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open for some religious exercise, it did not ap-,
pear to be attended with the same evidence of
divine life which he had sometimes experienced.
He therefore made his communication a short
one; and after parting with many of his friends
"in much love and tenderness of spirit," he pro-
ceeded towards a place where he expected another
meeting to be held. "But," says he, "I had
not gone far before the accuser of the brethren
met me in the way, and being but low and de-
jected before, I cannot express the situation my
mind was now in. It seemed to me that the
bottomless pit from beneath had opened her
mouth, and with her bars encompassed me about;
the very weeds of confusion were wrapped about
my head." The following night was spent "in
a variety of distressing thoughts, not knowing
what would be the end of this combat. I brought
things," he remarked, "to the nearest inspection
I was capable of; but could not find that I stood
condemned for any thing; unless it was for
speaking too loud and too fast, to which I was

declare the testimony of truth, to his own satisfaction and that of his friends. Having a number of relatives at that meeting to whom he was closely united, he had a religious opportunity, at the house where he lodged, with them and others, from whom, at the close of the Yearly Meeting, he parted, as he remarks, "with a heart covered with reverent fear, and humble dread, under a sense of the many deep trials sacred Goodness had brought him through."

He several times visited John Churchman, whom he pronounces "an ancient worthy minister of great experiences." This valuable minister took a private opportunity to impart to his youthful visitor, some advice which was particularly affecting and highly iustructive. Thus manifesting the care of a father in the Church, over a bright and promising son.

At a subsequent period of this journey, he again visited the same worthy minister, he being then very ill, and in human probability not likely to recover. During a solemn pause, William Hunt says it arose in his heart to tell him, he thought he must surmount this wave, and perform some further service for the truth. To which he meekly answered, "The will of the Lord be done."

From this remark, we may infer, that he felt a secret apprehension that he sometimes suffered his mind to partake of a zeal and excitement which did not arise altogether from the true gospel fountain, and that his ardour may have partaken, in some degree, of a warmth arising from sparks of his own kindling. In whatever light he viewed his own manner of speaking, the fear here intimated, shows the tenderness and watchfulness of his spirit.

In the morning, as he proceeded in company with several of his friends, towards the place where a meeting was expected to be held, his mind was painfully exercised with the prospect, as he expresses it, "of facing a meeting" under the disconsolate feelings which attended him. "But," says he, "at length through the great goodness of the Almighty, to whom all powers are subject, there arose a pleasant calm over my mind, and there was a secret intelligible voice passed through my heart, if thou wilt be contented, and bear all things just as they come, my presence shall be with thee.' O, gracious reviving of my life. In humble dread and awful fear. If thou wilt preserve me, from dishonouring thy name, I am willing to endure all things, that may come upon me for thy Truth's sake.'

John Churchman did, soon afterwards, so far recover his health as to go to Philadelphia, for the purpose of seeking a passage to Barbadoes, which he had a prospect of visiting on a religious account; but finding that all the vessels which were preparing to proceed to that island, were furnished with guns for defence, the English and French nations being then at war, he did not feel at liberty even to look at them with a view to taking a passage. Having informed Friends in one of their meetings, of his sentiments on this subject, he returned home, and waited to see whether a clearer way would open. But the concern went off, and he seems to have regarded this religious concern as a measure, appointed by a wisdom superior to his own, to enable him to give a full and feeling testimony against participating in, or giving countenance to the destruction of human life. John Churchman lived after the interview to which William Hunt alludes between thirteen and fourteen years; and during great part of that time, was much engaged in the service of the gospel. So that the prospect expressed by his visitor, was amply verified.


When he was about leaving that part of the

The Yearly Meeting of Philadelphia occurred while he was on this visit, which he attended, it being then held near the end of the ninth month. Of that meeting he remarks, that the several sittings thereof were owned with a weighty sense of truth; and the business was transacted with much calmness and condescension. In some of them he was enabled, through gracious help, to

When they arrived at the place where an appointed meeting was expected, they found that, by some oversight, notice had not been circulat-country, William Hunt paid a parting visit to ed, and W. Hunt was not subjected to the necessi- this experienced minister who dropped some adty of facing a meeting there. monitions which clearly indicate his solicitude that this young and highly valued friend and brother in the gospel, might not grow more rapidly in the branch than in the root. His experience of man had no doubt strongly impressed on his mind, a sense of the danger attendant upon young persons when endowed with extraordinary gifts, natural or spiritual. His expressions were, "I have had sweet unity and sympa


thy with thee, from thy first coming into this province. I am glad thou hast grown in thy gift; yea and thou wilt still grow, if thou sink deep and wait in thy gift; but if thou leave it, thou wilt grow in the top, and many words without life. Therefore wait in the gift, and when thou comes home, see if thou canst not say with Jacob, I am become two bands; say in the secret of thy soul, Lord if thou wilt be pleased to blot out my transgressions, I am content."

These appear to have been the parting expressions of one who was justly regarded as a father and instructor, both to him and to others, and they made a deep impression on the subject of this notice.

At the time when this journey was performed, the Society of Friends were laboring to clear themselves from the practice of holding slaves; and this subject did not escape the attention of a mind so thoroughly alive to the cause of universal righteousness as that of William Hunt. When about leaving Pennsylvania,* he remarks: "My heart was still pained on account of the poor negroes; and feeling the way open in their meeting for business, [at West Nottingham] I spoke tenderly and closely to the subject; entreating friends to live deeply inward; and when truth should dictate the way for their enlargement, not to let self-love hinder so great a work."

"The cry of these poor creatures was so loud in my ears that I scarce ate or drank anything, lest I should partake of the gain of oppression."

From this expression, we may readily perceive that his views in this respect were very similar to those of John Woolman, in relation to the products of slave extracted labor.

Having nearly accomplished the service to which he believed himself called, and taken leave, in great sweetness and tenderness of spirit, of many of the friends among whom he had labored, he was expecting to proceed immediately home, when he found his mind drawn towards a meeting which lay fifty miles out of his way. This, he says, was a pinching trial; he pleaded hard to be excused. But the covenant which he made in his journey, was brought into view; when under deep-baptism, he had promised that if the Lord would preserve him to the honor of his name, he would offer up not only his nearest enjoyments, but his life, if required. Then he says a sweet voice passed through his mind; "What hast thou lacked of my presence; have not I been with thee and supported thee through those dangerous spots of which thou wast sore afraid? If thou wilt be faithful, I

•Pennsylvania was then a slaveholding province; the first law which effectually sealed the doom of slavery in that State, was not enacted until nearly twenty years after that time.

will still preserve both at home and abroad. Wilt thou now distrust the sufficiency of my power?"

Then he says, "with an awful, humble, yet mournful resignation, I said in the secret of my soul, 'Lord, thy peace is more to me than ten thousand worlds. I am willing to follow wheresoever thou pleasest.' While I could keep here, my mind was in true quiet and stillness, but the desire I had let in to see my dear wife and little babes, had become so strong, that I could not easily put them by; and therefore I spent this night in many a bitter sigh, and heavy groan, with frequent weeping."

Having attended the meeting in question, he proceeded homeward without further delay, lodging one night in the woods on the road, and found his wife and family well, "who," says he, "with many dear friends and near relatives, were glad to receive me once more, in the fellowship that is with the Father and the Son, Christ, to whom be rendered dread and humble fear forever."

Near the close of the narrative, this declaration appears: "Now I know it was the language of the holy spirit which said, be faithful and I will preserve at home and abroad. O saith my soul that I, with all his anointed, may ever keep a watchful eye to the secret monitions thereof; and give a ready obedience, which alone crowns all our labor with true peace."

For Friends' Review,


"In the month of March, 1837, I left Cairo," says the Hon. Robert Curzon, in 'A Visit to the Monasteries in the Levant,' "for the purpose of visiting the Coptic Monasteries in the neighborhood of the Natron lakes, which are situated in the desert to the Northwest of Cairo, on the western side of the Nile." After visiting two or three, he particularly speaks of that of Souriani, from the depth of whose recesses in the cellar, he found treasures of which he was in pursuit-viz: tomes of ancient times, Syriac manuscripts on vellum, which he had some trouble in digging from "their literary grave," and thus describes the scene in ascending from its gloom and the light of wax candles, to that of day.

"On leaving the dark recess of the tower I paused at the narrow door by which we had entered, both to accustom my eyes to the glare of daylight, and to look at the scene below me. I stood on the top of a steep flight of stone steps, by which the door of the tower was approached from the court of the Monastery: the steps ran up the inside of the outer wall, which was of sufficient thickness to allow of a narrow terrace within the parapet; from this point I could look over the wall on the left hand upon the

desert, whose dusky plains stretched out as far when I turned my eyes upon my companions
as I could see, in hot and dreary loneliness, to and myself, it struck me that we also were
the horizon. To those who are not familiar somewhat remarkable in our way. First, there
with the aspect of such a region, it may be well was the old blind grey-headed abbot, leaning
to explain, that a desert, such as that which now on his staff, surrounded with three or four dark
surrounded me, resembles more than anything robed Coptic monks, holding in their hands the
else, a dusty turnpike in England on a hot sum- lighted candles with which we had explored the
mer's day, extended interminably, both as to secret recesses of the oil-cellar; there was I,
length and breadth. A country of low rounded dressed in the long robes of a merchant of the
hills, the surface of which is composed entirely East, with a small book in the breast of my
of gravel, dust and stones, will give you a good gown and a big one under each arm; and there
idea of the general aspect of a desert. Yet, al- were my servants armed to the teeth and laden
though parched and dreary in the extreme, from with old books, and one and all we were so cover-
their vastness and openness, there is something ed with dirt and wax, from top to toe, that we
grand and sublime in the silence and loneliness looked more as if we had been up some chimney,
of these burning plains; and the wandering than like quiet people engaged in literary re-
tribes of Bedouins who inhabit them are seldom searches. One of the monks was leaning in a
content to remain long in the narrow inclosed brown study upon the ponderous and gigantic
confines of cultivated land. There is always a volume in its primeval binding, in the interior
fresh breeze in the desert, except when the terri- of which the blind abbot had hoped to find a
ble hot wind blows; and the air is more elastic treasure. Perhaps upon the battlements of this
and pure than where vegetation produces ex- remote monastery we formed as picturesque a
halations which in all hot climates are more or group as any might wish to see; though the be-
less deleterious. The air of the desert is always grimed state of our flowing robes, as well as of
healthy, and no race of men enjoy a greater our hands and faces, would render a somewhat
exemption from weakness, sickness and disease, remote point of view more agreeable to the artist
than the children of the desert, who pass their than a closer inspection."
lives in wandering to and fro in search of the
scanty herbage on which their flocks are fed, far
from the cares and troubles of busy cities, and
free from the oppression which grinds down the
half-starved cultivators of the fertile soil of

To the Editor of Friends' Review.

Washington, Feb. 6, 1851.

Your readers are all aware, that the friends of peace have, at this session of Congress, sent in a large number of petitions for International Arbitration as a permanent substitute for war. I was in the Senate Chamber yesterday when Mr. Foote, Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations, reported, with their unanimous consent, the following preamble and resolution in reference to a petition from the American Peace Society as taking the lead, and several hundred other petitions from various and widely distant Societies of the country.

While from my elevated position I looked out on my left upon the desert, on my right how different was the scene? There, below my feet lay the convent garden in all the fresh luxuriance of tropical vegetation. Tufts upon tufts of waving palms overshadowed the immense succulent leaves of the banana, which in their turn rose out of thickets of the pomegranate with its bright green leaves, and its blossoms of that beautiful and vivid red which is excelled by few, even of the most brilliant flowers of the East. These were contrasted with the deep dark green of the caroub or locust tree; and the yellow apples of the lotus vied with the clusters of green limes, with their sweet white flowers, which luxuriated in a climate too hot and sultry for the golden fruit of the orange, which is not to be met with in the valley of the Nile. Flowers and fair branches, exhaling rich perfumes and bearing freshness in their very aspect, become more beautiful from their contrast to the dreary arid plains outside the convent walls, and this great difference was owing solely to there being a well of water in this spot, from which a horse or mule was constantly employed to draw the fertilizing streams which nourished the teeming vegetation of this monastic garden.

I stood gazing and moralizing at these contrasted scenes for some time; but at length,

"Whereas, appeals to the sword for the determination of national controversies are always productive of immense evils; and whereas, the spirit of enterprise of the age, but more especially the genius of our government, the habits of our people, and the highest permanent prosperity of our republic, as well as the claims of humanity, the dictates of enlightened reason, and the precepts of our holy religion, all require the adoption of every feasible measure, consistent with the national honor and the security of our rights, to prevent, as far as possible, the occurrence of war hereafter: Therefore,

"Resolved, That, in the judgment of this body, it would be proper and desirable for the Government of the United States wherever practicable, to secure, in its treaties with other nations, a provision for referring to the decision of um

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The reader is probably aware that the best hammered or malleable iron is nearly pure iron, and that cast-iron and steel are compounds-alloys they may almost be called-of iron with small proportions of carbon or charcoal. Castiron contains more carbon than steel, although in both the quantity is small, varying perhaps from or 1 to 4 or 5 per cent. Cast-iron is fu

Now Mr. Stirling has found that cast-iron

This measure is not all I could desire, but clearly a large and most hopeful advance towards superseding error. I was glad to hear Mr. Foote, in presenting the report, say he presumed the Senate would feel little or no hesitation in adopt-sible, hard, brittle, unelastic. Steel is also fusiing a measure so simple, and so cordially and ble and hard, but it is much tougher, and highly unanimously recommended by the Committee. elastic. Here we see the powerful effects of so There is now a fair prospect, I think, that our small a proportion of carbon; for iron is nearly Government will gradually-that is the only infusible, soft, and very tough, when free from way possible-come into the practice of provid- carbon. ing in its treaties for arbitration, instead of the sword; a glorious consummation, worth a thou-may be rendered very tough, without losing its sand times over all that has been given, done fusibility, by simply alloying it with a certain and suffered for the cause of peace from the days proportion of wrought or malleable iron. He of George Fox till now. takes, we shall say, a quantity of any species of GEORGE C. BECKWITH. cast iron-no matter, for the general character of the result, of what kind-and has it run from the blast-furnace into moulds containing a certain proportion of scrap-iron. The pigs thus formed are then melted, as usual, in a cupola, and run into the desired moulds for castings. Thus is produced what he calls his toughened cast-iron. His object in the first experiments, was to improve the inferior, weaker, or more fluid-irons to an equality with the better kinds; but he did tained-namely, that all irons are thus brought not expect the remarkable result actually obto a kind of average strength and toughness far to a kind of average strength and toughness far above that of the best cast-iron. The strength of cast iron is measured by the weight necessary to 6 inches long between the supports, when susbreak a bar 1 square inch in section, and 4 feet pended to the middle of the bar. The highest result obtained by Mr. Hodgkinson with the best of (Blaenavon) cast iron was 578 lbs.; but the average, as by the same authority, is 454 lbs.

pires, all future misunderstandings that cannot be satisfactorily adjusted by amicable negotiations in the first instance, before a resort to hostilities shall be had."


There are few things more remarkable than the total change of properties produced when two or more metals are made to combine together so as to form what are called alloys. This change is so marked, that it is often impossible to predict, from the known properties of the component metals, those of the alloy. We see this very distinctly in the known cases of brass, an alloy of copper and zinc, in all its varieties; of bronze, bell-metal, gun-metal and gong-metal, which are alloys of copper and tin; of type metal, a mixture of lead, antimony, and tin; and many


But although many useful and valuable alloys are known, when we consider the great number of simple metals of which nearly fifty have been discovered, while at least twenty are sufficiently abundant to be applied to practical purposes, and further, that any two metals may combine in many different proportions; and lastly, that very often an exceedingly small proportion of one metal will give to another entirely new properties -when we consider these things, it is obvious that the existing alloys can form only a very small proportion of the immense number that may be obtained, many of which may probably

Now Mr. Stirling has obtained the very high result of 868 lbs., while Mr. Rennie, using Mr. Stirling's method, obtained that of above 900 lbs. Later experiments have given a still higher degree of improvement; so that the maximum increase of strength over that of average cast-iron (454 lbs) is 120 per cent. ; and that which may on all occasions be calculated on is from 60 to

All sorts of

Mr. Morris Stirling, a gentleman thoroughly qualified for the task by a scientific education and long practical familiarity with chemistry, has, within the last few years, paid much attention to the alloys, chiefly of the most important of all metals-iron. The results he has obtained are of the highest practical importance, and afford a signal proof of the truth of what we have stated-namely, that multitudes of valuable alloys remain to be discovered, and will richly reward the time and labour bestowed in such investigations.

turn out more valuable than any yet known. 70 per cent., yielding an average of about 750 lbs. as the breaking weight of an inch bar 4 feet 6 inches between the supports. castings, if the due proportion of wrought scrap for each be ascertained, may be brought to this very high average of strength. Of course the improvement is, relatively to the original quality of the iron, not so great in the best as in the inferior sorts, but even in the best it is very great. This method is not a source of increased cost, for the cost is only greater in reference to the iron used. Thus Scotch pig-iron, at £2, 10s. per ton, when the expense of the scrap-iron

besides the royalty of the patentee, is ad-, ded to it, costs as toughened cast iron about £3 per ton. But it is now 60 per cent. stronger than iron sold at £3, 15s. and £4 per ton.

Hannah Neale had an extensive circle of ac

It is not easy to estimate the importance of
this discovery, which has been confirmed by
many of the leading iron masters, who are now
using the patent under Mr. Stirling's license.
For all castings where strength is required, such
as beams, girders, pillars, the advantage is so
great and obvious, that it is hardly necessary to
do more than to allude to it. We obtain, at a
cheaper rate, with the same weight of castings,
nearly double the strength, which for railway
bridges, &c. is an invaluble result. But further,
where the actual strength is more than sufficient
to resist the strain to which it is exposed, we can
attain to that strength by using a much less
weight of metal, and consequently at a still fur-gagement, there was something that seemed to
ther reduced price.
whisper to her, the uncertainty of its com-

quaintances, by whom she was much beloved and
esteemed, as being one of a very innocent and
blameless life. Some of the circumstances re-
lating to her are of a very affecting and interest-
ing character, and speak loudly the uncertainty
of all earthly prospects. In the summer of last
year, she entered into an engagement of mar-
riage with a friend residing in England. Hav-
ing considered the subject with earnest and
sincere desires to act in accordance with best
wisdom, she looked forward to the completion of
the prospect with a pleasing and hopeful confi-
dence; yet even at an early period of the en-

Mr. Stirling has produced an admirable alloy of iron, intended as a substitute for that of copper used for bells. It is even under the patent, one third cheaper than ordinary bell-metal, exceedingly hard, and not more brittle. It is wonderfully sonorous, and the tone of bells made of it (of which the writer possesses two) is superior to that of any bells of the same pitch we have ever heard. It is rich, full, musical, and pure, and singularly prolonged. Messrs. Mears, the great London bell-founders, have taken a license for this alloy.

At this time she appeared in her usual health and full of spirits; but while on a visit to her aunt, at Kingston, her health became affected, and from this time, symptoms exhibited themselves, which baffled all medical skill. She was still, however, hopeful respecting her own recovery, and very often expressed in her correspondence, how much she was pained by the thought of being the cause of so much anxiety to others,-that her own sufferings were trifling, and the comforts around her were so numerous, she felt that she had everything to be thankful for. It was, however, evident to those around her, that there was little ground for hope, and a dear friend intimated to her, that her medical advisers considered her end might possibly be very near. This intelligence greatly startled her, but she afterwards expressed, how thankful she felt that she had been honestly apprised of her danger.

The same metals in different proportion, yield an alloy which takes a remarkably high polish and silvery lustre, and will probably be found advantageous for speculum metal.

Memoir of HANNAH NEALE, of Mountmellick,
Ireland, who died Third Month, 29, 1850,
aged 33 years.

There is another alloy of iron with one or more of the metals above mentioned in certain proportions, designed for gun-metal. It is made of different qualities, according to the purpose for which it is intended. The tensile strength of two of the kinds was compared with that of gunmetal made at Woolwich. The metals were cast and tried under similar circumstances. Of the Woolwich gun-metal, the average of many sorts was 11 tons per square inch; while that of Mr. Stirling's gun-metals was 16 tons per square inch.

With zinc for a basis, Mr Stirling has made many alloys of admirable properties. One with an adjunct of copper makes excellent bell-metal. Another with manganese, besides copper, produces one having many of the qualities of gold. A third, with nickel and copper, furnishes a metal resembling silver. The second of these is found suitable for metal pens.

It is gratifying to consider these discoveries as the result of diligent application to experiment, and to learn that the merits of the discoverer are likely to be duly rewarded. We find that his improved irons have obtained the approbation of the government commissioners for investigating the properties of iron for railway purposes.-Edinburg Journal.

The solemn impression then made on her mind, never left her, and her constant desire was, that she might, through divine mercy, be made meet for the kingdom of heaven, repeating emphatically, "I have much to do."

She often expressed her great sorrow, that she had not yielded to the serious impressions with which she had been favored, saying, "They were soon scattered;" and regretted much that she had not lived a more devoted life. She felt herself to be a great sinner, needing a Saviour's gracious pardon; and for a long time feared she never should obtain that forgiveness she so earnestly longed for. But though her faith was feeble, she endeavored to lay hold of encouragement from the mercy extended to the Prodigal Son, and to the Thief upon the cross, hoping that the same mercy might be extended to herself; but for a long time, her poor tossed and tried mind "could find nothing to lean upon." She remarked, she could not feel that she had sinned against her fellow-creatures,

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