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pear before Him, their last act on earth having to be had. His declaration was— -I will not send been one of hostility even to the death. But if them fasting to their own homes, lest they faint they are not Christians, then the blow which sent by the way. A present supply was required, them into eternity, was one which forever cut and that supply was mercifully furnished. Yet them off from the hope of salvation, which smote we find him soon afterwards reprimanding some the soul as well as the body, and consigned it to of these people, because they followed him for the eternal death. To slay a christian is to smite sake of the loaves and fishes. Here we have a Christ himself; to slay an unbeliever is to plunge plain intimation that the duty of charity extends a fellow being into perdition. Terrible alterna- to the cases of immediate and pressing necessity, tive! Yet all who fight, not only strike such a where the means of satisfying the wants of nablow but expose themselves to the risk of dying ture are not at comm

mand ; but that a voluntary in the very act of striking it. May all chris- reliance upon eleemosynary supplies ought not tians soon acknowledge the universal obligation to be encouraged. We do not find that the imof the command 'Love your enemies and do mediate disciples of our Lord were often, if ever, good to them that hate you.' Without waitiug supplied with provisions, without previous labour for others, may they at least, by obeying the and care. When, after they had toiled all night precept, fulfil the prediction of the sacred book, and taken nothing, he condescended to direct and beat their swords into ploughshares, and them where to cast their net, the exertion of their their spears into pruning hooks, thus manifest- physical powers was still required to bring their ing that Christianity is indeed, as the angels prize to land. In this case as in the general heralded it, peace on earth and good will to constitution of nature, we see the declaration men."

verified, that man shall eat his bread in the About two days before his death, on awaking, sweat of his face. Dr. Gordon said:

In the wide field of creation, we behold the “I have been thinking of God as a shepherd. materials from which we may derive our comforts The shepherd sends out his dog when a sheep and support, liberally scattered around us; but has wandered from the fold, to bark at and still requiring labour and skill to suit them to frighten, and sometimes to bite the wanderer, in our accommodation. It is true that a sparse order to bring it back. So afflictions and pains population may derive a meagre subsistence from are the dogs which our Shepherd sends to bring the spontaneous productions of the earth ; and us back to Him. Some of us are stubborn sheep a cave, by nature made, may occasionally be I was one of these, and the dog had to bite me; found, in which shelter may be taken until the but the barking and biting are to do us good, hand of industry has had time to prepare a more not harm, and to bring us to the Shepherd. commodious habitation. Though in most counDr. Gordon died Second month 7th, 1849. tries, springs of water are dispersed at such

intervals as to meet the indispensable wants of a small number, yet there are few districts of any considerable extent, in which wells are not abso

lutely necessary for a dense population. The RELIEVING THE POOR. spontaneous productions of nature, appear,

like The period of the year which is now passing alms, designed to supply the immediate and over us, when many branches of business, temporary necessities of a few, while the raw mato which the poor are indebted for their liveli- terials, in all their endless variety, are offered hood, are in a great measure suspended, and to the industry and skill of the many, as the the frequent inclemency of the elements, render means of furnishing comfort and support. the wants of our nature most imperious, the To apply these observations to the case before feeling mind is almost spontaneously turned to us, the obvious conclusion seems to be, that in reflect upon the condition of those who have the distribution of alms, the first object ought to neither store-house nor barn to resort to for the be the relief of immediate and pressing wants; supply which nature and habit demand. Charity but those supplies being almost necessarily of to the poor is commended to our observance on temporary duration, and liable to leave the recithe highest authority. When the multitudes pients, in a short time, as destitute and helpless followed the Saviour to the wilderness, and press- as ever, the leading object should be to assist the ed upon him to hear the gracious words that poor in providing for themselves. The pauper, proceeded out of his mouth, the disciples, when who lives upon alms, is a pauper still, how long the day was far spent, proposed they should be soever those alms may be continued; and if sent away in order that they might go into the induced to depend upon the charities of others, neighboring villages and towns, and buy them- remains a burden on the community. And selves food; but the merciful Saviour rejected there are unquestionably many, who, being long the proposal. It is not improbable that many accustomed to this kind of dependence, scarcely of them were destitute of the means to purchase, look to any other. On the other hand, the paueven if they were able to sustain the labour of per who is enabled by counsel and judicious travelling to the places where provisions were assistance, to supply his own wants, by honest

E. L.

For Friends' Review.

and reputable industry, emerges from pauperism Testimony of Weare Monthly Meeting, (N. H.) to usefulness and respectability.

concerning Ruth OSBORNE. It is of importance to instil and encourage the habit of depending, under the divine blessing,

Although some time has elapsed since the deupon the results of our own exertions. Depend

cease of this beloved friend, yet the remembrance ance upon the charities of others, in cases where of her is sweet to many of us, and a desire prethe recipient possesses the means or the power of

vails to preserve some account of her exemplary self-support, borders elosely on dishonesty, and life, her devotion to the cause of trath, and her indicates a disposition which ought never to be peaceful close, hoping that others may be encourencouraged. The Apostle Paul, though willing aged to " walk by the same rule and mind the to accept the bounty of his friends, and com

same thing.” mending the churches for their liberality, when

She was born at Scabrook, New Hampshire, his labours in the ministry or other causes pre- the twenty-sixth of ninth month, 1765. Her vented him from labouring in bis worldly occu- parents, Daniel and Mary Paige, were exemplary pation, was careful to supply his physical wants members of our Society, and removed with their by the labour of his hands, when that labour family to Weare when she was about four years did not interfere with his gospel mission. And of age. The watchful care and salutary couneel be emphatically reminded his Ephesian friends of her parents were instrumental, through the of the words of the Lord Jesus, that it was Divine blessing, in preserving her youthful mind more blessed to give than to receive.

in the path of virtue, and by yielding to the The feeling of independence which a reliance convictions of truth, she was favored in early life upon self-exertion has a tendency to encourage, to become, in good measure, established in the may, and certainly often does, contain a sprink doctrines of the Christian religion. In 1784, ling of pride--and upon what will not pride she was married to Moses Osborne, which confasten, unless sedulously guarded—but it seems nexion continued about thirty-one years, when too nearly allied to virtue to be discarded. The he was removed by death. By this trying diseffort should be, not to extinguish the feeling, pensation, she was left with the care of a numebut to purify the motive, by transferring the rous family, for whose preservation she manifestdependence to the Source from which alled a lively concern; and being careful to wait our blessings are derived.

for right direction, she was enabled to "rule well It is well known that the late philosophic and her own household.”. She was diligent in the benevolent William Allen, of London, employed attendance of our religious meetings; and, when much of his attention, in the establishment of assembled with Friends on these occasions, what he called “Colonies at Home,” the object her solid deportment, accompanied by a weighty of which was to enable the poor to rise into a exercise of mind, manifested a sense of the value more comfortable condition, chiefly by their own and importance of that worship which is perindustry and care. The Provident Society, es-formed in spirit and in truth. She was for sevetablished in this city nearly thirty years ago, ral years in the place of overseer, and was well was designed to assist those poor women who qualified for that service, being frequently conwere desirous of providing for themselves and cerned to labor with offenders in the spirit of refamilies. This is unquestionably one of the storing love, when under no particular appointmost effectual methods of rendering charity ment, and was often peculiarly favored to speak available; and gladly would the writer of this in a manner that carried conviction to the minds article encourage his readers, wherever resident, of those with whom she laboured. not only to consider the poor, during the wintry In the forty-seventh year of her age, she was season; but to give to their charity such a appointed an elder, which station she acceptably direction as will render it permanently available. slled the remainder of her life. She was favorThere are many ways in which persons in mod-ed with a discerning spirit, and being sound in erate circumstances, may stimulate and encou-faith and in the doctrines of our Lord and Sarage, as well as assist

, the more destitute to rise viour Jesus Christ, was prepared to detect and apparently by their own exertions, and without reprove that which was forward or out of the destroying their self-dependence. And this may way, and to speak a word of encouragement to often be done with little expenditure of treasure the humble and diffident. She was a lover of or time.

unity in the Church, and in laboring for the This mode of assisting the poor is the cheap- support of the discipline, was engaged to seek est as well as most effectual method of distri- best Wisdom, and enabled, even in times of pecubuting alms. If the pauper heads of a family liar trial, faithfully to discharge that portion of are supported entirely by alms, they will proba-service allotted her in tenderness and love. She bly leave a pauper family to be supported by occasionally offered a few words of exhortation the next generation; but if the same parents in our meetings, which were truly acceptable are taught and assisted to provide for themselves, and edifying; and her solid deportment was they will probably leave a family trained to often strengthening, when no words were uttered. industry and usefulness.

She was concerned to maintain a faithful testi

E. L.

mony with regard to plainness, being, in her per-, twenty-ninth, her remains were interred in sonal appearance, the furniture of her house, Friends' burying-ground, near our North meetand her manner of living, a pattern of meekness ing-house in Weare, where a large and solemn and simplicity; and it was cause of grief to her, meeting was held on the occasion. to witness in others a departure from this ancient Christian practice.

Thus having endeavored, according to the Account of AMELIA Brown, of Luton, England, ability afforded, to improve the talents commit- who died 7th of 12th mo., 1849, aged 62. ted to her, she was comforted and supported in This beloved friend was privileged beyond many her declining years by that hope which is " as an in the pious care exercised in her religious trainanchor of the soul, both sure and steadfast.”. ing. She became early acquainted with the During her last illness, which continued several teachings of divine grace, and from childhood, weeks, and was attended with great bodily suffer- appears highly to have valued the holy scriptures. ing, she manifested much patience and resignation, It was frequently her practice to set apart some and was often heard in supplication to the Father portion of the day for private retirement and of mercies for strength to endure all He might meditation, and in thus seeking to wait upon the see mect to dispense, without bringing dishonor Lord for the renewal of her spiritual strength, to His holy name. On the third of fifth month, she was favoured to know “times of refresh1844, she said, “I feel no anxiety whether to ing," and a growth in “pure and undefiled relive or die, only to be resigned. I see nothing ligion.” in my way; all seems clear.” A few days after, She loved the truth in sincerity, and her mind she said, “my friends and connexions seem very was enriched in the instructive contemplation of near and dear to me, but I give them all up; its order, excellence and beauty, and the benign and she expressed a desire that the love they felt and salutary influence it has on those who obey might remain with them. She requested that its requisitions : fervently she craved for an inthere might be nothing needless about her funeral, crease of faith and strength, that she might be and desired that those who attended, might do it found among the “called, and chosen, and faithwith solemnity.

ful.” “I felt,” she remarks on one occasion, The lively concern she retained for the welfare “ as if I could make any sacrifice called for; the of the Church, was evinced by the following ex- language of my mind' is almost continually, pressions; “ Í desire there may be standard what shall I render unto the Lord for all his bearers raised up, faithful standard-bearers, to benefits.” fill the places of the older ones, who are passing Under the apprehension that it would be reaway. They are very much wanted in our So- quired of her publicly to bear testimony to the ciety. I want them to grow deeper and deeper, power and sufficiency of divine grace, her mind and stronger and stronger in the truth.” About was greatly humbled, and under the pressure of this time she expressed, that the company of her religious exercise, she thus records her feelings : friends afforded her much satisfaction, especially "Sweetly tendered in my room, and craved for that of the young, for whose welfare she mani- strength, fully and unreservedly, to yield all to fested a deep interest, desiring that they might Him, who still in mercy visits me; if consistent come more and more under the forming hand of with divine goodness, may my mind be more iltheir Divine Master, and thus become qualified for luminated, that I may more clearly distinguish usefulness in the Church. Soon after, she said, between my own will and the Lord's requirings." “ If it were not for a hope in Christ, what should í She was recorded a minister in 1823; and on do ? but I am not left without faith. I do believe this important event she observes : “Feeling my never-dying soul will find a resting-place which some quietude, humble desires are prevalent that will make up for all.” On the seventeenth, I may indeed' be watchful. Dearest Lord! be while under much suffering, she said, “Christ pleased to hear my feeble though sincere aswas in agony, so that he prayed the Father if it pirations after increasing strength and wisdom. were possible, that cup might pass from him, yet Thou knowest that I feel awfully fearful lest did he say, 'not my will, but thine be done.'” I should bring any shade on thy blessed And again : “ There is no way to come to the cause.” Father, but to follow Christ through suffering." Her connection in married life, introduced her A few days after, she supplicated thus; "o, into a large family, the duties of which she cheerdearest Jesus, I beg that thou wouldst support fully performed with maternal solicitude, and me and give me strength to bear my trials. she became closely united in bonds of affection 0, dearest Father, I have none to look to but to the several branches of the domestic circle, Thee and Thee alone. I am a poor sufferer. O, anxiously promoting their religious and moral my God, do take me to thyself.After this, welfare. she was so reduced by the disease as to be unable In ministry, this dear friend was pertinent and to say much, but continued patiently to suffer edifying, at times close and searching; in the until the twenty-seventh, when she quietly pass-exercise of her gift, she travelled at different ined away, aged nearly seventy-nine years. On the tervals in several of the English counties. In the summer of 1848 her health began to decline; this obligation should not be permitted to interher demeanour under pain and suffering evinced fere with the efficiency of the service itself.” her humble dependence upon the Lord, and the

Now we venture to say, that our military and language of her soul was, “not my will, but naval officers no mure “exclude themselves from thine, oh Father, be done!" Some alleviation other pursuits,” than men do in any employment was permitted, and she so far recovered as to be whatever, and that, hardly any class of public able to assemble with her friends for divine wor- servants render on an average so small an amount ship; on these occasions, her communications of service as they do for the compensation evinced her undiminished interest in the cause of they receive. We cannot here go into details in truth and righteousness. In the last meeting proof of this assertion ; but we defy contradiction she attended, she bowed the knee in solemn sup- and challenge a thorough inquiry into the facts plication, craving for herself and those present, of the case. Take the swarms of captains, lieuthe attainment of perfect purity and holiness, tenants and midshipmen in our navy; and how and that this might be the chief concern of their much service of any real value have they perlives. A few days after, she was seized with para- formed for the country during the last thirty lysis, and although consciousness was not entirely years? What can they show in return for the effaced, she said but little ; she retained a grate- millions on millions lavished upon them every ful sense of her many mercies, and a fervent af- year? Yet all this, it seems, is not enough ; the fection towards her husband and near connections. country must pension them through life for these Gradually declining, she passed away as falling meagre and comparatively worthless services. into a sweet sleep, and we cannot doubt ex. Indeed, it is political heresy to question this changed the tribulations of time, for the blissful time-hallowed' imposition on the people; and joys of eternity.-Annual Monitor.

every argument, every complaint, every doubt is silenced, not by facts or any decent show of logic,

but by a chorus of undeserved, fulsome compliFAVORITISM SHOWN TO MILITARY MEN. ments to these “noble fellows,” these “brave

defenders of their country,”

our gallant navy, This may be seen in a variety of particulars; but to take as a specimen, that of pensions and the right arm of our defence, the nation's glory.” land-bounties. Who ever heard of such re

It is by such miserable delusions that we are wards to any other class of public servants ? duped into spending some eight or ten millions No ; let men of the loftiest intellect, and the prosiðning through life a class of epauletted drones,

a year for what is of little or no use, and penfoundest and most extensive learning, serve that never fairly earned in their palmiest days their country ever so well

, or ever so long, no-one-half of what they received at the time, for body dreams of rewarding them and their


their services. terity with pensions; but, if a lazy, reckless individual, with little capacity and still less A man who thinks for himself, can hardly redisposition for anything else, suffers himself press a smile on hearing the President and Secto be inveigled by a recruiting officer, with his retary expatiate on the important services of our drunken appliances, into the low, brutal business navy in "giving protection to our commerce and of butchering his fellow men, he is supposed by other national interests in the different quarters such services to create for himself a life-long of the globe.” It seems that our war-ships are claim on the government for his support, and scattered “in six different squadrons” over the after his death, for that of his widow and chil. globe; but, if they were all moored and dismandren !

tled at our navy-yards, and our merchant-vessels It would be amusing, if the thing were not left to rely on the integrity of their dealings, glaringly absurd and unjust

, to observe the shal- and the kindness of their intercourse with the low apologies offered for this sort of favoritism people they visit in the various parts of the by our public men, nearly all cringing and fawn- earth, they would be in the long run even more ing before the Moloch of war, as if it were the safe than they now are. We are well aware that chief idol of the people. The President himself these ideas may seem strange enough to men “earnestly recommends the enactment of a law whose opinions on such subjects float on the comauthorizing officers of the army and navy to be mon current of ages; but a little independent retired from the service, when incompetent for reflection would soon convince them of the subits vigorous and active duties, taking care to stantial truth of what we say, and the essential, make suitable provision for those who have faith. egregious folly of squandering, as we do, upon fully served their country, 'and awarding distinc- our navy for the protection of commerce, more tions, by retaining in appropriate commands, than all the net profits of our whole shipping! those who have been particularly conspicuous Indeed, we are gravely informed of one governfor gallantry and good conduct. While the ob- ment steamer employed on the upper lakes, ligation of the country to maintain and honor for the protection of our commerce there. Prothose, who, to the exclusion of other pursuits tection ! against what ? Almost as well might have devoted themselves to its arduous service, the government employ companies of marines to

ride back and forth upon our railways for the, a wrong estimate of time antecedent to the Chrisprotection of freight and passengers.--Ad. of tian period must have made it shorter. Peace.

Darkness of complexion has been attributed to the sun's power from the age of Solomon to

this day—“Look not upon me, because I am NATIONAL VARIETIES.

black, because the sun hath looked upon me;"

and there can be no doubt that, to a certain deNo circumstance in the natural world is more gree, the opinion is well founded. The invisible inexplicable than the diversity of form and color rays in the solar beams, which change vegetable in the human race. It had already begun in the colours, and have been employed with such reantediluvian world, “ for there were giants in the markable effect in the Daguerreotype, act upon land in those days.” No direct mention is made every substance on which they fall

, producing of color at that time, unless the mark set upon mysterious and wonderful changes in their moCain, “ lest any one finding him should kill lecular state-man not excepted. him," may allude to it. Perhaps, also, it may be Other causes must have been combined to ocinferred that black people dwelt in Ethiopia, or casion all the varieties we now see, otherwise the land of Cush, which means black in the He- every nation between the tropics would be of the brew language. At all events, the difference now samé bue, whereas the sooty Negro inhabits equaexisting must havo arisen after the flood, conse- torial Africa, the Red man equinoctial America, quently all must have originated with Noah, whose and both are mixed with fairer tribes. In Asia, wife, or the wives of his sons, may have been of the Rohillas, a fair race of Affghan extraction, different colors, for aught we know.

inhabit the plains north of the Ganges : the BenMany instances have occurred in modern galees and the mountaineers of Nepaul are dark, times, of albinos and red-haired children having and the Mahrattas are yellow. The complexion been born of black parents, and these have trans- of man varies with height and latitude; some of mitted their peculiarities to their descendants for the inhabitants of Himalaya and Hindoo Koosh several generations, but it may be doubted wheth- are fair, and even a red-haired race is found on er pure-blooded white people have had perfestly the latter. There are fair-haired people with blue black offspring. The varieties are much more eyes in the Ruddhua mountains in Africa. The likely to have arisen from the effects of climate, Kabyles, that inbabit the country behind Tunis food, customs, and civilization upon migratory and Algiers, are similar in complexion to the nagroups of mankind; and of such, a few instances tions in high northern latitudes. This corresponhave occurred in historical times, limited, how-dence, however, only maintains with regard to the ever, to small numbers and particular spots; but northern hemisphere, for it is a well-known fact the great mass of nations had received their dis- that the varieties of the numerous species in the tinctive characters at a very early period. The great southern continents are much more similar permanency of type is one of the most striking in physical characters to the native races of the circumstances, and proves the length of time torrid zone, than any of the aboriginal people of necessary to produce a change in national struc- the northern regions. Even supposing that diture and colour. A nation of Ethiopians existed versity of colour is owing to the sun's rays only, 3450 years ago, which emigrated from a remote it is scarcely possible to attribute the thick lips, country and settled near Egypt, and there must the woolly hair, and the entire difference of form, have been black people before the age of Solomon, extending to the very bones and skull, to anyotherwise he would not have alluded to colour, thing but a concurrence of circumstances, not even poetically. The national appearance of the omitting the invisible influence of electricity, Ethiopians, Persians, and Jews, has not varied which pervades every part of the earth and air for more than 3000 years, as appears from the and possibly terrestrial magnetism. ancient Egyptian paintings in the tomb of Rha- “The flexibility of man's constitution enables meses the Great, discovered at Thebes by Belzoni, him to live in every climate, from the equator, to in which the countenance of the modern Ethio- the ever-frozen coasts of Nova Zembla and Spitzpian and Persian can be readily recognized, and bergen, and that chiefly by his capability of bearthe Jewish features and colour are identical with ing the most extreme changes of temperature and those of the Israelites daily met with in London. diet, which are probably the principal causes of Civilization is supposed to have great influence on variety in his form. It has already been mencolour, having a tendency to make the dark shade tioned that oxygen is inhaled with atmospheric more general, and it appears that, in the crossing air, and also taken in by the pores on the skin; of two shades, the offspring takes the complexion part of it combines chemically with the carbon of of the darker and the form of the faircr. But as the food, and is expired in the form of carbonic there is no instance of a new variety of mankind acid gas and water; that chemical action is the having been established as a nation since the cause of vital force and heat in man and animals. Christian era, there must either have been a great- The quantity of food must be in exact proportion er energy in the causes of change before that time, to the quantity of oxygen inhaled, otherwise disor, brief, as the span of man on earth has been lease and loss of strength would be the consequence.

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