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( 103) Math 467,- PREFACE.
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The object of the following pages is to present the first principles of Arithmetic in a simple and practical manner, without theorizing upon them.
It has been too much the fashion of late to attempt the development of the reasoning powers in children of tender years. Nature dictates a different course. The perceptive faculties are in full vigor during childhood, whilst the ability to reason is slow of growth, and seldom capable of rapid development early in life without risk of serious injury.
Oral and Written exercises are presented on alternate pages in this book, and the various combinations of numbers, under the fundamental rules, have been so arranged as to make the pupil who masters them thoroughly familiar with the subject, and entirely fit to continue the study in a higher grade. It is too often the case that pupils are to be found dragging along through problems in the higher branches, who cannot perform with quickness and accuracy examples in addition.
Illustrations and explanations have been left to the teacher, this being emphatically intended for a working text-book, and not a pictured play-book. We hold that there are no means of gaining a proper knowledge of this or any other science save constant labor and practice.
G. M. S. PHILADELPHIA, 1877.
NEW AMERICAN ARITHMETIC.
NOTATION AND NUMERATION.
LESSON 1. In Arithmetic we must first learn to read and write numbers.
This sign = is read equal or equals. Note. The teacher should place this and other signs, as they occur, on the blackboard and explain them.
Naught=0. One = 1. Eleven = 11. Twenty-one = 21. Two = 2. Twelve = 12. Twenty-two = 22. Three = 3. Thirteen = 13. Twenty-three = 23. Four = 4. Fourteen – 14. Twenty-four = 24. Five = 5. Fifteen = 15. Twenty-five = Six = 6. Sixteen = 16. Twenty-six = 26. Seven = 7. Seventeen = 17. Twenty-seven = 27. Eight = 8. Eighteen = 18. Twenty-eight = 28. Nine = 9. Nineteen = 19. Twenty-nine = 29. Ten =10. Twenty = 20. Thirty = 30.
Write on the slate or blackboard the figures that stand for the following numbers:- .
Two. Five. Six. Fourteen. Twenty-eight. Nine. Twelve. Three. Fifteen. Twenty-two. Thirteen. Eight. Four. Twenty. Ten. One. Twenty-five. Naught. Twenty-three. Seventeen. Twenty-four. Sixteen. Nineteen. Twenty-nine. Eighteen. Eleven. Twenty-six. Twenty-one. Seven. Twenty-seven. Thirty.
Write the names of the following numbers:1 3. 5. 7. 9. 11. 13. 15. 17. 19.
2. 4. 6. 8. 10. 12. 14. 16. 18. 20. 21. 23. 25. 27. 29. 22. 24. 26. 28. 30.
1.3. 5. 7. 8. 11. 13. 15. 17. 19. 2. A. 6. 8. 10. 12. 14. 16. 18. 20. 21. 23. 25. 27. 29. 22. 24. 26. 28. 30.
Note.- The pupils should now be thoroughly drilled in writing numbers on the slate and blackboard. In fact, too much effort cannot be made to attain perfection in the fundamental rules. It is the only sure Note.- Believing that no formal directions can as fully instruct the child in the methods of carrying, borrowing, long and short division, etc. as the living voice of the faithful instructor, no attempt has been made in the following pages to supplant the teacher. Hence, the pupil has plenty of work given, and no theory. Practice first, theory afterwards, has been the aim throughout.
NOTATION AND NUMERATION.
LESSON 3. Thirty = 30. Sixty-four = 64. Thirty-one = 31. Seventy = 70. Forty
Seventy-five = 75. Forty-two = 42. Eighty = 80. Fifty = 50. Eighty-six = 86. Fifty-three = 53. Ninety = 60.
Ninety-nine =99. One hundred = 100.
Write the figures that stand for the following numbers :
Thirty. Thirty-eight. Forty-two. Forty-nine. Fifty-five. Sixty-seven. Seventy. Seventy-three. Seventy-eight. Eighty-nine. Ninety. Ninety-nine. One hundred.