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at each of the three points of division, and also at the upper and lower points of the depth, extending each measurement to the average thickness, of that part of the ceiling which is between the points of measurement; number these breadths from above, numbering the upper breadth one, and so on down to the lowest breadth; multiply the second and fourth by four and the third by two; add these products together, and to the sum add the first breadth and the last, or fifth; multiply the quantity thus obtained by one-third of the common interval between the breadths, and the product shall be deemed the transverse area; but if the midship depth exceed sixteen feet, divide each depth into six equal parts, instead of four, and measure as before directed, the horizontal breadths at the five points of division, and also at the upper and lower points of the depth; number them from above as before; multiply the second, fourth, and sixth by four and the third and fifth by two; add these products together, and to the sum add the first breadth and the last, or seventh; multiply the quantities thus obtained by one-third of the common interval between the breadths, and the product shall be deemed the transverse area.

Having thus ascertained the transverse area at each point of division of the length of the vessel, as required above, proceed to ascertain the register tonnage of the vessel in the following manner:

Number the areas successively one, two, three, and so forth, number one being at the extreme limit of the length at the bow, and the last number at the extreme limit of the length at the stern; then, whether the length be divided according to the table into six or sixteen parts, as in classes one and six, or any intermediate number, as in classes two, three, four, and five, multiply the second, and every evennumbered area, by four, and the third, and every odd-numbered area, except the first and last, by two; add these products together, and to the sum add the first and last if they yield anything; multiply the quantities thus obtained by one-third of the common interval between the areas, and the product will be the cubical contents of the space under the tonnage deck; divide this product by one hundred, and the quotient, being the tonnage under the tonnage deck, shall be deemed to be the register tonnage of the vessel subject to the additions hereinafter mentioned. (R. S. 4153.) Deck Houses, Breaks, etc.

If there be a break, a poop, or any other permanent closed-in space on the upper deck, available for cargo, or stores, or for the berthing or accommodation of passengers or crew, the tonnage of that space shall be ascertained as follows and added to the gross tonnage:

Measure the internal mean length of such space in feet, and divide it into an even number of equal parts of which the distance asunder shall be most nearly equal to those into which the length of the tonnage deck has been divided; measure at the middle of its height the inside breadths, namely, one at each end and at each of the points of division, numbering them successively one, two, three, and so forth; then to the sum of the end breadths add four times the sum of the even-numbered breadths and twice the sum of the odd-numbered breadths, except the first and last, and multiply the whole sum by one-third of the common interval between the breadths; the product will give the mean horizontal area of such space; then measure the mean height between the planks of the decks, and multiply by it the

mean horizontal area; divide the product by one hundred, and the quotient shall be deemed to be the tonnage of such space, and shall be added to the tonnage under the tonnage decks, ascertained as aforesaid : Provided, That nothing shall be added to the gross tonnage for any sheltered space above the upper deck which is under cover and open to the weather; that is, not inclosed. (R. S. 4153; Mar. 2, 1895, sec. 1 (h).) Hatchways.

The cubical contents of the hatchways shall be obtained by multiplying the length and breadth together and the product by the mean depth taken from the top of beam to the under side of the hatch. From the aggregate tonnage of the hatchways there shall be deducted one-half of one per cent of the gross tonnage and the remainder only shall be added to the gross tonnage of the ship exclusive of the tonnage of the hatchways. (Feb. 6, 1909, sec. 1.) Between Decks.

If a vessel has a third deck, or spar deck, the tonnage of the space between it and the tonnage deck shall be ascertained as follows:

Measure in feet the inside length of the space, at the middle of its height, from the plank at the side of the stem to the plank on the timbers at the stern, and divide the length into the same number of equal parts into which the length of the tonnage deck is divided ; measure, also at the middle of its height, the inside breadth of the space at each of the points of division, also the breadth of the stem and the breadth at the stern; number them successively one, two, three, and so forth, commencing at the stem; multiply the second, and all other even-numbered breadths, by four, and the third, and all the other odd-numbered breadths, except the first and last, by two; to the sum of these products add the first and last breadths, multiply the whole sum by one-third of the common interval between the breadths, and the result will give, in superficial feet, the mean horizontal area of such space; measure the mean height between the plank of the two decks, and multiply by it the mean horizontal area, and the product will be the cubical contents of the space; divide this product by one hundred, and the quotient shall be deemed to be the tonnage of such space, and shall be added to the other tonnage of the vessel ascertained as above directed. And if the vessel has more than three decks, the tonnage of each space between decks, above the tonnage deck, shall be severally ascertained in the manner above described, and shall be added to the tonnage of the vessel, ascertained as above directed. (R. S. 4153.) Open Vessels.

In ascertaining the tonnage of open vessels the upper edge of the upper strake is to form the boundary line of measurement, and the depth shall be taken from an athwartship line, extending from the upper edge of such strake at each division of the length. (R. S. 4153.) Water Ballast.

In the case of a ship constructed with a double bottom for water ballast, if the space between the inner and outer plating thereof is certified by the collector to be not available for the carriage of cargo, stores, or fuel, then the depth of the vessel shall be taken to be the upper side of the inner plating of the double bottom, and that upper side shall for the purposes of measurement be deemed to represent the floor timber. From the gross tonnage there shall be deducted any other space adapted only for water ballast certified by the collector not to be available for the carriage of cargo, stores, supplies, or fuel. (Mar. 2, 1895; Feb. 6, 1909, sec. 2.) Net Tonnage.

From the gross tonnage of every vessel of the United States there shall be deducted Crew Accommodations.

(a) The tonnage of the spaces or compartments occupied by or appropriated to the use of the crew of the vessel. Every place appropriated to the crew of the vessel shall have a space of not less than seventy-two cubic feet and not less than twelve superficial feet, measured on the deck or floor of that place, for each seaman or apprentice lodged therein. The provisions of this Act requiring a crew space of seventy-two cubic feet per man shall apply only to vessels the construction of which shall be begun after June thirtieth, eighteen hundred and ninety-five. Such place shall be securely constructed, properly lighted, drained, and ventilated, properly protected from weather and sea, and as far as practicable properly shut off and protected from the effluvium of cargo or bilge water; and failure to comply with this provision shall subject the owner to a penalty of five hundred dollars. Every place so occupied shall be kept free from goods or stores of any kind not being the personal property of the crew in use during the voyage; and if any such place is not so kept free the master shall forfeit and pay to each seaman or apprentice lodged in that place the sum of fifty cents a day for each day during which any goods or stores as aforesaid are kept or stored in the place after complaint has been made to him by any two or more of the seamen so lodged. No deduction from tonnage as aforesaid shall be made unless there is permanently cut in a beam and over the doorway of every such place the number of men it is allowed to accommodate with these words, " certified to accommodate seamen.' (Aug. 5, 1882; Mar. 2, 1895.)

On all merchant vessels of the United States the construction of which shall be begun after the passage of this Act, except yachts, pilot boats, or vessels of less than one hundred tons register, every place appropriated to the crew of the vessel shall have a space of not less than one hundred and twenty cubic feet and not less than sixteen square feet, measured on the floor or deck of that place, for each seaman or apprentice lodged therein, and each seaman shall have a separate berth and not more than one berth shall be placed one above another; such place or lodging shall be securely constructed, properly lighted, drained, heated, and ventilated, properly protected from weather and sea, and, as far as practicable, properly shut off and protected from the effluvium of cargo or bilge water. And every such crew space shall be kept free from goods or stores not being the personal property of the crew occupying said place in use during the voyage.

That in addition to the space allotment for lodgings hereinbefore provided, on all merchant vessels of the United States which in the ordinary course of their trade make voyages of more than three days' duration between ports, and which carry a crew of twelve or more seamen, there shall be constructed a compartment, suitably separated from other spaces, for hospital purposes, and such compartment shall have at least one bunk for every twelve seamen, constituting her crew, provided that not more than six bunks shall be required in any case.

Every steamboat of the United States plying upon the Mississippi River or its tributaries shall furnish an appropriate place for the crew, which shall conform to the requirements of this section, so far as they are applicable thereto, by providing sleeping room in the engine room of such steamboat, properly protected from the cold, wind, and rain by means of suitable awnings or screens on either side of the guards or sides and forward, reaching from the boiler deck to the lower or main deck, under the direction and approval of the Supervising Inspector General of Steam Vessels, and shall be properly heated.

All merchant vessels of the United States, the construction of which shall be begun after the passage of this act, having more than ten men on deck must have at least one light, clean, and properly ventilated washing place. There shall be provided at least one washing outfit for every two men of the watch. The washing place shall be properly heated. A separate washing place shall be provided for the fireroom and engineroom men, if their number exceed ten, which shall be large enough to accommodate at least one-sixth of them at the same time, and have hot and cold water supply and a sufficient number of wash basins, sinks, and shower baths.

Any failure to comply with this section shall subject the owner or owners of such vessel to a penalty of not less than $50 nor more than $500: Provided, That forecastles shall be fumigated at such intervals as may be provided by regulations to be issued by the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service, with the approval of the Department of Commerce, and shall have at least two exits, one of which may be used in emergencies. (Mar. 3, 1897, sec. 2; Mar. 4, 1915, sec. 6.) Deductions for Other Purposes.

(b) Any space exclusively for the use of the master certified by the collector to be reasonable in extent and properly constructed, and the words “ Certified for the accommodation of master” to be permanently cut in a beam and over the door of such space.

(c) Any space used exclusively for the working of the helm, the capstan, and the anchor gear, or for keeping the charts, signals, and other instruments of navigation and boatswain's stores, and the words “Certified for steering gear,” or “Certified for boatswain's stores,” or “Certified chart house," as the case may be, to be permanently cut in the beam and over the doorway of each of such spaces.

(d) The space occupied by the donkey engine and boiler, if connected with the main pumps of the ship.

(e) In the case of a ship propelled wholly by sails any space, not exceeding two and one-half per centum of the gross tonnage, used exclusively for storage of sails: Provided, That spaces deducted shall be certified by the collector to be reasonable in extent and properly and efficiently constructed for the purposes for which they are intended, and the words“ Certified for storage of sails” to be cut on the beam and over the doorway of such space. (Mør. 2, 1895.) Deductions for Propelling Power.

(f) In the case of a ship propelled by steam or other power requiring engine room, a deduction for the space occupied by the propelling power shall be made, as follows:

In ships propelled by paddle wheels in which the tonnage of the space oceupied by and necessary for the proper working of the boilers and machinery is above twenty per centum and under thirty per centum of the gross tonnage, the deduction shall be thirty-seven per centum of the gross tonnage; and in ships propelled by screws in which the tonnage of the space is above thirteen per centum and under twenty per centum of the gross tonnage, the deduction shall be thirty-two per centum of the gross tonnage. In the case of screw steamers the contents of the trunk shaft shall be deemed spaces necessary for the proper working of the machinery.

(g) In the case of other vessels in which the actual space occupied by the propelling machinery amounts in the case of paddle vessels to twenty per centum or under and in the case of screw vessels to thirteen per centum or under of the gross tonnage of the ship, the deduction shall consist in the case of paddle vessels of once and a half the tonnage of the actual machinery space and in the case of screw vessels of once and three-fourths the tonnage of the actual machinery space. But if the actual machinery space is so large as to amount in the case of paddle vessels to thirty per centum or above, and in the case of screw vessels to twenty per centum or above of the gross tonnage of the ship, the deduction shall consist of thirty-seven per centum of the gross tonnage of the ship in the case of a paddle vessel and thirty-two per centum of the gross tonnage in the case of a screw vessel; or if the owner prefers there shall be deducted from the gross tonnage of the vessel the tonnage of the space or spaces actually occupied by or required to be inclosed for the proper working of the boilers and machinery, including the trunk shaft or alley in screw steamers, with the addition in the case of vessels propelled with paddle wheels of fifty per centum, and in the case of vessels propelled by screws of seventy-five per centum of the tonnage of such space.

(i) On a request in writing to the Commissioner of Navigation by the owners of a ship the tonnage of such portion of the space or spaces above the crown of the engine room and above the deck as is framed in for the machinery or for the admission of light and air and not required to be added to gross tonnage shall, for the purpose of ascertaining the tonnage of the space occupied by the propelling power, be added to the tonnage of the engine space, but it shall then be included in the gross tonnage; such space or spaces must be reasonable in extent, safe, and seaworthy, and can not be used for any purpose other than the machinery or for the admission

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