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lature, in reference to the violation the whole of a measure, acknowof the Sabbath ; and it is time, as it ledged in some part to be good and appears to me, that those who have necessary, must necessarily be an such a measure at heart should be evil principle. For, it is to be obawake and setting about their great served that there is much difference work in earnest. Whether the in between hostility to the whole of the tended measure, of which Sir An- Bill, and opposition to some, nay, drew Agnew gave notice in the last even the majority, of its provisions. session, is to be the same as his last Those who would be hostile to the Bill or not, has not yet been stated; whole of the Bill, would be so to any but I trust, if it should not be the detached part; but there are those who same, it will be founded on the same might oppose even the larger part of principle, and equally comprehensive the provisions of the Bill who would in its provisions.
not oppose the rest : and these, it is It is true, that upon this subject conceived, would vote for the Bill so the opinions even of good men are far as to get it into Committee, in much divided; and there are not a which they might by their votes disfew individuals of undoubted piety, tinguish between the provisions they some of whom think that a legisla- approved, and those they condemned. tive remedy should be applied for as That this would be the case, appears to a part only of the acknowledged from the experience of the last sesevils at first; whilst others suggest sion; when many who were not prethe propriety of making the differ- pared to support every clause of the ent provisions of the whole measure Bill, nevertheless voted for its second the subject of several Bills, to be reading. It is true, that many who simultaneously brought forward. voted against it alleged its compre
The advocates of the former plan hensiveness as the ground of their insist that there is no chance of car- opposition; but when actuaily lirying the whole measure at once ;-- mited measures were brought forthat the bringing of it forward at ward, they were either crushed at once is calculated to produce hosti. once by the very same persons, or lity ;--that improvements in this, as first reduced to nothing, (and indeed well as other matters, must be gra- made worse than nothing, by repealdual;—that the sense of the majo. ing the provisions of existing statutes rity of the population is against the for the protection of the Sabbath, measure as a whole ;—that to that and substituting nothing for them,) sense deference must be paid ;-and and then they were ignominiously that Sir Andrew's former Bills were rejected. And this answer may also lost entirely from their being too be given to the allegation that Sir sweeping and comprehensive.
Andrew's Bills were lost from their To these it may be answered, comprehensiveness.
1. That it may be very true, that 3. As to the allegation, that the there is no chance of carrying the sense of the majority of the populawhole measure at once; but that is tion is against the measure brought no reason why the whole measure forward by Sir Andrew's Bill as a should not be proposed at once. If whole, of the whole measure so proposed at In the first place, that is an asseronce, only a part should be carried, tion which cannot be proved. the carrying of that part would be a In the second place, it is not subject of thankfulness and rejoicing, merely a numerical majority of the just as much as if that part only had whole population of the country to been proposed.
which the advocates of the measure 2. That those members of the ought to defer; but it is to a majoLegislature who would exhibit hos. rity of that class of persons who are tility to the Bill, to the extent of re well informed upon and have well jecting it altogether, would doubt. considered the whole subject, in conless exhibit hostility to any portion nexion with all its consequences and of its provisions, if brought forward results. as a distinct Bill ; because hostility to In the third place, it is apprehended that if the sense of the ma. 2. Such an argument, wbich imjority of such class were taken upon putes inconsistency and unfairness the several provisions of the Bill, to the propounder of a prohibitory although it may be within the limits measure, is one wbich it would be of possibility that the majority might exceedingly difficult, and perhaps be against the Bill as a whole, yet impossible, satisfactorily to answer. there is no single provision in it 3. The whole of the grievances which the majority of such class in reference to every part of the would be found to reject. For, in subject were fully entered into, in point of fact, there is not one single that comprehensive inquiry which clause in the Bill which has not took place in the Select Committee been the subject of Petitions numer- of the House of Commons, previ. ously signed in its favour.
ously to the introduction of Sir AnBut even attaching soine degree of drew's first Bill, which elicited so weight to the above objections, much and such important and valuawhich are, I believe, the whole that ble information ; and it follows, as a have been brought forward by those consequence, that every mischief whose opinions are worth regarding, which was within the scope of the it is to be considered, whether there inquiry should be within the scope may not be set against those objec. of the enactment to be grounded tions considerations which will operate upon the result of such inquiry. so as greatly to turn the scale in 4. It is difficult to guard against favour of bringing on the whole mea- the inference to be drawn from the sare at once; such as the following: prohibition of one evil, and leaving
1. It is one simple principle, on another unprohibited, that such lat. which every proper measure that ter evil is intended to be tolerated can be brought forward for the and sanctioned. rernedy of the existing abuses with 5. It is extremely probable that, reference to the observance of the if, under existing circumstances, the Lord's day must be based; and, advocates of the proposed measure therefore, judging from the way in were to bring forward one of limited which the provisions of the Bill have extent, it would be considered that been already met in and out of the they had no ulterior object; and that Houses of Parliament, it is clear, their limited measure, if conceded, that if one part only out of the should be taken in full of every system of measures were brought thing to be expected from the Legis. forward at first, the objections lature. would be, that the propounder of 6. The different provisions of the measure, to be consistent with the measure are so connected, that himself, should have extended it to it is very difficult to separate them. other matters within its principle, For instance, how could the proviand the mischief proposed to be sions against trade be separated remedied by it. For instance, were from the provisions against travel. a Bill brought forward to restrain ling, when travelling necessarily what is usually called trade, it supposes the exercise of a species would be urged, that it would be of trade? inconsistent, while that which was 7. It is the most fair and honest equally a trade, the supplying of mode of dealing, on the part of post-horses, should be permitted, those who are of the opinion, that the carrying on a dealing in the the exigency of the case calls for a necessaries of life should be re- comprehensive measure, to declare strained ; just as it has been in. at once what is the utmost extent sisted in a determined spirit of hos. of the objects they have in view, tility to the Bill, that it was unfair to and what is the exact amount of the restrain labour in the fields, and per. measure with which they would be roit it in the house,-to probibit the satisfied ; and it is considered that day-labourer from pursuing his call- such a course is most likely to ating, and to allow the menial servant tract the approbation and good opi. to do so.
nion of right-thinking individuals, VOL. XIV. Third Series. January, 1835.
and (which is an infinitely higher exposed to a distinct ordeal ; and consideration) to draw down the that the difficulty of working the blessing of Almighty God.
Bill (to use a technical expression) 8. With respect to the suggestion, would be at least multiplied to the that the whole measure should be extent of the number of Bills prothe subject of several and distinct posed to be substituted for one simBills, the simple answer is, that ple and comprehensive enactment. every such Bill must, in passing
THEOSEBES. through the necessary stages, be London, Dec. 10th, 1834.
NOTICES CONCERNING NORTH AMERICA. .
To the Editor of the Wesleyan-Methodist Magazine. I LITTLE expected, when I first bestowed on its cultivation; and, in promised to furnish you with a few the opinion of persons well qualified notices respecting the state of things to judge on such a subject, it is quite in America, that the completion of practicable by proper management my purpose would be delayed by a to raise wheat to such an extent, as third visit to that continent; yet to render it unnecessary to import such has been the case, in conse- flour from the neighbouring States quence of which I was almost con- for domestic consumption; or, at all stantly a traveller “by land or by events, very materially to diminish water," from the commencement of the amount of foreign supplies once April until August; and since my deemed necessary for that purpose. return I have not had sufficient lei. Persevering industry, and the general sure to enable me to proceed with adoption of a more improved system my original design. As I endea of agriculture, in connexion with a voured to avail myself of the addi- prudent course of domestic managetional favourable opportunities which ment, would greatly contribute tomy recent Mission afforded me for wards the attainment of an object obtaining further information re. which is important and desirable in specting some of those portions of many points of view. The arrangethe new world, to which I have pro. ments of Providence in reference to mised to direct the attention of your every section of the globe are readers, I trust that though the pub- equally wise and benevolent, and are lication of my notices has been de. well-adapted to secure the happiness layed, I shall be enabled to make and welfare of the inhabitants of them more interesting and useful. every clime. Monopolies do not
As illustrative of the nature of enter into its arrangements. If in the soil and the character of the cli- certain countries there is a want of mate of Nova-Scotia, I may, in re. some of those natural advantages suming my remarks on that province, which are enjoyed in others, it will just state in addition to the informa- be found, on examination, that there tion contained in a former letter re- is such an equal distribution of temspecting its productions, that the va- poral good and evil throughout the rious fruits usually found in English world, as proves that God " is good gardens are, or may be, cultivated to all, and that his tender mercies are there; and that apples, especially in over all his works.” Hence, though in some parts of the province, are of a Nova Scotia it is so extremely cold. very superior quality. Indian corn at least from December until the is successfully cultivated, and is of middle of March; and though the great advantage to the farmer. Bar. weather is so unfavourable for agriley and oats, rye and buckwheat,-a cultural purposes during a great part grain little known in this country, of the spring, that the farmer can do -yield sure and abundant crops. but little towards the cultivation of Wheat, though not so certain in its the ground, until the commencement returns, seldom fails, either in quali. of May, and sometimes later, so rapid ty or quantity, when suitable care is is the process of vegetation, that he is enabled to gather in his fruits in try a large piece of iron ore, which good season. Wheat, during warm yielded eighty per cent., equal in weather, sometimes appears above quality to the best Swedish iron. grouod in a week, and barley in four In addition to iron and coal, there or five days. Oats, sown in the have been found in parts of a ridge miduile of June, will yield a good of high land which extends from the crop, twenty-fold, in September; basin of Mines to the gut of Annapo. and barley, sown as late as the first lis, a distance of not less than a hunveek in July, has yielded a good crop dred miles, several pieces of copper in the autumn. Indeed, so rapidly ore, an excellent specimen of which do the ingatherings of the various I have in my possession. The mines fruits of the earth succeed each other, in our American colonies are the that, from the middle or latter end property of the King; and I believe of July, when hay-making com- that it is usual, in the appropriation mences, until the end of October, of lands by the Colonial Government, all is bustle and activity in the coun- whether to companies or to individutry. After God has thus “ crowned als, to reserve all such property for the year with his goodness,” it is the benefit of the Crown of Great usual in several parts of the pro- Britain. His late Majesty, however, vince for the inhabitants to assemble made a grant of the mines in Novatogether in their respective places of Scotia to his brother, the late Duke Worship, and in some places the of York; a measure which has cremembers of different religious com- ated great dissatisfaction in the promunities meet in the same sanctuary, vince, and one respecting the legality to reuder thanks to the Lord “ for of which serious doubts are felt and the great benefits that they have re- expressed by many well-informed ceived at his hands ;" and in this persons. Whatever opinion may be truly pious way to "shout the har- entertained of the character of the rest home.”
gift, those mines were bestowed on We should form a very erroneous the then Heir Presumptive to the opinion of the natural resources of throne, and they are now held by his that country, if we were to judge of creditors, for whose benefit some of them only írom external appearances. them have been rather extensively Its tracts of excellent upland, the worked, Freestone of an excellent large quantities of rich intervale or description is very plentiful in many alluvial soil which it contains, and places; and limestone and slate are its fertile prairies, some of which are found in great abundance. The several miles in length, and of a pro- banks of the rivers and streams that portionate breadth, form but a part flow into the Bay of Fundy contain of the wealth which has been be- large quarries of gypsum, or plasterstowed upon it by the Great Author stone, a natural combination of the of nature ; for, in addition to these calcareous earth with vitriolic acid : valuable possessions, it contains it is exported in large quantities to mineral stores beneath its surface of the United States, and is extensively inestimable worth. It is not, indeed, used in the southern section of that enriched with mines of gold or of country for agricultural purposes. silver, though pieces of silver ore have Birds of various kinds, from the been found in one or two districts; black and grey eagle, to the humming but it does contain coal and iron of bird, with its straight or curved bill, excellent quality; and though it visit the provinces in great numbers, would be premature at present, to during the warm and pleasant seastate to what extent the two last are sons of the year ; but, judging from to be found, there is great reason my own observation, and the testito believe, from the trials which have mony of others, very few of them been already made, that the quantity remain during the winter months. of coal, especially, is very considera. In consequence of the extension of ble. A highly respectable gentle. the old and the rapid increase of new man informed me, several years ago, settlements, combined with other that he sent to his agent in this couu- causes, the number of wild animals
is greatly diminished. Still, how. which is separated from it only by a ever, they are to be found in the narrow strait, and is placed under depths of their native forests, and the same government, cannot amount some of them, especially the bear to less, at the present time, than and the fox, occasionally prowl from 140,000 to 150,000 souls. It around the habitations of settlers in is chiefly composed of emigrants remote districts in search of prey; from Great Britain and Ireland, but seldom, indeed, does even the American loyalists, and their debear attack man, except when im- scendants, together with a number pelled by hunger, or goaded by op- of French and German families, position. Then, standing on his most of the junior branches of which hind legs, he will, if possible, em. can speak the English language. In brace, and hold with great force and addition to the above, there are at tenacity, any human being that may least from three hundred and fifty to be in his way. A Highland emigrant four hundred families of Indians of was once seized in this manner by a the Micmac tribe, scattered over bear. Happily for him this “unto. that and the adjoining province of ward event" did not deprive him New Brunswick, whose personal haof that presence of mind, which bits and social state are truly deplois so useful at all times, but especially rable. The dwellings which they during seasons of danger. In his occupy at their different encampextremity, he recollected that he ments are called wigwams; and as had a dirk upon his person. He they are merely circular erections of succeeded in getting a firın hold of small poles, placed in the ground at it with his left hand, and by a well- a little distance from each other, directed and vigorous plunge into and drawn to a point at the top, and the left side of his antagonist, he are merely covered with birch-bark, brought him to the ground; but as they afford, at best, but a frail de the Highlandman fell underinost, it fence against the inclemency of the was with great difficulty that he exweather, and are equally inconvetricated himself from the grasp of nient and uncomfortable. This the expiring animal. Seldom, in wretched remnant of a once great deed, are such risks now encoun- and powerful people obtain a scanty tered; but, as may easily be supposed, subsistence by hunting and fishing, the early settlers were often exposed and by the sale of boxes and baskets to personal danger, and to loss of of various colours and sizes, in the property, from that quarter. Though manufacture of which they display no travellers now proceed on their way small degree of taste and skill. Like unawed by the approach of beasts of their brethren in other portions of prey, and the inhabitants generally North America, they are distinare unmolested by them, the gene- guished by the peculiarity of their ration that preceded them in the physiognomy,-the high cheek-bone, cultivation of the wilderness were quick dark eye, the copper hue of placed in very different circum- the skin, and straight black hair ; stances; for, in addition to their and, like them, they have greatly sufhaving to subdue the earth by labour fered from the occupancy of the and toil during the day, that it might land of their fathers by the white “ bring forth grass for the cattle, man. Vices and diseases have thus and herbs for the service of man, been introduced, which have greatly and bread which strengtheneth man's deteriorated their character, and diheart," it was necessary for them to minished their numbers; the “ firehave the instruments of attack and waters" and the small-pox bave defence always ready, and to be on proved more efficient agents of dethe alert during the night, for the struction than the plague, and to the purpose of protecting their live dire influence of the artificial evil stock from those crafty and powerful (rum) much of their present wretchinvaders.
edness may justly be ascribed ; and The population of Nova Scotia, in- nothing can subdue their strong decluding the island of Cape Breton, sire for intoxicating liquors, but the