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crossing the blacks with the Italians, we keep on importing fresh stock, and also preserve pure black bees to cross with them. If we do not wish to do this, keep both races separate. Am I correct?
FROM 10 TO 71 COLONIES, AND 1200
saving 1300 out of 1500 shects. Now, how much
ANOTHER STUNNING" REPORT.
WISH to give you some of the ups and downs of bee-keeping-especially the downs. In this locality we had the best honey season we have
had for many years. We had the hottest and dryest AN A B C SCHOLAR'S MANAGEMENT OF season we ever had. No rain from June 15th until Sept. 15th. The hotter and dryer, the more honey seemingly. Sweet clover is king, as a honey-producing plant. It blossomed until Nov. 14th this fall. I suppose my success is due to the grand honey season, and plenty of old combs on hand, of which I had 1500 sheets. My loss last winter was 163 out of 165 colonies. I bought 8 blacks, and commenced with 10 colonies-8 fair and 2 weak ones. I transferred the 8 June 5th, and made my first division June 12th. I divide by moving a strong colony, and start a nucleus in its place with a full set of combs and a frame of eggs and brood in the center.* This season I subdivided cach nucleus when the queens were ready to hatch, say from 12 to 14 days, by giving each a brood comb again. In this way I have increased from 10 to 71 colonies, which could be done only by dividing and subdividing. My hive is what I will call a systematized Langstroth, 14x14 and 11% inches high, inside measure, holding 9 frames. From a number of nuclei, started between June 12th and July 15th I have extracted 60 lbs. of finished honey, each from the upper story, in September.
Total honey crop for 1881, 1000 lbs. extracted, and 200 lbs. comb honey; bees all strong, and plenty of honey for the winter. I work on the tiering-up system.
I took 40 full sheets of brood from my only surviving colony of Italians, and yet it occupied 4 storics, containing 36 frames and a case of sections. Again, the middle of September my 8 colonies of blacks were not much behind this. Each occupied 36 frames, and had also furnished a great many brood frames. Quite a number of my nuclei occupied 36 frames. Again, in September also, each old colony gave me 60 lbs. honey, which was taken after it was all finished and capped. Twelve hundred lbs. honey, and 100 lbs. wax from 10 colonies in spring. From the time maple and fruit trees blossomed, say May 1st until Sept. 18th, we had a constant flow of honey. Our principal honey-producing plants here are fruit-trecs, white clover, basswood, sweet clover, wild cucumber, and heart's-ease.
After reading a great deal of bee literature, I have come to this simple conclusion: Like all scientific subjects, the more we know, the less we know-or the more we feel the necessity of knowing more. I have to differ with some of your correspondents on glass jars. I sell my honey in Mason's jars, quarts and pints, and also jelly-tumblers; quarts, 65 cts.; pints, 40; jelly-glasses, 25; so you see my honey nets me over 18 cts. per lb. I have sold up to date, $166 worth of honey. My object in increasing my bees was to save my comb. I have succeeded in
*I would invite the attention of friend Hasty (see p. 25) to the above.-ED,
AND REPORT FOR 1881.
N March number of GLEANINGS I told you I had my bees down cellar-two box and two Simplicity. They were put into the cellar the middle of November, and remained until the last week in April (without any fly). I visited them often to see that they were quiet and happy, and free from dysentery, and took care not to disturb them in any way. In preparing them in the fall, to the box hives I did nothing, only left the empty surplus boxes on. In the Simplicities I removed the enamel cloth, and placed, instead, a chaff cushion thick enough to fill space in cover with a fourth-inch space across the opposite end from the entrance up by the cushion for ventilation. Then on the rabbet, on the outside of hive of the same end, I placed a piece of wood % square by thick, tipped back against the miter, and let the cover rest on that, which gave a circulation of air through the hive. Temperature from 40 to 45°. I could put all the dead bees in a pint dipper when I took them from the cellar, and I had no spring dwindle (and I will say right here, it was one of the hardest winters we ever had). I placed them on their summer stands about 10 o'clock A.M. on a very fine day (snow all gone). Then there was a fly in earnest.
Now for summer report: I transferred one box hive to Simplicity; changed the other two over into new hives so as to be sure the queens were there, and every thing sweet and clean. After I got them to raising brood I made one colony queenless, using the queen to form another colony, and using the queenless colony to raise queens; got three good cells on the very first frame I put in then; after they were capped, I transferred two cells to separate frames of brood, and with these formed two other colonies, leaving one for the queenless colony. The other box hive I let swarm once, after which I used the bees from the box to prevent swarming, and to build up the others. This doubled my number. I stopped here. As I had no sale for bees, I did not wish to increase further; got them into shape for honey as fast as possible by taking from the strong to build up the weak, and had them in good working order in time; but, lo and behold! the honey did not come- that is, as fast as I expected, but rain, rain, rain, until the first week in August, and then they began to fill up; but it cut short, so I got only about 100 lbs., mostly in 1-lb. sections. However, I am not discouraged a bit. They are jammed full of honey and bees; are all fixed warm, and have been in cellar since the 10th of November; so don't put me in Blasted Hopes yet. My bees built comb between the bottom of surplus frames and top of brood frames. What is the trouble? Do you use
honey-board on top of frames before putting on sur-
Now, I wish to say a word about those Home readings. I know you have no idea of leaving them out. If I thought you did, I should hold up both hands, and use my tongue pretty freely too, to keep them in. I think this a very nice journal as it is, and if there isn't room for all, you must increase its pages or leave out some other matters of not so much profit. What does it profit a man to gain the whole world and lose his own soul? Let us have the Home readings, Brother Root, and my dollar shall be coming along to you every year to help you out, and all others whom I can get to subscribe.
the air, if protected from dust. Friend Heddon said, at the convention, he placed his honey in stone crocks, and piled them up on each other, but so the air could circulate through. The crocks, of course, will give it no taint or flavor, as barrels may do. It seems to me I would use tin cans, because they are so much lighter to handle. Well, if at any time he has an order for a barrel of honey, he gets it from these crocks into the barrel in this way: He has a large tin ean to set on the stove, that will hold, say, eight 20-lb. crocks. Water is poured around them, and brought gradually to a heat that will melt the honey; it is then poured into the barrel, while hot. Two lots, melted in this way, make a barrel full. I believe as fine honey as I ever tasted had been standing a year in open crocks, and was candied hard.
L. S. SMITH. Cherryfield, Washington Co., Me., Dec. 8, 1881. The difficulty you mention, friend S., is one not very easily remedied. Reducing the space to inch will usually answer, yet there are some stocks that will even then fill the space up solid with honey. If you scrape the top-bars and bottom-bars clean, and glease them with clean tallow, it will usually prevent any further attachments, but it may hinder the bees some from going into the sections. With the case for the 11-story hive, you can take out the sections, put them in a new case, and leave the case over the frames until the end of the season, if you choose, but you will then be unable to exam-ient for the bees in winter, like grape sugar; ine the brood-combs during all this time. A but when the weather gets warm, they use good many let alone these attachments, and it without trouble. Aside from this, I do when they wish to pick out the filled sec- not know that we have any reason to think tions, break each wide frame loose, being granulation is any objection, although I becareful to smoke the bees away, when they lieve clover and linn honey is thought to are replaced, that none may be killed. I am winter bees rather better than late-gathered inclined to think the bees move right into honey. new sections more readily when the latter plan is followed, than where they are prevented from bridging up the space as mentioned.
I believe the source from which the bees get the honey has much to do with granulation. Some will get solid very soon, while other samples will not. Honey that is granulated in the combs, seems to be inconven
DITOR GLEANINGS:-Permit me to ask a few more questions.
How long does it take to cure honey? A good deal has already been written on this subject; but permit me to use a little space for remarks in this connection. During the white-clover season I took some of the best extracted honey, and, after allowing it to stand open a few days, I sealed it up to keep till fair time. I thought it splendid honey, and well ripened too. I also kept specimens of all the kinds of honey, clear to the end of the season. Now, at this time the best I have is that last extracted from fall flowers. I allowed it to stand open a long time, and it has constantly improved till now, and there is not a particle of the "tang" (if that is the word; that we sometimes taste after eating honey. It is even better than the white-clover honey. I have ob
served all through the season that the longer the honey is left open, the better it is. Is this the general verdict?
I believe the general testimony is, that extracted honey improves by standing open to
GRANULATION OF HONEY.
What principle in honey causes granulation? I noticed that the first honey I extracted was the last to granulate, and vice versa. This being the case, which will winter bees better, the early or late honey? If the former, then why extract from the brood-chamber at all? Would the queen be driven out of it, and we be compelled to extract to give her
CONTRACTED ENTRANCES AND DEAD BEES. One year ago I had 4 colonies of becs, my father 9. I took equal pains in preparing all for winter on their summer stands. During winter, my father failed to keep his entrances clear of dead bees; I QUESTIONS FROM AN A B C SCHOLAR. kept mine clear, and once or twice, on warm, sunny
ALSO A PRETTY GOOD REPORT FROM 4 COLONIES.
days, I took every frame out, and cleaned the hives of dead bees, they voiding their fæces at the same time. I had the satisfaction of successfully wintering mine, my father losing all his. Our hives and becs were alike. What made the difference?
In speaking of dead bees, allow me to ask if they will induce foul brood to appear. Does this disease ever appear in the winter? And will it live through winter with a swarm of bees?
therefore can do harm only while brood is Foul brood hurts only the brood, and it being raised. The germs of the disease stay in the combs over winter, and affect the brood as soon as brood is raised again. It is claimed that dead bees and dead brood may generate foul brood where none has existed. I am very loth to accept this; still, it may be so. We have never had a cell of foul brood in our apiary, and, in fact, I have never seen any in our State, so I may not be very good authority in the matter. See p. 16.
FROM 1 TO 13 IN ONE SEASON.
A man in this county increased 1 swarm to 12 in 1880; lost all but 1 last winter; said they were all good swarms. This year he increased again to 13.
I have 2 or 3 hybrid swarms, and want to get full Italians. What proportion of queens should be devoted to raising drones, to secure this result from a good queen to raise queens from?
It will be a very good idea to raise as many pure drones as you can conveniently, if you have black drones near you, in abundance.
Suppose you wish to save a queen in a colony that was dying off rapidly, how would you do it; i. e., in the winter or early spring?
TO SAVE A VALUABLE QUEEN WHEN THE BEES DIE accepted as readily by the bees as fdn. with a naturOFF. al-shaped septum. However, this was far ahead of any yet in use, and thus it could be readily seen that we were gaining ground. To overcome this last difficulty, Mr. Vandervort succeeded in producing fdn. keep-running from 10 to 12 square feet to the pound, with alozenge-shaped base which was said to work equally as well as the Van Deusen, and having none of the objections urged against that. Thus we find the N. E. Bee Convention in February, 1881, giving the Vandervort the preference over all others on exhibition. At about this time, A. I. Root advertised in his price list very thin fdn. for comb honey, running at least 10 square feet to the pound, and the prospect looked quite flattering that comb foundation for section honey would prove a success, for "out of a multitude of counselors cometh wisdom." To see which was best, I concluded, last spring, to thoroughly test the matter, and so procured fdn. from the following parties; namely: A. I. Root, Medina, Ohio; G. W. Stanley, Wyoming, N. Y.; I. G. Whitten, Genoa, N. Y.; R. Van Deusen, Sprout Brook, N. Y., and Chas. Dadant & Son, Hamilton, Ill. That procured from A. I. Root was his own make, but proved to run only 61⁄2 square feet to the pound instead of "at least 10," as was advertised; and besides, it was made of dark, dirty wax. Perhaps friend Root will explain why he allowed such to be sent out. That from Stanley was made on the Vandervort machine; was very nice wax, and ran 11 feet to the pound. Mr. Whitten's was made on a Dunham machine, and was the nicest I have seen coming from a Dunham mill, as it ran 10% feet to the pound, and was made of nice wax. Mr. Van Deusen's was the thin flat-bottomed, which is, I think, the prettiest fdn. to look at of any I have yet seen. Of Chas. Dadant & Son, I had both the Root and Dunham. The Root ran about 7% feet to the pound, and the Dunham about 6. As to quality of wax, I will say, this last was the nicest of all. I filled 20 section boxes full within % of an inch of the bottom, with each kind, and marked the name of the party producing the fdn. on each box. In due time these boxes were placed on the hives so that an equal number (six, one of each kind) was on each hive. These hives were examined at different times, and the result showed that the two kinds prcduced by Dadant, and that by Stanley were worked upon about alike, and finished at nearly the same time. That produced by Root and Whitten was about a day later in being finished, while the Van Deusen was nearly three days behind the firstnamed. This was taking the average time of the 20 swarms which worked upon them. By this experiment we found that it did take time for the bees to manipulate the flat-bottomed fån. After all was off the hives, we were anxious to know which kind had the thinnest base, or, in other words, which was most free from the "fishbone" center so much talked of. Accordingly, I procured a very sensitive pair of scales, showing a variation of ounce ac
I have never had much success in ing queens after the bees had died off and left them, unless it was so late in the spring that I could introduce them into a nucleus of healthy bees made for them. If given young bees in an ordinary queen-cage, and fed on pure sugar and water, they may be kept a month or more.
Had 4 colonies last spring; increased to 12. They gave 775 lbs. honey, mostly extracted. Extracted brought 12c.; comb, 18c. per lb., netting $99.70. Value of the 8 new swarms, you may place yourself; but $150 would not buy the product of my four colonies the past year, and all this from one who did not know a queen from a drone, May 15, 1883.
Can it be possible that the author of that famous growlery article in last GLEANINGS, and other raen who write similar articles, ever glance at the "kind words" from the grand army of constantly increasing patrons of your noble business? If so, do they ever pause to think that they may be wrong and you right? It would seem not. Surely such harsh grating words can not fall gently upon the ear of one who is striving with all his might to do justice to the many who are in part instrumental in building up a business for him, which of itself speaks the verdict rendered by the honest, grateful members of our bee-keeping fraternity. F. A. PALMER. McBrides, Montcalm Co., Mich., Dec. 6, 1881. You are right, friend P.; the kind words do help me wonderfully to bear the harsh ones when they come. They do not come very often. I believe you have seen the most of them and the worst of them.
COMB FOUNDATION FOR SECTION
use for comb honey, to such an extent that some of our large honey-producers began to study on the matter of making a very thin foundation.
FTER comb foundation had been in use but a year or two, it became apparent to some that the bees did not properly thin the base of the cells so as to make it practical for using in section boxes, as a hard ridge of wax (or "fishbone," as it was termed) in the center of each comb of honey was quite a serious objection, for consumers did not like to eat so much wax with their honey. At this time, fdn. running from 6 to 8 square feet to the pound was used for sections; and it was predicted that if such a course was persisted in, our honey markets would eventually be ruined. About this time the American Bee Journal lifted up its voice of warning, and bee convention 3 resolved against its
In due time, the Van Deusen flat-bottomed fdn. appeared before the public as a result, and we had
fan. so thin that it took from 10 to 14 square feet of it to make one pound. This seemed to be successful as far as the "fishbone" was concerned; but as the bees had to change the flat bottom into a lozengeshaped base, it was soon discovered that it was not
curately, and upon these fixed a No. 16 wire (being square at the end) so it stood perpendicularly. I now placed the section of honey on this wire, letting it down carefully till the square end touched the base, and then watched the scales till the wire passed through, noting down the number of ounces resistance produced by the base of the fdn. on this wire. Each section was thus subjected to this trial in their different places, when the amount was posted up and an average made. When this was done, the
same number of sections containing natural comb were subjected to the same test, and an average taken, which gave us this result: A. I. Root's make showed the average pressure of 6% ounces; G. W. Stanley's make (Vandervort) 4 ounces; I. G. Whitten's (very thin Dunham) 51⁄2 ounces; R. Van Deusen (flat-bottomed) 5 ounces; Chas. Dadant & Son (thin Root) 5 ounces; Chas. Dadant & Son (thin Dunham) C1⁄2 ounces; natural comb, 4%1⁄2 ounces. Thus it will be seen that the Stanley (Vandervort) fdn. was even thinner than the natural comb, while the Van Deusen stood the next best in the list. These experiments were conducted carefully, to arrive at the truth of the matter as nearly as could be done in one season with 20 section boxes of each kind. I am in no way interested in the sale of any kind of fdn., consequently am not prejudiced in the least. One thing I wish to say about all fdn., which I have long believed to be so, but have had no chance to prove till the past season, which is this: At a time when honey is coming in moderately, say when a good swarm is bringing in from 3 to 5 lbs. per day of extracted honey, comb foundation is a success in the surplus arrangement; but at a time when honey comes in with a rush, the same swarm gathering from 12 to 20 lbs. a day, it does not pay the cost, for my bees will fill a box having a starter of natural comb, and finish it as quickly as they will one full of fdn. by the side of it. All through basswood the past season, when honey was coming in slowly, the fdn. was drawn out and finished before a box by its side with a starter was half filled; but when the rush came from teasel and red clover, those with starters were filled fully as soon, as has been my experience for several years before. Thus I have given you my experience with foundation for surplus comb honey. If it does not agree with the experience of others, please use charity, and remember that localities make a difference in results. G. M. DOOLITTLE.
Borodino, N. Y., Dec. 17, 1881.
Friend D., I am certainly very much obliged for the result of your valuable experiments, even if you have given our fdn. for surplus honey a pretty square left-handed recommend. Very likely it was fully deserved, for I did discover, one time last spring, that the hands in our wax-room were not making fdn. according to the advertisement. When taken to task about it, the reply was, that if we made it that thin, it would cost more than we ever got for it. I gave them to understand pretty clearly, that we were to do all we agreed to in print, and when there was a difficulty in the matter, I was to be consulted. Since that time, I believe we have furnished clean wax for surplus boxes, and as thin as advertised. I am sorry the above experiments did not include also samples of the dipped fdn. With all deference to friend Doolittle, I would remind our readers, that he has, from the com
mencement, pulled strongly against the use of fdn. Even when everybody else was satisfied, apparently, his experiments seemed to indicate it didn't pay. The above is a pretty big concession in its favor, but it seems to me he is hanging back a little still. Will our friend excuse so much of a criticism? I would mention one more reason why our fdn. was not as thin as advertised. The advertisement was put in with the intention of using drone for starters, and we with little trouble. Well, when some decan work drone down to 10 feet to the pound, clared they wanted worker equally thin, we found it much more difficult, because of the greater number of side-walls. Will friend D. please tell us if he experimented with drone fdn. also, and how it compared with the worker?
BEE-STINGS AND RHEUMATISM.
MORE CONVINCING FACTS.
HAVE read in GLEANINGS, at different times in the past few years, reports of rheumatism being cured by bee-stings; some of those report. ing very positively that they were cured; others were not so positive; still others were certain that they were not benefited at all. I have a little experience in the matter of rheumatism and beostings, which I will relate briefly, and let you and others judge for yourselves. I have been afflicted with rheumatism for at least 25 years, and of the wandering kind (as the darkey said, "bere tc-day and gone yesterday to some other part.") I was with Sherman at the siege of Atlanta during the summer of 1864, and during the autumn and winter following, on the march to the sea and through the Carolinas. I was, like the private soldier, exposed to all the extremes of heat and cold, wet and dryat times my clothing wet night and day for at least ten consecutive days, sleeping upon the cold wet ground, or exposed to the rays of a summer sun, with the temperature up to 106° in the shade, clad in a heavy woolen suit from head to foot, perspiring like a man mowing. Strange to say, during all of that exposure I had not a particle of rheumatism for the space of about one year. On my return home to Medina county, Ohio, my old enemy (rheumatism) returned also, and afflicted me summer and winter not so badly in summer as winter (change
able weather fall and spring is the most favorable season for the development of rheumatism), till the summer of 1876. Since that time I have handled
bees every season on a small scale for my own diversion, and have been stung almost every working day during the bee season up to the present time. Whilst I am handling bees, and am being stung, I
have no rheumatism; but it returns in a few weeks afterward. Question (the same that Mrs. Harrison has asked): Will outdoor exercise and profuse perspiration cure rheumatism? I am quite sure it will relieve, but not cure.
Quite a number of articles have appeared in GLEANINGS on the curative effects of bees in dropsy; and the publisher has raised the inquiry, if bees could not be used beneficially for the treatment of other diseases than rheumatism and dropsy. I say, yes. Apis is not a new remedy; it has been used successfully in a great many diseases for half a century or more by the homoeopaths. I have used it
with good results for the past twelve years, and where it is indicated in any disease, it never disappoints.
One more item, and I will relieve you. Mrs. L. Harrison said that she and medicine had fallen out many years since, and had never "kissed and made up;" and you fall into the wake, and express the desire that she may die without being required to take much medicine. I say this: If the human race were well posted in the physical and hygienic laws of life, there would be but little need of medicine. More, it is my firm conviction, and has been for many years, that there would be less mortality of the human race, without medication than there is with, as conducted at the present time. You may think the last assertion pretty strong for a man to make who depends upon the practice of medicine for his support; but I have nothing to detract. It is my firm conviction. G. F. PECKHAM, M. D. Elyria, Ohio.
LECHLER'S 600 LBS. TO THE HIVE, AGAIN.
ALSO SOMETHING IN REGARD TO FOUL BROOD.
RIEND ROOT:-I have just read, with considerable interest, an article in GLEANINGS, headed, "Lechler's 600 lbs. to the Hive," to which I would like to add a few notes from my own experience; and more especially to the closing letter from G. W. Lechler himself.
During the season of 1878 I increased 4 colonies to
86, and took 1500 lbs. of honey without the use of either comb foundation, or empty combs; nor did they get half the attention they needed, and I am fully convinced that, had I given them my whole time, with the aid of foundation, they would have done twice as well. And I know of another man who claimed to have increased from 6 to 40, and took two tons of honey. I think many bee-keepers make a mistake in keeping too many bees; that is, they keep more than they can properly attend to. As a general thing, the very best reports and largest yield from any one stock come from those having small apiaries. In order to attain to the best results, we must first have prolific queens, and must breed for honey-gathering qualities; and secondly, we must have our bees strong at the right time.
Friend Wilkin hits a good point when he speaks of "the best management for that year." Bee-keeping here, differs widely from bee-keeping in the east. Our swarming season usually begins in the latter part of March, and continues through the months of April and May, during which time there is but little surplus stored, the bees just gathering sufficient to keep them breeding nicely, and to keep the swarming fever at its highest pitch. Now here comes in the fine point of management. All the increase we can make without detriment to the old colony, and have strong by the time the honey flow sets in, is so much clear gain; but if we cripple the old stock, and do not get the new ones strong at the right time, we are so much the loser. And all this depends largely on the weather which is to come, and of which we know but little. Very frequently, cold winds precede the honey flow, and carry off the bees as fast as they are produced, making it impossible to get them any stronger. A great many young queens are often lost in the same way. The past season was a very bad one to get queens fertilized;
if they were not lost on their bridal tour, they would be killed by the bees on their return to the hive. Mr. Gallup doubled up his becs this year, but afterward had to cut down the increase about one-half, on account of queen failures; and many others have had about the same experience, so you see we can tell better after the season is over what course we should have pursued in the spring.
But I must pass on to Mr. Lechler's own letter, or I shall have no room for my special remarks. He says, in speaking of foul brocd, "A few years ago there were some apiaries that were bothered with it, and claimed they caught the disease from feeding diseased honey; but on investigation I find about the only apiaries affected were those where the owners practiced artificial swarming, and allowed the brood to get chilled."
During the season of 1877 - the dry year I had in charge an apiary of 150 colonies (perhaps one to which Mr. Lechler refers); they did not gather sufficient stores for winter, and I fed them about 2000 lbs. of honey, procured in San Francisco. In a very few weeks after, I noticed the brood looked very peculiar. I examined it closely, and compared it with Quinby's description of foul brood, and found them to agree exactly. Chilled brood has no such smell as foul brood, neither does it decay to such rottenness as does foul brood. By closely following Quinby's directions, and yours in the A B C, we eradicated the disease the next season. But a neighboring bec-keeper, who fed similar honey, denied having foul brood, and said we got the disease by letting the brood get chilled; but the next season, after making a big lot of honey (some so thin that it soured), he sold out very cheaply, the buyer getting more than he bargained for — foul brood in all its rottenness. This is a cure for foul brood, not published in books, and I know of several cases where it has been successful.
Now, Mr. Editor, I should like to explode, with one blow, the idea that chilled brood can produce foul brood. I presume that you have had as much chilled brood in your apiary as any other man, and you have perpetually said that you never had a case of foul brood, and never saw one. .If chilled brood could produce foul brood, it would certainly follow in the wake of "spring dwindling;" but no such catastrophe follows, as I know by experience. I have seen many a comb of dead brood cleaned out by the bees, without any bad results, but I have yet to see my first comb of foul brood cleaned out by the bees. And right here I would like to question Mr. Muth a little. He has stated somewhere in GLEANINGS, that he cured a case of foul brood, and a bad one at that, by the use of salicylic acid. Now, I would like to ask him how he happened to get that one case and no more; and if the bees really sucked up the l quid rottenness and packed it out of the hive. I do not like to doubt such authority as Mr. Muth, but it does seem strange that any man should get only one case of foul brood in his apiary, and that a bad one, and not be able to account for it. Salicylic acid has no effect on the disease here, and I am inclined to think that those who report cures with soda baths and salicylic acid have the kind of foul brood that Mr. Lechler speaks of - chilled brood. R. ToucaTON. Santa Paula, Cal., Dec. 12, 1881.
I quite agree with you, friend T., so far as my experience goes. I have had a great deal of brood chilled, and I have had it get