« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
BY WARREN COLBURN, A. M.
STEREOTYPED AT THE BOSTON TYPE AND STEREOTYPE FOUNIOR
DISTRICT OF MASSACHUSETTS, TO WIT:
Distriet Olork's Ollioe. BE it rememberod, that on tho twenty-third day of March, A. D. 1826, In the kitieth year of tho Independence of the United States of America, Cornemings, Hillard, and Company, of the said District, have deposited in this office the title of a horsk, the right wheroof thoy claim as proprietors, in the words following, lo wit :
Intellectual Arithinotic, upon the Inductive Method of Instruction. By Warren Colburn, A. M."
In conformity to the act of the Congress of the United States entitled, "An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and houks, tu the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein inentioned :" and also to an act, entitled," An Act, supplementary to an gat, entitled, An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies during the times therein mentioned ; and extending the benefits thereof to the urts of designing, engraving, and etching historical, and other prints."
JOHN W. DAVIS,
Boston, 15 November, 1821. I have made use of the Arithmetic and Tables, which you sometim, since prepared, on the system of Pestalozzi; and have been much grar ified with the improved edition of it, which you have shown me. Pan satisfied, from experimen, that it is the most effectual and interesting trole of teaching the science of numbers with which I am acquainted.
Having been made acquainted with Mr. Colburn's treatise on Arithmolir, and having alleuted an examination of his scholars, who had been laugh accoriling to Hois system, I an well satisfied that it is the most easy, simple, and valural way of introducing young persons to the first principles in the vince of numbers. The method here proposed is the Fruit of inuch study and reflection. The author has had considerable ex. perience as a teacher, added to a siroig interest in the subject, and a thorough knowledge not only of this out of inany of the higher branches of mathematics. This liule work is therefore earnestly recommended to the notice of those who are employed in this branch of early instruction, with the belief that it only requires a fair trial in order to be fully approve ad and adopied.
'rof Mah. Harvard University. Camoridge, Nov. 16 1821.
รูป1 4.0 - ง. L. La C. 115แสน
MAY 4 1932
As soon as a child begins to use his senses, nature contin'ually presents to his eyes a variety of objects; and one of the first properties which he discovers, is the relation of number. He intuitively fixes upon unity as a ineasure, and from this ne forms the idea of more and less; which is the idea of quantity
The names of a few of the first numbers are usually learned very early; and children frequently learn to count as far as a hundred before they learn their letters.
As soon as children have the idea of more and less, and the names of a few of the first numbers, they are able to make small calculations. And this we see them do every day about their playthings, and about the little affairs which they are called upon to attend to. The idea of more and less implies addition; lience they will often perform these operations without any previous instruction. If, for example, one child has three apoles, and another five, they will readily tell how many they both have ; and how many one has more than the other. Ifa child be requested to bring three apples for each person in the room, he will calculate very readily how many to bring, if the number does not exceed those he has learnt. Again, if a child be requested to divido a number of apples among a certain number of persons, he will contrive a way to do it. and will tell how many each must have. The method which children take to do these things, though always correct, is not always the most expeditious.
The fondness which children usually manifest for these exercises, and the facility with which they perform them, seem to indicate that the science
numbers, to a certain extent, should be among the first lessons taught to them.*
To succeed in this, however, it is necessary rather to furnish occasions for them to exercise their own skill in performing examples, than to give them rules. They should be allowed to pursue their own method first, and then they should be made to observe and explain it; and, if it was not
* See on this subject two essays, entitled Juvenile Studies, in the Prize Book of the Latin school, Nos. I. and Il., published by Cum. mings & Hilliard, 1920 and 1821.