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drawn himself, or is believed to be about to withdraw himself, from the control and discipline of the master and officers of the vessel, or that he has refused, or is about to refuse, to submit to and obey the lawful jurisdiction of such consular or commercial authority in the premises; and further stating and certifying that, to the best of the knowledge and belief of the officer certifying, such person is not a citizen of the United States. Such application shall be in writing and duly authenticated by the consular or other sufficient official seal. Thereupon such court, judge, or commissioner shall issue his warrant for the arrest of the person so complained of, directed to the marshal of the United States for the appropriate district, or in his discretion to any person, being a citizen of the United States, whom he may specially depute for the purpose, requiring such person to be brought before him for examination at a certain time and place. (R. s. 4080.)

If, on such examination, it is made to appear that the person so arrested is a citizen of the United States, he shall be forthwith discharged from arrest and shall be left to the ordinary course of law. But if this is not made to appear, and such court, judge, or commissioner finds, upon the papers hereinbefore referred to, a sufficient prima facie case that the matter concerns only the internal order and discipline of such foreign vessels, or, whether in its nature civil or criminal, does not affect directly the execution of the laws of the United States, or the rights and duties of any citizen of the United States, he shall forthwith, by his warrant, commit such person to prison, where prisoners under sentence of a court of the United States

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be lawfully committed, or, in his discretion, to the master or chief officer of such foreign vessel, to be subject to the lawful orders, control, and discipline of such master or chief officer, and to the jurisdiction of the consular or commercial authority of the nation to which such vessel belongs, to the exclusion of any authority or jurisdiction in the premises of the United States or any State thereof. No person shall be detained more than two months after his arrest, but at the end of that time shall be set at liberty and shall not again be arrested for the same cause. The expenses of the arrest and the detention of the person so arrested shall be paid by the consular officer making the application. (R. S. 4081.)

The district courts, and the United States commissioners, shall have power to carry into effect, according to the true intent and meaning thereof, the award, or arbitration, or decree of any consul, vice consul, or commercial agent of any foreign nation, made or rendered by virtue of authority conferred on him as such consul, vice consul, or commercial agent, to sit as judge or arbitrator in such differences as may arise between the captains and crews of the vessels belonging to the nation whose interests are committed to his charge, application for the exercise of such power being first made to such court or commissioner by petition of such consul, vice consul, or commercial agent. And said courts and commissioners may issue all proper remedial process, mesne and final, to carry into full effect such award, arbitration, or decree, and to enforce obedience thereto, by imprisonment in the jail or other place of confinement in the district in which the United States may lawfully imprison any person

arrested under the authority of the United States, until such award, arbitration, or decree is complied with, or the parties are otherwise discharged therefrom, by the consent in writing of such consul, vice consul, or commercial agent, or his successor in office, or by the authority of the foreign government appointing such consul, vice consul, or commercial agent: Provided, however, That the expenses of the said imprisonment, and maintenance of the prisoners, and the cost of the proceedings, shall be borne by such foreign government, or by its consul, vice consul, or commercial agent requiring such imprisonment. The marshals of the United States shall serve all such process, and do all other acts necessary and proper to carry into effect the premises, under the authority of the said courts and commissioners. (R. S. 728, Mar. 3 1911, sec. 271.) Seamen's Witness Fees.

There shall be paid to each seaman or other person who is sent to the United States from any foreign port, station, sea, or ocean, by any United States minister, chargé d'affaires, consul, captain, or commander, to give testimony in any criminal case depending in any court of the United States, such compensation, exclusive of subsistence and transportation, as such court may adjudge to be proper, not exceeding one dollar for each day necessarily employed in such voyage, and in arriving at the place of examination or trial. In fixing such compensation, the court shall take into consideration the condition of said seaman or witness, and whether his voyage has been broken up, to his injury, by his being sent to the United States. When such seaman or person is transported in an armed vessel of the United States no charge for subsistence or transportation shall be allowed. When he is transported in any other vessel, the compensation for his transportation and subsistence, not exceeding in any case fifty cents a day, may be fixed by the court, and shall be paid to the captain of said vessel accordingly. (R. S. 851.) Manning of Merchant Vessels.

In all merchant vessels of the United States of more than one hundred tons gross, excepting those navigating rivers, harbors, bays, or sounds exclusively, the sailors shall, while at sea, be divided into at least two, and the firemen, oilers, and water tenders into at least three watches, which shall be kept on duty successively for the performance of ordinary work incident to the sailing and management of the vessel. The seamen shall not be shipped to work alternately in the fireroom and on deck, nor shall those shipped for deck duty be required to work in the fireroom, or vice versa; but these provisions shall not limit either the authority of the master or other officer or the obedience of the seamen when, in the judgment of the master or other officer, the whole or any part of the crew are needed for the maneuvering of the vessel or the performance of work necessary for the safety of the vessel or her cargo, or for the saving of life aboard other vessels in jeopardy, or when in port or at sea from requiring the whole or any part of the crew to participate in the performance of fire, lifeboat, and other drills. While such vessel is in a safe harbor no seaman shall be required to do any unnecessary work on Sundays or the following-named days: New Year's Day, the Fourth of July, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day, and Christmas Day, but this shall not prevent the dispatch of a vessel on regular schedule or when ready to proceed on her voyage. And at all times while such vessel is in a safe harbor, nine hours, inclusive of the anchor watch, shall constitute a day's work. Whenever the master of any vessel shall fail to comply with this section, the seamen shall be entitled to discharge from such vessel and to receive the wages earned. But this section shall not apply to fishing or whaling vessels, or yachts. (Mar. 4, 1915, sec. 2.)

No vessel of one hundred tons gross and upward, except those navigating rivers exclusively and the smaller inland lakes and except as provided in section one of this Act (see p. 74), shall be permitted to depart from any port of the United States unless she has on board a crew not less than seventy-five per centum of which, in each department thereof, are able to understand any order given by the officers of such vessel, nor unless forty per centum in the first year, forty-five per centum in the second year, fifty per centum in the third year, fifty-five per centum in the fourth year after the passage of this Act, and thereafter sixty-five per centum of her deck crew, exclusive of licensed officers and apprentices, are of a rating not less than able seaman. Every person shall be rated an able seaman, and qualified for service as such on the seas, who is nineteen years of age or upward, and has had at least three years' service on deck at sea or on the Great Lakes, on a vessel or vessels to which this section applies, including decked fishing vessels, naval vessels, or coast guard vessels; and every person shall be rated an able seaman, and qualified to serve as such on the Great Lakes and on the smaller lakes, bays, or sounds, who is nineteen years of age or upward and has had at least eighteen months' service on deck at sea or on the Great Lakes or on the smaller lakes, bays, or sounds, on a vessel or vessels to which this section applies, including decked fishing vessels, naval vessels, or coast guard vessels; and graduates of school ships approved by and conducted under rules prescribed by the Secretary of Commerce may be rated able seamen after twelve months' service at sea: Provided, That upon examination, under rules prescribed by the Department of Commerce as to eyesight, hearing, and physical condition, such persons or graduates are found to be competent: Provided further, That upon examination, under rules prescribed by the Department of Commerce as to eyesight, hearing, physical condition, and knowledge of the duties of seamanship a person found competent may be rated as able seaman after having served on deck twelve months at sea, or on the Great Lakes; but seamen examined and rated able seamen under this proviso shall not in any case compose more than one-fourth of the number of able seamen required by this section to be shipped or employed upon any vessel.

Any person may make application to any board of local inspectors for a certificate of service as able seaman, and upon proof being made to said board by affidavit and examination, under rules approved by the Secretary of Commerce, showing the nationality and age of the applicant and the vessel or vessels on which he has had service and that he is entitled to such certificate under the provisions of this section, the board of local inspectors shall issue to said applicant a certificate of service, which shall be retained by him and be accepted as prima facie evidence of his rating as an able seaman. Each board of local inspectors shall keep a complete record of all certificates of service issued by them and to whom issued and shall keep on file the affidavits upon which said certificates are issued.

The collector of customs may, upon his own motion, and shall, upon the sworn information of any reputable citizen of the United States setting forth that this section is not being complied with, cause a muster of the crew of any vessel to be made to determine the fact; and no clearance shall be given to any vessel failing to comply with the provisions of this section: Provided, That the collector of customs shall not be required to cause such muster of the crew to be made unless said sworn information has been filed with him for at least six hours before the vessel departs, or is scheduled to depart: Provided further, That any person that shall knowingly make a false affidavit for such purpose shall be deemed guilty of perjury and upon convicition thereof shall be punished by a fine not exceeding $500 or by imprisonment not exceeding one year, or by both such fine and imprisonment, within the discretion of the court. Any violation of any provision of this section by the owner, master, or officer in charge of the vessel shall subject the owner of such vessel to a penalty of not less than $100 and not more than $500: And provided further, That the Secretary of Commerce shall make such rules and regulations as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this section, and nothing herein shall be held or construed to prevent the Board of Supervising Inspectors, with the approval of the Secretary of Commerce, from making rules and regulations authorized by law as to vessels excluded from the operation of this section. (Mar. 4, 1915, sec. 13.) Undermanning.

In case of desertion or casualty resulting in the loss of one or more of the seamen, the master must ship, if obtainable, a number equal to the number of those whose services he has been deprived of by desertion or casualty, who must be of the same or higher grade or rating with those whose places they fill, and report the same to the United States consul at the first port at which he shall arrive, without incurring the penalty prescribed by the two preceding sections. This section shall not apply to fishing or whaling vessels or yachts. (R. S. 4516; Dec. 21, 1898, sec. 1; Mar. 4, 1915, sec. 1.) Fellow-servant Clause.

Any seaman who shall suffer personal injury in the course of his employment may, at his election, maintain an action for damages at law, with the right of trial by jury, and in such action all statutes of the United States modifying or extending the common-law right or remedy in cases of personal injury to railway employees shall apply; and in case of the death of any seaman as a result of any such personal injury the personal representative of such seaman may maintain an action for damages at law with the right of trial by jury, and in such action all statutes of the United States conferring or regulating the right of action for death in the case of railway employees shall be applicable. Jurisdiction in such actions shall be under the court of the district in which the defendant employer resides or in which his principal office is located. (Mar. 4, 1915, sec. 20; June 5, 1920, sec. 33.) Merchant Seamen at Panama Canal Zone.

The laws relating to seamen of vessels of the United States on foreign voyages shall apply to seamen of all vessels of the United States at the Panama Canal Zone, whether such vessels be registered or enrolled and licensed, and the powers in respect of such seamen of such vessels bestowed by law upon consular officers of the United States in foreign ports and upon shipping commissioners in ports of the United States are hereby bestowed upon the shipping commissioner and deputy shipping commissioners on the Panama Canal Zone. (Aug. 21, 1916, sec. 9.)

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