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weeks fourteen hundred slaves from the coast of Africa, and this is done with the knowledge and connivance of the Captain General. Torn from their homes, their families, the scenes endeared to them from early childhood, from all that makes life sweet-for the black skin covers a heart that has its loves, and its sympathies, as well as a white one-carried to a strange land, and nearly naked, kept at work in the broiling sun from early morn until late at night; paying, with the lash of the task master, most dearly for any symptom of fatigue, and for the least apparent obstinacy, thrown into chains and compelled to work chained together in couples, or dragging a heavy ball to their legs. I have read of such things before, and supposed that much was said for effect, but now I am satisfied that the reality far exceeds what I before looked upon as an overdrawn picture.

dred and fifty slaves was transferred from the twenty boats which brought them off to the brig. The vessel was immediately got under way and left the harbor with the six hundred and fifty slaves, and a crew of thirty-three or thirty four, including Capt. Carlo (a Portuguese,) and Mello and Carvillo, first and second mates. The cargo of slaves was conveyed to, and landed at Havana.

John Gilbert, representing himself as a native of Calcutta, swore this forenoon that he shipped as a seaman, on board the Ramon de Zaldo, at Rio, from whence the vessel proceeded to Paranagua, and he then became cook and steward, in which capacity he remained on board until they arrived at Cabenda, in Africa. On their way to Cabenda, they stopped at Ambriz and the river Congo. There were on board the brig a Portuguese crew of twenty-eight men, including Captain and mate. The vessel lay at Ambriz twenty-four hours. The cargo consisted of farina, beans, jerked beef, water and rice, and would subsist seven hundred persons for five


It was I think, on the 5th of August, 1849, the brig left Rio for Paranagua, and she arrived at Cabenda on the 14th of October. I and two other persons were sent ashore at Cabenda where we remained nineteen days, and then departed for Brazil in a vessel belonging to the establishment from which the slaves were shipped on board the Ramon de Zaldo. The brig was afterwards sold at Rio.

William F. Price deposed that the Ramon de Zaldo left New York in ballast; she took a car. Very few are aware of the modus operandi of go of flour from Virginia to Bahia; she continthe slave trade as it is at present conducted. I ued on to Rio in ballast; where she discharged think, therefore, that the testimony of the wit-it,took in a fresh cargo, and proceeded on to Paranesses in this case, will be read with interest, as nagua.-Inquirer. it shows the mode of proceeding:


The Washington Republic, in the course of an interesting article upon this subject, says:

"The whole number of dead letters returned to the Department we can only vaguely estimate. Thus, in one quarter, the bulk of opened letters equalled about 6000 bushels, crammed; each bushel is supposed to contain 1000 letters. The number returned in a quarter is therefore about six millions, or twenty-four millions a year!

Unclaimed moneys, less the discount, are handed over to the general treasury, subject to the demands of the rightful owners; but we believe for the half-year ending June 30th, 1850, the amount of these was not more than about $1,700.

The captain and some of the American seamen left at Cabenda, but the mate, who is since dead, remained on board. About one third of the provisions was put ashore at the River Congo, and also several crates of crockery ware, There still, however, remained on board about twice as much farina, &c., as would supply a full cargo of slaves during an ordinary voyage. We remained, said Gilbert, at the River Congo one week; it was expected that a cargo of slaves would have been shipped there, but their plans were frustrated by finding in the harbour two French war steamers and an English brig of war. They could find no slaves at Ambriz, or they would have shipped them there. On arriving at Cabenda, not a vessel lay there and a signal was hoisted from our mast head, as we were sailing in, which was instantly replied to by an answering signal from a flag staff on shore.

In a few moments a number of boats, filled with slaves, were seen coming from the shore towards us, and just before they reached our gangway the anchor was dropped, and within twenty

Dead letters are usually unpaid letters. The custom of prepayment has become vastly more general since the reduction of postage to five and ten cents. In the fourth quarter of 1850 the number of dead letters received from Cincinnati, not prepaid, was 8,700; the number prepaid, 1,300. In the third quarter of 1850 the prethree minutes from that time a cargo of six hun-paid letters from the Boston post office number

Drafts, deeds, and other papers of value, and also jewelry, mementoes, &c., are preserved in the dead letter office. These are often recovered by their owners with much delight. In one instance, not a great while since, a gentleman, for want of certain documents, believed to have been lost from the mail, found himself in the power of an unscrupulous person, in a matter in which property to the amount of ten thousand dollars (all the gentleman was worth) was involved. As a possible means of obtaining the papers he applied to the dead-letter office, and in about three minutes they were produced! The package had been improperly addressed.


For First Month, (January,) 1851. The new year found the earth covered in this which vicinity with about two inches of snow, had nearly disappeared from the streets before the evening of the first day; but roofs having a northern aspect continued white for more than a week since that time scarcely enough has fallen to render the earth gray.


The temperature has been exceedingly mild, the mercury but once, between the 1st and 29th, falling so low as 19 degrees, and the wind pre


COTTON CULTIVATION ON THE WESTERN COAST vailing from the south and west, 18 out of the first 26 days. This continued mild weather was remarkable also for the absence of gales, and The soil itself is admirably adapted to the fruc- even high winds: the nights were nearly calm, tification of the plant, and this is proved by the and a gentle, or very gentle breeze, prevailed for numerous specimens which are to be seen in al- 24, out of the first 28 days of the month. The most every piece of ground, spontaneously grow-weather was also almost uniformly fair, 6-10ths ing amongst the other shrubs and trees, and sup- of an inch of rain only having fallen during this plying large and well filled pods of the soft downy period. The mild weather prevailed to a great substance. The rearing and cultivation of the extent to the north, north-east, and north-west cotton plant would, in my opinion, be an accept- of us; the snow had nearly disappeared, Lake able kind of employment to the African laborer: Erie was navigable, and on the 22d, vessels and, as the price of wages is not high, and the cleared from the usually ice-bound barbour of time occupied in bringing it to perfection by no Buffalo for the upper ports of the Lake. means slow, the return would plentifully reward Our hardy and early vegetables did not fail to the planter as well as the purchaser. The qual- waken from their wintry sleep, and respond to ity of the article produced from the cotton plant these genial airs: the buds of the willow and of Sierra Leone has already been pronounced to the buck-eye, the lilac and the linden were much be very good, and capable of a durable and yet swelled; the topmost branches of the maple, fine texture. The extensive portions of land in (acer dasycarpum,) the little chickweed, (stelthe neighborhood of Freetown, and indeed laria media,) and the humble groundsel, (senethroughout the colony, which lie uncultivated, | cio vulgaris,) were in full blossom-the two might be employed with advantage in the growth latter changing their northern habits of annual of this article, for which they are in every respect to perennial plants. In the open ground, too, fitted. The continent of Africa, in fact, through- and quite unprotected, it was interesting to find out, is for the reasons already offered, well suit- that the crocus and the hyacinth, warmed into ed to the cultivation of the cotton plant. Some life, had burst their envelopes, risen to the years ago, considerable attention was paid to it, surface of the earth, and were putting forth and the undertaking promised every succe 38. their slender scapes. large quantity of it was produced of a superior quality, and the attempt only failed through want of perseverance, good seed and a thorough understanding of the proper manner of conducting and carrying it out into practice. The seed of the native was not supposed to be so good as that which was imported, and for this reason the undertaking was prematurely, but foolishly relinquished. The natives themselves particularly as you advance more into the interior and up the Gambia, grow a good deal of it, and make very capital cloths for their own use from the material, which they work after their own fashion. The opportunities afforded for the cultivation of cotton in the vast tracts of land bounding that river, and the readiness, I imagine, with which it would be undertaken and carried on by their possessors, if a fair inducement was held out to them, ought not to be passed over by our manufacturers at the present crisis.-Poole's Sierra Leone and the Gambia.


ed 1,612; of letters not prepaid, 9,401. These instances are taken at random."

We publish the above as we find it in the paper from which we copy, but must indulge a suspicion that there is some error in the account. Twenty four millions of letters, left unclaimed each year, or about one for each man woman and child in the Union, seems to tax our credulity nearly to its limit.


The mean temperature of the 29th-according to our usual observations, sunrise and 2, P. M.-was 41; and had the month so ended, the mean would have been nearly 39 degrees; or the warmest 1st month, save two, in 60 years; but on the 28th and the ensuing night a considerable rain fell, with an E. wind, which veered to the W. N. W. at 4 o'clock, A. M. of the 29th, blew strong, attended with frequent showers, till sunrise, when the mercury stood at 44.

The wind continued high from the same quarter, during the day, and the morning was cloudy, but the weather was warm till after 10, A. M., when it gradually changed, and the mer cury fell to 38, at 2, P. M., with a fair prospect of a frosty night. But all speculation on the coming weather was just here superseded by a token on O'Reilly's wires from the far west, indicating that at St. Louis, 12, M., the wind was N. W., thermometer 10 degrees above zero -at Louisville, 12, M., thermometer 21, with

"heavy N. W. winds."


At Cincinnati, (the same hour,) weather cold, snowing all the forenoon, high N.W. winds. At Pittsburg, 12, M., "wind N. N. W. Freezing up fast." Here, then, we had positive intelligence (through an agent, compared with the speed of which the "high wind" and the "heavy wind" is but a lagger,) that a chilling blast, a killing frost, had already left its winter quarters in the dominions of Victoria, or the Czar, in the distant N. W., and that it must soon be upon us, leaving doubtful the precise time only, and the degree its edge might be tempered and blunted by contact with more genial elements on its journey. The A notorious burglar was lately sentenced at premonition thus given is ample for preparation; Toronto (Canada) to twenty years' hard labor in for guarding the hydrant pipes, stopping the the Provincial Penitentiary. He was found guilcrannies, and brightening the fires; with a fewty on two indictments, and condemned to ten years' minutes, it may be, to spare, which I am sure imprisonment on each. When brought up to hear cannot be better used than by looking in upon the judgment of the court, he was asked if he had that aged couple, infirm and poor, in the neigh- anything to say why the penalty of the law should bouring alley. Look to the coal bin; see that not be pronounced against him. He replied as it is not reduced to the last bucket, and that so follows: mingled with dust as to be nearly incombustible; that stove-pipe, too, eaten through with rust, and wrapped with paper;-supply a new joint. There, now, all parties feel better, and are better prepared for what may come after.

Well, on the afternoon of the 29th, the mercury continued to fall from 38 at 2, P. M., to 24, at 10, P. M.; and, after a windy night, stood at 14 on the morning of the 30th, being a fall of 30 degrees in 24 hours. The 30th continued cold, the thermometer rising to 18 only, at midday, with high wind and murky, wild looking clouds, some of the contents of which would find their way to the earth, in the form of light, husky snow flakes, which, mingling with the clouds of dust, rendered out-door exercise disagreeable. The wind somewhat abated in the evening, but the cold increased, the mercury standing at 12 degrees only, above zero, at 101,

P. M.

On the morning of the 31st, the mercury stood at 11 degrees above zero, which is 1 degree colder than any morning of last winter; the wind had somewhat abated, and the sky was without a cloud. Thermometer had risen to 23, at 2, P. M., and a fine clear day.

degrees, which is 6 degrees above the com mon mean of many years.

The range of the thermometer for the month was between 11 on the morning of the 31st, and 59 on the afternoon of the 26th, or 48 degrees.

Rain fell on a part of three days, and the whole quantity for the month was, as recorded at the Pennsylvania Hospital, 14 inches. P. S. N. Am. and U. S. Gaz.

The mean morning temperature of the month was 32.77 degrees; 2 o'clock mean, 41.22; and the mean average for the month was about 37

"No, my lord-I have violated the laws of my country. I have been tried by an impartial jury and convicted, and I humbly bow to their decision

throwing myself entirely upon the leniency and mercy of the court. There are, however, two favors which I would ask, if a felon in the dock dare ask a favor; first, that as I have no means of my own, though a portion of the money taken from me belonged to myself, the court would see my counsel properly feed, as he has ably, though unsuccessfully, defended me. The second is, that when I am sent to the penitentiary, they would intercede and have me taught some trade or profession, in order that, should I ever be released from it, I may be able to earn an honest livelihood. I attribute my present course of life solely to the circumstance that I was never brought up to any trade. Should I not be taught any occupation while in the penitentiary, when I come out I shall be friendless, homeless, penniless, and ragged; and I must necessarily resume my old habits, and become what I was before—a robber."Penn. Jour. of Prison Discipline.


A convict who was discharged from the Easttern State Penitentiary about three years since, recently called on a member of our Acting Com

By the telegraph, we learn that the cold blast. has pervaded the whole northern and middle, as well as the western States; that the mercury was, on the evening of the 30th, at zero in Bos-mittee, from whom he had been accustomed to ton; 10 at Baltimore and Washington, and 7 receive friendly visits while in confinement. at St. Louis; that the wind was everywhere He was well dressed, and evidently a thriv strong, and from the N.W. With such rapidity ing man. He stated that he had derived much has the gale passed over the comparatively warm benefit from a treatise on book-keeping, which he earth, that it has hardly been tempered in its had used in his cell-that it had been the means course, and is now penetrating the South with of his introduction to commercial business, its icy arrows scarcely blunted. which he was now prosecuting in a neighboring city, with good success-that he had married eligibly-that he had never been recognised as a convict, and felt confident he should not be.

He observed to his friend, that the term he spent in prison was "the making of him.". Penn. Journ. Prison Discipline.


I deem it not an idle task,

These lovely things to rear,
That spread their arms, as they would ask
If sun and dew are here,-

For simple wants alone are theirs,

The pure and common too-
The beauty of refreshing airs,
The gift of liquid dew.

And they return for every ray,
A gayer smile and look;

And greenly as the clear drops play
They murmur of the brook;

And thus our thoughts away they lure,
Where woods and waters gleam,
And mountain airs are strong and pure,
And sing the bird and stream.

Frail, grateful things! how fondly they
The nurtured leaf outspread,

And more than all my care repay,
When from its folded bed

Some pink or crimson blossoms press,
To thrill me with delight;

To fill my very eyes with tears-
Its beauty is so bright.

Nay 'tis no idle thing, I trust,
To foster beauty's birth;

To lift from out the lowly dust,
One blossom of the earth-
Where barrenness before had been,`
A verdure to disclose,
And make the desert rich in sheen,
To blossom as the rose.


CONGRESS. SENATE.-The bill to ascertain and settle the private land claims in the State of California, has been the principal subject before the Senate during the past week. The question yet remains unsettled.

resolution, calling for the correspondence between the United States Government and that of Spain, in relation to the Amistad negroes, was taken up and adopted. The death of David S. Kaufman, Representative from Texas, was announced, and the usual resolutions were passed.

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.-On the 29th ult. the bill to supply deficiencies in the appropriations for the service of the fiscal year, ending 6th month 30th, 1851, was taken up and passed. On the 30th J. R. Giddings made an ineffectual effort to introduce a resolution calling on the President for copies of any correspondence which may have taken place between England and this Government, respecting the imprisonment of British seamen in any American port. On the 31st, the proposition to establish branch mints in San Francisco and New York, was discussed during most of the session. Without disposing of the question, the House adjourned.

On the 1st instant the death of D. S. Kaufman, of Texas, was announced. The usual resolutions were passed, and the House adjourned without transacting any business.


On the 29th ult. the bill from the House, to reduce and modify the rates of postage, was reported to the Senate by the Post Office Committee, with amendments. On the 31st, Senator Mason called up his resolution of inquiry relative to allowing Spanish claims arising out of the Amistad case. After some discussion, in which Senator Hale posed the resolution, and Clay, Winthrop and Mason advocated it, on the ground that it was merely an inquiry; the resolution was adopted. A petition, asking for the admission of New Mexico into the Union on certain conditions, was referred. A resolution calling on the Secretary of State for a graduated scale of diplomatic salaries was adopted. A joint resolution, providing that the dead letters remaining in post-offices in California and Oregon shall be opened in California, by the Postmaster of San Francisco, and a special agent, to be appointed, was taken up and passed. On the 1st inst. Senator Hale's

The funeral of D. S. Kaufman took place on the 3d inst., and no business was transacted by either House.

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In one place he mentions having a meeting among the Baptists, "wherein Truth was exalted, and the name of our great Lord and Master glorified. We taught them," he says, "by example, more than precept, showing them the true worship which stands in spirit and in truth." In these brief memoirs, we have evidence that he was careful to regard the shutting, as well as the opening of the gospel spring; for of one meeting, which seems to have been among Friends, he remarks, "This was the third time at this place, wherein my Master made me an example of silence; thereby directing the people to the great Searcher in themselves." But at others he was enabled to preach the gospel in the demonstration of the spirit; still humbly ascribing the honour and praise altogether to the

all bountiful Giver of every good and perfect gift. After a journey of something less than three hundred miles, he was favored to reach his own habitation, in the enjoyment of pure and solid satisfaction.

An interval of a little more than six years occurs between the journey last mentioned, and the next which appears on the record.

In the early part of the Fifth month, 1761, being then about his twenty-eighth year, he left home with a prospect of paying a religious visit to Friends in Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey. His companion was Bowater Beales.

For Friends' Review.


Continued from page 291

Only about seven months were alloted to the After attending their own Quarterly Meeting cares and enjoyments of domestic life, after his at Cane Ceek, which lasted three days, they return from his former journey, before this de- took a solemn leave of their wives, who had voted servant of the Most High, again set out on accompanied them to that meeting, and proa gospel mission. His dedication and religious ceeded on their journey. Some portions of the engagements must appear quite remarkable, when country through which they passed, were then we recollect that he was then only in his twenty-so thinly settled, that more nights than one, second year. The prospect was a visit to Friends were passed in the woods. In the narrative on the Pee Dee river. This journey, like the which is preserved respecting the journey, we previous one, was in considerable part through find these gospel messengers visiting the meeta wilderness; for on the second and third nights, ings of Friends in Virginia and Maryland, in he and his companions, being four in all, took situations where, at this day, very few if any of up their lodging in the woods, having in each the Society remain. Among these William case ridden about forty miles the preceding day. Hunt evidently appears to have laboured diliOf this journey, but few incidents are related. gently and faithfully, frequently having religious The small number of Friends who were visited, opportunities with the families where they lodgappear to have been thinly scattered over the ed. In these engagements, as well as the more country, holding their meetings in private houses; public assemblies, they were favoured with many and so located that in passing from one settle- refreshing and strengthening seasons. The frement to another, a night was occasionally spent quent acknowledgement of Divine support, and in the woods. the general evidence running through the narrative, that love to the brethren was the clothing of his spirit, serve to impress a conviction on the minds of his readers, that the eminent gifts with which he was endowed, were received and exercised with a single eye to the glory of the Giver, and to the promotion of the cause of truth and righteousness in the earth. He was particularly careful not to deck himself with his Lord's jewels; or to assume as his own, what he knew belonged to the Dispenser of every gift.

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