaser, in payment, the presumption is that the pay ment was intended to be absolute; and though the note should be dishonored, the purchaser will not be liable for the value of the goods.

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THE DECIMAL SYSTEM

OF

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. As Authorized by Act of Congress--Approved July 28, 1866.

STANDARDS.

In every system of Weights and Measures it is necessary to have what are called "Standards," as the pound, yard, gallon, &c., to be divided and multiplied into smaller and larger parts and denominations. The definition and construction of these Standards involve philosophical and scientific principles of a somewhat abstruse charecter, and are made and procured by the legislative department of the government. The nominal Standards in the new system are the METER, the ARE, the LITER, and the GRAM. The only real Standard, the one by which all the other standards are measured, and from which the system derives its name of "Metric," is the METER.

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A cubic Meter (or Kiloliter) is called a stere, and is also used as a standard in certain cubic measures.

THE GRAM

It is

Is the Unit of weight, and is the weight of a cube of pure water, each edge of the cube being one one-hundredth of a Meter. about equal to 15 grains. It is intended as the Standard in all weights, and with its divisions and multiples, to supersede the use of what are now called Avoirdupois, Apothecaries and Troy Weights.

The

Each of the foregoing Standards is divided decimally, and larger units are also formed by multiples of 10, 100, &c. Successive subordinate parts are designated by the prefixes Deci, Centi and Milli; the successive muitiples by Deka, Hecto, Kilo and Myria; each having its own numerical signification, as will be more clearly seen in the tables hereinafter given.

The terms used may, at first sight, have a formidable appearance, seem difficult to pronounce, and to retain in memory, and to be, therefore, objectionable; but with a little attention and use, the apprehended difficulty will be found more apparent than real, as has been abundantly proved by experience. The importance, also, of conformity in the use of commercial terms, on the part of the United States, with the practice of the many nations in which the already been adopted, must greatly oversystem, with its present nomenclature, has balance the comparatively slight objection

alluded to.

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The denominations less than the Are, including the Meter, are used in specifying the contents of surfaces of small extent; the terms Centare, Are and Hectare, in expres sing quantities of land surveyed or measured.

The above table may, however, be continued beyond the Meter, thus:

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[A LITER, the standard of Measures of Capacity, usually in a cylindrical form, is equivalent to a cubic Decimeter, or the one-thousandth part of a cubic Meter, the contents of which are about one quart.]

The Kiloliter, or STERE, is a cubic Meter, and is used as a unit in measuring firewood and lumber.

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