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THE

BUILDERS PRACTICAL GUIDE:

CONTAINING

A COMPLETE EXPLANATION OF

THE PRINCIPLES OF SCIENCE,

AS APPLIED TO

EVERY BRANCH OF BUILDING:

Comprising an Entire Course of Instruction for

MASONS, SLATERS,

BRICKLAYERS, PLUMBERS,

CARPENTERS, GLAZIERS,
JOINERS, And

PLASTERERS, PAINTERS;

INCLUDING THE CUSTOMARY METHODS OF ESTIMATING,
MEASURING, AND CHARGING J WITH TABLES.

TO WHICH IS ADDED

AN APPENDIX,

CONTAINING

AN EASY AND COMPLETE INTRODUCTION TO THE SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES

OF

GEOMETRY AND MENSURATION,

SO FAR AS THOSE SCIENCES ARE APPLICABLE
TO THE

USEFUL ARTS.
BY JOHN NICHOLSON, ESQ.

CIVIL ENGINEER.

ILLUSTRATED BY FIFTEEN ENGRAVINGS.

LONDON:

PRINTED FOR SHERWOOD, GILBERT, AND PIPER,

PATERNOSTER-ROW.

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TO

NICHOLSON'S BUILDER'S GUIDE.

BUILDING. p»ge

General Observations, Explanations, Cautions, &c 529

Necessity of strict attention to Foundations 529

Piling, Ramming, Inverted Archaic, for Foundations .... 529

Qualities and Quantities of component Ingredients of Mortar.. 531"

Sand, qualities and proportions of, in Mortar 531

Lime, sorts of, slacking of, proportions of 531

Smeaton's Experiments -on Lime, Mortar, &c 531

Dr. Higgins on the Ingredients of Mortar 531

Bricks, Materials of, Tempering Clay for making 532

Bricks, Moulding; burning in Clamps, in Kilns 534

Various Sorts of Bricks, their Names, Qualities, &c 535

MASONS' WORK.

General Definitions and Observations 536

Rubble Work, coursed, uncoursed; Ashlar Work 537

Explanation of Terms used in Masonry and Architecture .... 539

Construction and Names of Arches, Vaults, Soffits, Centres, &c. 540

Construction of Spherical Domes, Groined Vaults, Elliptical

Arches, &c 542

customary mode of Measuring Masons' Work 543

BRICKLAYERS' WORK.

Observations, Cautions, Remarks on Foundations, &c. .... 547

Cautions relative to walling; English Bond, Flemish Bond . . 547

To, guard Brick-work against Frost, Rain, &c 548

Various methods of steening Wells 549

Practical Observations on Measuring Bricklayers' Work .... 550

Various descriptions of Brick-work, Tiling, &c 554

Useful Tables for Calculating Bricklayers'Work 556

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY.

Explanation of Terms 560

Various Methods of Scarfing Beams 561

Various Methods of Trussing Beams, King Bolt, c 561

Various sorts of Joints, Mortice, Tenons, notched, abutting, &c. 564

Flooring; Partitions; Construction of Roofs, &c 569

Timber; strain or tension of; strength of 5/0

Explanation and Definition of Terms used in Carpentry .... 571

Construction of Domes, Niches, &c. 575

Mensuration of Carpenters' Work 579

Joinkry ; General Definitions, Cautions and Directions .... 581

Various sorts of Tools used in Joinery 582

Formation of Cylinders, Shafts of Cones, Columns, &c 587

IV TABLE OF CONTENTS TO NICHOLSON S BUILDER S GUIDE.

Page

Joining Materials in various Angles, Mitres, Dove-tailing, &c. 588

Construction of Doors, Shutters, Flaps, Sash-frames, &c .q 589

Stairs, Staircases, Hand-rails, Face-Mould, Falling-Mould, &c. 593

Story Rod, Pitch-board, and Cylinder, to regulate Stairs .... 595

Measures customary in estimating and charging Joiners'

Work 602

PLASTERERS' WORK.

General Definition of Tools, their names, uses, &c 606

Lime, properties of different sorts of 607

Various substances usually mixed with Lime, their qualities, &c. 609

Laths, their names, sizes, mode of use, &c 611

Various terms explained as to different sorts of Plastering .... 612

Methods of casting Plaster Ornaments in Moulds 616

Methods of working Stucco, Cement, Scagliola, &c 617

SLATERS' WORK.

Qualities, sizes, and names of Slates 621

Description and Uses of Tools used by Slaters 622

Mensuration of Plasterers' and Slaters' Work 627

PLUMBERS' WORK.

Tools, names, description, and uses of • 628

Lead, roasting and smelting from the Ore 629

Casting Sheet Lead, Leaden Cisterns, &c 630

Sheet Lead, Chinese Sheet Lead, Milled Sheet Lead 632

Solder, composition of, uses of , 633

Mensuration of Plumber's Work 636

GLAZIERS' WORK.

General Definitions and Descriptions of ...., 633

Various sorts of Glass : Tools, names, descriptions, and uses.. 636

Sash-work, Lead-work, Fret-work 636

Mensuration of Glaziers' Work , 639

PAINTERS' WORK.

General Definitions, Cautions, and Directions 639

Observations on the use and qualities of Dryers 641

Distemper Painting, Colours for 642

Mensuration of Painters' Work , 642

GEOMETRY.

General Explanation of Terms used in Geometry 673

Names of Polygons, Triangles, Parallelograms, Solids, &c. .. 673

Geometrical Problems, and method of working them, 681

MENSURATION.

Mensuration of the Superficies of various figures 688

Mensuration of Solids, Prisms, Cylinders, Cones, Spheres, &c. 697

General INDEX to Nicholson's Builder's Practical Guide .. 707

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