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GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE.
sit down for the evening and take a good rest. But, my boy, who will do all the pickingup that has to be done, especially when two romping children have been all over the house after the confinement of all day in school?"
"Do Mary and I scatter things, mother?" "Oh! I guess not, more than other chil-home." dren do, of your ages." A tear was in her eye as she spoke, for her boy's solicitude had touched her.
"Mother, if we put every thing away that we touch or handle, would it help you very much?"
I think it would, my boy.” 66 we don't know "But," chimed in Mary, where to put the things, as mother does." Here, somewhat to the astonishment of all, the father put in, “Can't I help too?"
Was this really another answer to prayer? thought the mother. She had been sorely troubled about the disorderly ways of her little family; and, if the truth must be told, she had many times been tempted to be cross and fretful at the very thoughtless way in which mud had been tracked in on the floors she had just been at so much pains to sweep and clean. Almost, as a last resort, she had of late been taking these troubles to her Savior, and now, without her having said a word, in some strange way the whole of them were getting zealous about a reform in this very matter.
thing to say, so she begged that she might have a hearing.
"It was only this," said Mary; "that if we are going to be so fine as to have a hatrack in our house, we had better all be very careful to wipe the mud from our feet more than we do, before we come into our nice
This sally occasioned a hearty laugh all round, and John began teasing her, and pulling her around so much at the idea of a "fine home," that he was in great danger of making his mother more work in the way of mending dresses, etc.; but his father stopped him.
"John, Mary is right, and we will have a foot-scraper and mat, as well as a hat-rack. Now let us go quietly and orderly to work, all of us, to help mother.'"
Down in the barn, near the work-bench, was an old unused turning-lathe; but of late, John's father had rigged it up and fitted in it a little circular saw that he borrowed of friend Merrybanks. He found this Well, with the lathe and buzzhelped him quite materially in making the knife-boxes. saw he soon had the hat-rack made you see here below:
The Lord is my shepherd; I shall not want.-- PSALM 23:1.
Has any one ever yet sounded the depths of those words?
"All right, father; you help us, and I know we can make it easier for mother. What shall we do first?"
Mary supplied the needed information quite promptly by saying, "Hang up your hat there it lies on the floor, right behind you."
John whirled around in his chair, almost in surprise, but presently recovered, and said, a little shyly, Well, father's hat is on the floor too," as if that were a sufficient reason why his should be cast right on the floor the minute he came in.
"Why, is my hat on the floor? I am sure I hung it up as I came in."
"You did hang it up," said the mother, "but it dropped from the nail almost as soon as you turned away."
Well, now, I will tell you one of our "Not only are we rules," said the father. all to hang our things up, but we are to do it carefully, and see that they stay hung up." "Father, would it not be a good idea to have all the hats and bonnets hung in one particular place, and have something to hold them, from which they would not slip off; then everybody would know just where to put them, and we would never need to hunt to see where we hung our hats when "The bees are swarming?" suggested Mary.
THE FIVE-CENT IAT-RACK.
The turned pins for the above were 2 inches long and 4 inch in diameter. The strips were long enough to permit the pins to stand 8 inches apart, from center to center, and of stuff sawed with the buzz-saw, wide by 3-16 thick. Friend Jones has decided that he can make them of black-walnut, and even then sell them for the small sum of 5 cents. He probably will not get so rich at the business as to get proud, but it will keep him from idleness and temptation, and give him much happiness, which, you know, even money often fails to buy. Just here Mary caught sight of John making some strange motions out on the grass.
"O mother! just see John cleaning his feet."
As he came in he walked up to his mother,
With mock gravity he goes up and places his hat carefully on the hat-rack. Although there were seven pins in it, they were all full but one. He came back and sat down by his mother, and she reached over for her little Bible, where it lay on the stand, and opening it, read,
"An excellent suggestion, my boy; and now I will go down to the barn, and see if I can not make a hat-rack."
It was here evident to the mother (who could catch almost the thought of the children from their faces), that Mary had some
And the rain descended, and the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat upon that house, and it fell not; for it was founded upon a rock.
He thought awhile, and then, pointing down to his clean shoes, and up at the hatrack, said,
"Mother, do you think such work is 'building on the rock,' where mothers are so tired and have to work so hard ?"
"I think it is, my boy." Reader, what do you think?
Howbeit Jesus suffered him not, but saith unto him, Go home to thy friends, and tell how great things the Lord hath done for thee, and hath had compassion on thee.-MARK 5: 19.
HOME, THE CHRISTIANIZER OF THE COMMUNITY.
HE story was recently told of a company of poor children who were taken by the hand of charity from the filth and confinement of their city haunts into the open country. Among their number was a little fellow who had never been beyond the shadows of the great city. The children were taken by train to a huge farm-house. This little fellow was especially astonished at his surroundings. Pure air filled the lungs that had been accustomed to the fetid atmosphere of cellar or garret. Bright sunshine played on hillside, or stole through dancing leaves upon soft grass. Instead of the black smoke which hung like a pall over the narrow street of the city in which he lived, white fleecy clouds floated high above his head in a great sea of blue. Flowers everywhere. He could not walk but he stepped on them; and no one scolded him if he did. No one but such a poor half-starved little waif could understand what the first sight of green fields means; what the first breath of pure air means; what the beauty of cloud-flecked sky, or mottled shadows of leaves; what all the beauties of nature are. At an early hour the bell sounded for breakfast. The little fellow was placed at the table, and ate, and ate. When capacity rather than appetite was satisfied, he went out again to look at the wonders of earth and sky. In due time the dinnerbell sounded, and he went in to another full meal. He was greatly surprised when they called him to supper. He had never heard of three meals a day before. After supper the tired little mortal was put into a soft bed. As the nurse was leaving the room she heard him call to one of the older boys,→
"Jemmie! I say, Jemmie! if they sets out that 'ere table again to-night. you just wake me up; do you hear?"
He had gotten one brief glimpse into that which most boys enjoy to the full every day-a comfortable home. The long year must drag on and find him day after day in the filth and starvation of his city haunts. He will probably grow up to lie and swear and steal. It may be that blacker crimes than these will follow the education which the city is giving him. The question is often asked, "Where do our criminal classes come from?" We generally answer by referring to the hosts that are pouring into our country by emigration. But this is only half a truth. We are also educating criminals. Look over the criminal lists of any city paper, and you will find that a large proportion is made up of children. From a few papers recently read, the followlowing results were gathered: Arrests for dissolute conduct, 10 girls, all under 17, and 5 boys under 14; theft, 10 girls, under 17, and 3 boy's, under 15-one little fellow only five; drunkenness, 12 boys, under 14; pickpockets, 2 boys, one 16 and one 13; highway robbery, 3 boys, 16 each; burglary, 13 boys and girls, under 18; murder, 6 boys, under 18, three of them only 12. How may this stream of corrupt men and women be stopped? We can not dam it up with workhouses and penitentiaries. A bad man is still a bad man, although confined. We can not turn
this stream from its channels by asylums or hospitals. It can be stopped only by purifying the fountain; viz., the homes of these outcast boys and girls. Sound lungs can not be secured by a week's pure country air and fifty-one weeks of poisonous breath from cellar or sink-hole. Sound morals can never be secured by one day in Sunday-school and six days in the school of vice, of which the parents are teachers. This is no new doctrine. It is the principle on which Christian philanthropy acts. Asylums, hospitals, schools, and Christian services, are of little permanent good, as long as the homes of these classes are the schools of crime. I have referred to this extreme case to bring out this thought; viz., the value of the home as a Christianizer of the community.
1. We sustain three distinct relations to each other: Individual relation, family relation, and social relation. By individual relation is meant those associations which have little reference to family or society, except remotely. The relations of trade in this sense, are individual relations. Goods are bought and sold, with little reference to a man's family or social position. Social relations are those which grow out of the common needs of many. Public schools come from the recognition of the community of a common social want-education for children. Government is only society organized under law. Distinct from these is the family relation. It is peculiar in several respects. Other relations are, in the main, voluntary: those of the family are enforced. Duties come from the accident of birth, which can not be escaped. These family relations also affect us more powerfully than both the others combined. It follows, that each member of a community has more real interest in his neighbor's home than in all else that pertains to him except his moral character. We are speaking of home in relation to the community. There is power in this close organization, which would not exist were the members isolated individuals. A wellorganized regiment is much more efficient than a thousand men fighting at random. Law throws its safeguards around the home for the sake of society. The home, although the product of Christian civilization, is also a gigantic factor in the progress of that civilization. To some extent, society has a right to say what shall and what shall not be, in each home in the community.
2. The power of the home as a Christianizer is the thought presented in this text. The best service this new convert could render the Master was in returning to his home and telling there the wonderful story of his deliverance. This was Christ's way of reaching one of the worst communities in which he ever preached, through one Christian man, and he was to begin at home. We notice, in the Savior's instructions, that he was to go home. He had been hiding himself in the filthy caves in which the dead were buried. Men often now-a-days hide themselves in a saloon, or some other vile den, when the Devil gets hold of them. Even Christians occasionally have the mistaken idea, that that work which is done outside of home is the most acceptable to God. I do not believe that any work will be of great permanent value to the community, which is rendered at the neglect of home religion. A neighbor's children will not probably be converted through the labors of a man who neglects his own. Filial love is God's own golden chain which he has put into our hand to draw our children to Christ. Would he say to any
of us, if, in enthusiastic love, we leaped down into the boat beside him and sought to go with him to other and strange fields of labor, "Go home to thy friends, and tell them how great things the Lord hath done for thee"? For one, I have little hope for the Christian work in any community that follows public exhortation with fretfulness and impatience at home. How shall we save our boys from the saloons? By making home so bright and cheerful and Christian, that they do not want to go. Does this method sometimes fail? The opposite method almost always fails. There should be hours of each day, and days of each year, sacred to home and children. This is possible in the busiest lives.
But this man was not only to go home, but he was to go home clean. Absolute purity is another precious stone which must be put into the foundation of any home which proves a Christianizer to the community. The Devil must be kept out or cast out of father and mother, or he will be pretty sure to get into the children. This man did not go home, raying as he came out of the tombs, nor surly and sour: conversion had cleansed him from these vices.
Why is it that so many men are gentlemen on our streets, and surly grumblers at home? Why is it that so many women are ladies in society, but fretful complainers at home? Why are so many boys and girls respectful to teachers and friends, and so seldom truly courteous to father and mother? Is it because we all forget so often, that the most efficient way to save the community and world to Christ is by doing our utmost to save those whom God has especially committed to our care in our homes? Every man, every woman, every child, is a preacher. Each one preaches a daily sermon to the congregation of home. That sermon should have for its text, Love; for its introduction, Love; for its proposition, Love; for its application, Love. Such a sermon needs no music of choir to impress its truth; no sounding bell beneath gilded dome need call worshipers to listen. The first church which God ever planted was -a home. The church in which God's Son preached for thirty years was home. The church to which Christ sent this first missionary among the Gadarenes was home. The church in which you and I preach with surer results than from pulpit or prayer-meeting or street, is home, home, home. If your life is pure from every stain, that sermon will tell; if it is impure, bitter, careless, or fretful, probably no amount of outside work will balance the evil of
that daily sermon.
This man went home. He went home clean, and, lastly, he went home reverent. "Tell them how great things the Lord hath done for thee." Reverence was to be a mark of this change in his life. The lack of reverence is one of the great dangers to our nation. We sometimes attribute this lack of reverence to the influence of Young America; but, my friends, Old America is also to blame for it. Flippant disregard for those things which are held sacred by good men and women is ruinous to the young. It matters not what a man's belief may be, if he has any real interest in the purity of the young, he will treat with respect that which is held sacred by the virtuous. Any home which proves itself a Christianizer must have its corner-stone laid in veneration. Any thing that destroys this in the young, tends to ruin the home, and to overthrow one of the most potent forces for the civilization of the world. This poor restored demoniac told at home the simple story of his healing and conver
sion. What was the result? Still keeping to the simple story of Christ's restoring power, with reverent love he published in all Decapolis how great things the Lord had done for him. The story spread. Other hearts felt its power. It found its way into other homes until, through that whole region, men marveled at the wonderful deliverance. All this the result of telling the simple story of one's own conversion, beginning with those of his own home.
My friends, is the religion of our Lord promoted by the influence of cach Christian home in our community? Is every Christian family an organized force for bringing Christ to other hearts? Is it possible that Christ might say to some of us who, in mistaken zeal, are forgetting these duties, and following him in more public places, "Go home to thy friends, and tell them how great things the Lord hath done for thee, and hath had compassion on thee"? The only hope which I have that Christian work will be carried on permanently in any community comes in connection with Christian homes. Every Christian home has its family altar. What a power these are in the community! It has its sympathies and sorrows. How these open the heart for Christian work! It has its guests, frequently not Christians. What opportunities for exhibiting before them the influence of Christ over hearts in every-day life! Who can begin to measure the influence of truly godly homes in Christianizing a community? The entire influence of this newly converted man would probably have been lost had he regretfully refused to begin his humble Christian work at home.
I suppose you have found out, dear friends, that the above was from another pen than my own, ere this. It is a sermon I begged from the dear friend who points out to us here in Medina the way of everlasting life each Sabbath. It was so emphatically a home sermon, I begged it for Our Homes. If it has gone home, in its mission, into your hearts and homes, thank God for such an earnest worker as the Reverend C. J. Ryder. Well, there comes most opportunely just now a word on the same subject, away from the Pacific Coast. Many of you know already our friend who writes it. There is a little patch of alfalfa right close to our building that makes such a vigorous growth every time we mow the tops off, I can well feel the force of his powerful illustration there. Listen:
MORAL REFORM, AND THE DANCE-HOuses. Editor Kern County Republican:-SIR,-I am glad to see by your issue of the 19th ultimo, that the people have formed a Moral Reform Association; for it is, of all things, the one most needed. But the operations of such associations in years gone by have not been nearly so efficient as we might desire; they have, in fact, been notoriously deficient in saving society from the effects of immorality, else we would have much more improvement to-day; and, as one citizen interested in the consummation of moral reform, I would beg the privilege of calling attention to the fact that nothing comes without a cause; no tree, of good or evil, springs up without the seed and conditions. Therefore, as the Association has been formed because of (and erected its batteries against) the dance-houses, I would ask: Will it not be best -yes, imperatively necessary, in order to insure success to look to the cause, to go to the root of the matter? Constant mowing may reduce the number of blossoms in an alfalfa field, but it will not eradicate the trouble. You will continue to have crop after crop, of hay and blossoms, to take off so long as you keep the roots there, and supply them with necessary nourishment. Now, is not the community do
ing this very thing - furnishing seed and vitality to this upas-tree of evil? "How is this being done?" do you say? I will answer by asking the question, Who are the individuals who make the demand for these dens of vice? Are they not the growing and grown-up children of the community? and is it not because they have a social nature which is not supplied at home, or turned into scientific or religious channels, that they visit and sustain these places? That the young go astray is generally the fault of the parents. They live in an improper manner, violating natural and moral laws, and their children in
herit vitiated moral natures, aggravated by stimulating food, and tea, coffee, tobacco, and whisky. There are other causes, but these are the prominent ones. By your raids and imprisonments you may, for a little time, drive this evil into a dark corner, or cause it to assume some new form; but, so long as children are born of parents who do not live for the glory of God, the world will be filled with men and women devoted to the cause of vice and
depravity. And I can not blame these poor, unfortunate persons. They are not to blame for the faults of their progenitors' bad examples, and the vicious education of their minds and bodies. Not having been taught better, or brought up with any real abhorrence of vice, they seek in the best way, as it seems to them-to get the most enjoyment out of life, or secure a living. If we do the same in a better way, it is because we have superior ability or advantages of some kind. Jesus said: "Let any one among you who is without sin, cast the first stone." That is, first begin to enforce the law. Was it bad advice? If one without sin was found, would he not find more efficient means of overcoming the evil? Did not Jesus show a better way? That "the prayers of the righteous avail much, but the prayers of the wicked are an abomination to the Lord," is probably as true to-day as ever. Therefore, would it not be best to make an interior examination, and see if the Lord has prepared us for the work of reform. There can be no reform, unless it begins at home. Let this sink deep into your minds, my friends, and see if it is not truth; and if so, go to work in good earnest to reform the world; to save the young people; to save, as far as possible, the Magdalens, by first beginning to reform at home-to pray, to work, to live for the glory of God to be made manifest again upon earth. If you do this, the churches will be full, not only of your children, but of the purified and redeemed from these very dance-houses that are a curse to-day.
We believe, through careful inquiry, that all advertisements in this paper are signed by trustworthy persons, and to prove our faith by works, we will make good to subscribers any loss sustained by trusting advertisers who prove to be deliberate swindlers. Rogues shall not ply their trade at the expense of our readers, who are our friends, through the medium of these columns. Let this be understood by everybody now and henceforth.
In the above, they have expressed exactly what I wish and intend to do for my readers. If I am correct, I have never yet been entrapped into receiving the advertisement of any one who was a " deliberate swindler." I did not expect, when I started out, to come off scot free, nor do I now; nor did I expect to be called upon to pay the debts of one of our number who should fail in business. The Sunday-School Times has again, it seems, been careless, as you will see from the editorial below, taken from their issue of Dec. 17:
It is not an easy matter to keep such an oversight of the advertising columns of a paper as to guard against the admission of false statements intended to deceive the readers to their injury; but it is none the less a duty because a difficult one. The truer test of the character and spirit of the managers of any religious paper is what they will consent to put into their columns if they are paid for it, rather than what they will put in without pay, or which they will pay to have put in. The advertising columns of a paper are the best measure of its purity and of its integrity. Yet the most cautious managers are sometimes deceived; and when they are, they ought to bear the loss. Those who receive money for publishing false statements, rather than those who are misled by them, are the parties to make good the amount lost by the transaction. Here is a new illustration in our own experience. The advertisement of "Ozone," which has for a few weeks appeared in our advertising columns, was not admitted until after satisfactory correspondence concerning it with gentlemen in prominent official position fin Cincinnati, to whom the advertisers referred. Those gentlemen certified favorably, to the publisher, concerning the preserving qualities of ozone, and the good standing of those advertising it. But subsequent personal examination has convinced the publisher that some of the declarations in the advertisement are unqualifiedly false, and that, however good ezone may be as a preserver, the statements of its Cincinnati advertisers concerning it are not worthy of confidence. Ozone as now advertised can not keep their reputation from tainting. Although a city official is treasurer of the concern, and other prominent gentlemen have allowed their names to be used as references, it is believed that no one of these would knowingly countenance the concern's deceptive statements. The advertisement has been shut out from our columns, and we advise our readers to let the Prentiss Preserving Company alone. Moreover, if any subscribers to The Sunday-School Times have been led to purchase sample packages by misstatements as to the profits of other parties through handling ozone, and are dissatisfied with the result, our publisher will, upon their application, refund to them the money they have paid out for such packages.
Now, friends, is it not a fact, that any paper taking such a position as that should be encouraged? Let us give them a rousing big club. I will at once send them an advertisement, to do what I can. Now in regard to the ozone. See:
Mr. Root:-Inclosed I send you an advertisement I cut from the Western Agriculturist for your indorsement, if you know any thing of ozone. If I can learn of its being as recommended, I will invest every dollar I can raise next spring in eggs at 6, 8, or 10
cents, and pack them till January, 1883. What think you of it? Please answer through GLEANINGS. J. P. WATT.
Duck Creek, Mercer Co., Ill., Dec. 12, 1881. I presume our readers know how extensively this ozone advert sement has been re
tilation-hole. There might have been four inches of straw above and around the hive inside the box. When I took out that hive in the spring I found only 5 dead bees- one of them being a queen. They were black bees. This hive proved the most valuable in my apiary. My others are Simplicity, double-walled (each wall in. thick), with 1⁄4 in. deadYou can safely set down any man as a air space between. A chaff cushion 4 in. thick, swindler, who makes any such offer or state-made of sack-cloth, goes on the top of the duck, and ment, verbally or by advertisement. Now, entrances are all contracted so as to allow passage friends, how would you feel toward the edit- of one bee at a time. All came through satisfactoor of your family paper, who, after he had rily. Now, alongside of this a neighbor keeps his inserted " ozone," for which he received bees in straw skeps with no protection, and engood round sum of money, should coolly tell trances of the usual size. His also came through you that everybody must look out for bogus satisfactorily, and swarmed carly. Now, what do advertisements themselves, and in actions, if not words, should say that he was in no way responsible for the money you had lost?
you make of that? Simply what has been remarked often in GLEANINGS, that sometimes protection seems to succeed, and at other times success is achieved without protection.
ceived. Well, I wish to call your attention to just one clause in it at the end:
A fortune awaits any man who secures control of ozone in any township or county. The most valuable article in the world. The $2 you invest in a test package will surely lead you to secure a township or county, and then your way is absolutely clear to make from $2000 to $10,000 a year.
LETTER FROM SCOTLAND. SOMETHING ABOUT BEES THAT WON'T RAISE A QUEEN.
EAR SIR:-I beg to send you our subscription to GLEANINGS for another year, and to say that we consider it the most valuable, and, at the same time, the cheapest treatise on the subject of apiculture that we have ever had the pleasure of perusing. I do not mean to make any exception of the A B C, because of it I consider GLEANINGS to be part and parcel. Apiculture is not in Scotland the branch of industry that it might or should be; but I am very glad to inform you that GLEANINGS and the A B C have commenced a work that will revolutionize the whole subject at no distant date. Till lately, bees hereabout received little or no attention -no expenditure was incurred on their account, and if they did well, their owner was benefited; if not, he had no loss, and the bees were the worse for it themselves. People are now beginning to open their eyes, and wonder how they could have ever kept them closed so long.
As a rule, our seasons are poor and short; but this is partially compensated by a higher price for our produce. The past season has been a very bad one, and honey in every shape is dear; 1-lb. sections are being sold to consumers at about 3 shillings each.
I wish the vexed questions about wintering were settled; but, as far as I can gather, we are no nearer the solution of the problem at the end of this year than we were at the beginning of it. I do not see that your contributors have proved that queens reared artificially are inferior in any way to those reared "under the swarming impulse."
Apiaries were devastated in our country by hundreds last winter, where queens of the former description were never heard of. My own impression is, that bees in actual want of a queen would treat the larvæ far more tenderly than those rearing one against the possible contingency of swarming.
Neither can I indorse your ideas about ventilation. The weakest hive that I had last winter was a third swarm in a straw skep that I purchased. When taken off the railway it weighed 18 lbs., including hive, bees, honey, floor, bag that it was in, and rope, etc. I put the skep in a wooden box % inches thick, made a tunnel from the outside of the box to the inside of the hive, allowing ingress and egress of one bee at a time; packed the box full of straw, and nailed on the lid, in which there was a half-inch ven
There is another thing I wish to notice. It seems to be assumed in GLEANINGS and in the A B C, that if brood of the right stage is given to a queenless colony, it invariably commences to raise a queen. Now, that I can't agree to. This spring I got an imported Italian queen, and when the swarming season arrived I intended to Italianize. One fine day I moved one of my best hives from its stand, and put one full of combs in its place. Next day I gave the bees about 2 square inches of Italian brood. This the bees fed, sealed up, and hatched out, producing all workers, and they did not attempt a queen-cell at all. A week after, I gave them a whole frame of Italian brood in all stages, from the egg upward. This was all hatched out too, and no queen-cell was ever started. The colony was beginning to decrease in numbers, so about ten days after this I gave it two frames of black brood in all stages, all of which was hatched out, and the bees never made an ef. fort to supply themselves with a queen. I even put a newly laid egg into an old queen-cell that happened to be on one frame, but the bees threw out the egg at once. They gathered honey and pollen enough, defended themselves from robbers, and nothing unusual was observed in their conduct. All this, you will say, is the result of the presence of a fertile worker. But, no! Not a single egg was ever laid; and when the brood I gave the colony was hatched out, none remained. The bees did not seem to mind the loss of a queen, but went on with the pollen and honey gathering. I could not have been deceived by honey being stored above the eggs or brood, as I used the extractor freely, and was very thorough in my investigation. The result was, I did not Italianize; but after that colony had remained about three weeks with no brood, I gave it a black queen I got from a neighbor, which they gave a right loyal welcome to. Next day I saw her attending to her duties, and she reigns supreme in the hive to-day. If nothing similar to this has ever cropped up before, it is very strange. I confess the like never occurred in my own experience, and I can not account for it in any way, though I can prove it to be true. JOHN H. FRASER. The School House, Dyce, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, Dec. 5, 1881.
Many thanks for your kind and cheering words, friend Frasier, and I am very glad indeed to know that your people are being waked up in our favorite industry. Perhaps the A B C should state, if it does not, that once in a while we find a colony that will