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New PUBLICATIONS.—A volume of between 700, volume, of 342 pages, and contains, in addition to and 800 pages, entitled “ English Literature of the the narrative of Joseph's life, as recorded in the Nineteenth Century,” has just issued from the book of Genesis, a considerable amount of informaAmerican press. It is the production of our esti- tion respecting the countries and times in which mable fellow-citizen, Charles D. Cleveland, and the patriarchs lived, derived from various sources. designed for the use of Colleges, and the higher The work may be read with interest and advantage classes in schools ; being supplementary to the by the class for whose use it was specially preCompendium of English Literature, previously pared. given to the public, by the same author.
The volume before us contains concise biographical sketches of the most noted English writers
DIED,-Of pulmonary consumption, on the 9th
of on general literature, who have flourished during 5th month last, at her residence in Wayne co., N. the part of the nineteenth century which has passed C., Rachel, widow of Elijah Coleman, in the 46th away. The lives of most of these authors were year of her age, a member of Contentnea Monthly commenced, and two of them ended, within the filled the station of elder, to the satisfaction of her
Meeting. This dear Friend had for several years eighteenth century. The biographical notice in friends, endeavouring to discharge her duties with each case, is followed by some passages, generally meekness and fidelity. Her close was serene and in prose and verse, extracted from the works of the peaceful. writer in question. Hence, the student of general on 6th day the 4th ult., of bilious cholic, literature may acquire, with but little expense of Sophia, wife of James Woody, in the 52d year of time and labour, a cursory knowledge of the cha-ing. She bore a severe illness of about two weeks
age; an elder of Cane Creek Monthly Meetracter and writings of the most eminent English with Christian patience and resignation to the Di. authors who are now living, or whose lives have vive will, saying she did not expect to recover, and extended into the passing century. No account is that she saw nothing in her way. Quietude was here given of American authors. The work is for abled to impart suitable counsel and advice to those
eminently the clothing of her spirit, and she was ensale at the book store of E. C. & J. Biddle, No. 6 around her, who consolingly believe that the change S. 4th street, Philadelphia ; Phillips, Sampson & to her is a happy one. Co., Boston ; C. M. Saxton, New York; Cushing on the 24th of 31 mo. last, Mary, widow & Bailey, Baltimore; and H. W. Derby & Co. of Benjamin A. B. Hinshaw, in the 51st year of Cincinnati.
her age, a member of Cane Creek Monthly Meet
ing. A volume of 558 pages has been recently pub
at the residence of her son, Samuel Carter, lished by R. E. Peterson, of this city, N. W.corner John Carter, of Rocky River,
in the 89th year of
on the 220 of 4th mo. last, JANE, widow of the late of Fifth and Mulberry streets, entitled “ Familiar her age; a member of Cane Creek Monthly MeetScience, or the Scientific Explanation of Common ing. Things.”
on the 17th of 6th mo. last, in the 75th year The design of the work, as the title intimates, is of his age, ROBERT ANDREW, a member of Spring to furnish an easy and familiar explanation of Monthly Meeting, many of those phenomena which are continually in Chatham co., N.C.
The residence of the last four named Friends, was passing under our view, but generally excite very little reflection respecting their cause.
at her father's residence, in Plainfield, Inwriter has not, in all cases, succeeded in supplying ter of Jesse Carter, in the 18th year of her age, a
diana, on the 4th of last month, ELIZABETH, daugh. a clear and scientific explanation of the phenomena member of Whitelick Monthly Meeting. of nature, he has unquestionably given a large
at his residence, near Plainfield, Hendricks amount of familiar illustration, which may be gene- co., Indiana, on the morning of the 8th ult., of eryrally regarded as scientifically correct. The volume sipelas, after an illness of three days, BENJAMIN appears calculated to lead the youthful reader into Owen, in the 47th year of his age, a member of
Whitelick Monthly Meeting. the habit of reflecting upon the common operations of nature, and of inquiring into their connection
at the residence of her father, near the and dependence upon each other. Such a habit, sumption, MARY Ann Morgan, aged 16 years. And
same place, on the morning of the 14th ult., of conearly acquired, can hardly fail to lead to improve- a few hours after, at his residence, near the same ment, and to counteract the propensity to frivolous place, of hemorrhage of the lungs, Hezekiah Morand unproductive amusements.
Gan, in the 29th year of his age. These were son and daughter of Obadiah Morgan, and members of
Whitelick Monthly Meeting. The “Patriarchal Age, or Story of Joseph," originally prepared for the pupils in the primary First day evening, the 13th of last month, LYDIA
suddenly, at her residence in this city, on department of the Girard College, has lately been Willis, aged 71 years, a worthy member of the issued by R. E. Peterson. It is a duodecimo Western District Monthly Meeting.
HAVER FORD SCHOOL.
rent diameter is smaller than the sun's; and if The Winter Term will commence on Fourth day, she happens at that time to be between a spectathe 8th of 10th month next.
tor and the sun, she will be seen as a black disk Applicants will please state the age of the stud; covering the central part of the sun and leaving ent, and whether a member of the Society of a ring of light all round: when the moon is at Friends. Address, CHARLES YARNALL, Secretary of the Board,
the nearest part of her orbit, her apparent diamNo. 39, High St. Philada. eter is larger than the sun's, and she will, to a 8th mo.-31.
spectator in the proper locality, completely cover the sun, and produce a total eclipse. But neither
of these things can happen unless the plane of TOTAL ECLIPSE OF THE SUN.
the moon's orbit be in such a position that the The Astronomer Royal " On the Total Eclipse of the moon, when approaching the state of conjunction Sun, July 28."
or new moon, is seen to pass not above the sun The Lecturer remarked that the subject which or below the sun but over the sun. he had suggested to the Managers of the Institu- The Lecturer then called attention to the cirtion for the present lecture, might at first sight cumstance that four successive total eclipses ocappear meagre and common place, but that he cur in the month of July at intervals of nine believed it would be found to be one of the high- years, namely, 1833, July 17; 1842, July 8; est interest :--first, because during a total eclipse 1851, July 28; and 1860, July 18.. For the we are permitted a hasty glance at some of the explanation of this curious circumstance it was secrets of nature which cannot be seen on any necessary to show, first, how it happened that at other occasion,-secondly, because the general intervals of nine years the moon's orbit was in phenomenon is perhaps the most awfully grand such a position that, for a nearly definite apparent that man can witness. Many of his audience position of the sun, the moon's path would cross had probably seen large partial eclipses of the the sun's disk; secondly, how it happened that sun, and they might suppose that a total eclipse at intervals of nine years the moon was at nearly is merely an intensified form of a partial eclipse; her smallest distance from the earth, so that her but having himself witnessed a total eclipse, he apparent diameter was larger than the sun's. In was able to assure them that no degree of partial reference to the former, it was shown that the eclipse up to the last moment of the sun's ap- moon revolves in an orbit whose plane is inclined pearance gave the least idea of a total eclipse, as to the plane of the ecliptic (the apparent orbit regarded either the generally terrific appearances of the sun around the earth,) and that the inclior the singular nature of some of the phenomena. nation is nearly invariable, but that the position Many years ago, in reading the admirable essay of the line in which the plane of the moon's or in the Philosophical Transactions' by the late bit intersects that of the ecliptic is constantly Mr. Baily on the eclipse (usually called that of changing, revolving steadily in the direction opThales), the occurrence of which suspended a posite to the moon's motion, and performing a battle between the Lydians and the Medes, he complete revolution in something more than had been struck by the cogency of Mr. Baily's nineteen years. Therefore, if one node or ex: arguments, which showed that only a total eclipse tremity of this line of intersection were directed could be admitted as sufficient to produce the nearly to the July sun in 1833, the opposite effect ascribed to it; and by the remark (cited node would be directed nearly to the July, sun by Mr. Baily) of Maclaurin and Lemonnier, that in 1842, and so on for four successive periods of in an annular eclipse of the sun, even educated nine years; and eclipses would be possible in astronomers when viewing the sun (nearly cover- July at the end of each period. But to show ed by the moon) with the naked eye could not that they might be total eclipses, it was necessary tell that it was not full. The appearances, how-to remark that the moon revolves in an ellipse ever, in a total eclipse, as he should afterwards of which the earth occupies one focus (a point mention, were so striking, that there could be no much nearer to one end than to the other, and difficulty in believing the historian's account to that the position of this ellipse is constantly be literally correct.
varying, its long axis turning round in the same Proceeding first to explain the simple causes direction as the moon's motion, and completing of a solar eclipse, the Lecturer remarked that a revolution in nine years and a half. Therefore
, the moon's distance from the earth is nearly one if in 1833 the shorter end of the ellipse were four-hundredth part of the sun's distance, and nearly turned to the July sun, in 1842 the that the moon's diameter is very nearly one four-axis of the ellipse would have completely rehundredth part of the sun's diameter, and that volved, so that the shorter end of the ellipse therefore, on the average, the sun's apparent di- would' again be nearly turned to the July sun; ameter and the moon's apparent diameter are and thus the eclipse which occurred, if total in very nearly equal. But in consequence of the 1833, would, if central, be total (not annular) elliptic forms of their orbits, the sun's distance in 1842; and so on for four periods of nine is liable to small variations : when the moon is years. at the most distant part of her orbit, her appa- The Lecturer then called attention to the great
difference in the directions of the shadow-paths | ceding it) the Lecturer insisted on our obligation across Europe, for the eclipses of 1842 and 1851; to M. Arago, who had prepared the preliminary (the former being from W. S. W. to E. N. E. notices, and had used his powerful personal influnearly, the latter from N. W. to S. E. nearly). ence in inducing persons to make observations at This arose in part from the circumstance that numerous stations in the south of France; and (as above explained) the former of these eclipses had afterwards collected and compared the obseroccurred when the node or end of the intersec- vations. Besides these French observations and tion-line of the planes of orbits, turned towards the observations made by astronomers officially the July sun, was that at which the moon rises located in the path of the shadow, we have the to the north of the ecliptic, the latter when it is observations of M. Schumacher who went to that at which the moon is descending to the Vienna, of MM. Otto Struve and Schidlowsky south of the ecliptic. But the principal cause at Lipetsk, (the former of whom was sent exof the difference is this; that the former eclipse pressly by the Russian Government,) of Mr. occurred early in the morning, the latter in the Baily who went to Pavia, and of the Lecturer afternoon : on placing a terrestrial globe in the himself who went to the Superga (near Turin.) proper position for July, with its north pole in- It appears that with M. Arago's telescope the clined considerably towards the sun, it is seen whole circumference of the moon
was visible that, even if the moon moved precisely in the when the moon had entered on only about twoecliptic, the path of her shadow across Europe thirds of the sun's diameter. Whatever may be the before Europe came to the meridian would trend cause of this unusual appearance, it seems to refrom the south to the north : but if Europe had quire the use of the telescope with a small numpassed the meridian it would trend from the ber of glasses in the highest state of polish. As, north to the south.
the totality approached, a strange fluctuation of Quitting the geometrical explanation, the Lec- light was seen by M. Arago and others upon the turer then proceeded to describe some peculiar walls and the ground, so striking that in some phenomena which had been observed in eclipses; places children ran after it and tried to catch it and first, one which had been observed most dis- with their hands. Of the awful effect of the tinctly in annular eclipses, and which is known totality, and of the suddenness with which it by the name of “Baily's beads and strings."- came on, it is difficult to give an idea. The LecWhen the preceding limb of the moon, travers- turer cited an expression from Dr. Stukely's acing the sun's disk, approaches very near the sun's count of the total eclipse of 1744, observed on a limb, or when the following limb of the moon is cloudy day," that the darkness came dropping in the act of separating from the sun's limb to like a mantle:” and compared it with his own in enter on the sun's disk, the two limbs are joined similar weather, “that the clouds seemed to be for a time—(no one has estimated the duration descending." But all agree in the description with accuracy)—by alternations of black and of livid countenances, indistinct and sometimes white points or strings. Phenomena, evidently invisible horizon, and general horror of appearof the same class, have been observed in the ance. It is well that we are enabled, by means transits of Venus and Mercury over the sun's of instances collected by M. Arago, to show that disk; the black planet, when just lodged on the these are not simply inventions of active human sun's disk, being pear-shaped, with its point at- imaginations. In one case, a half-starved dog, tached to the black sky. 'The Lecturer was able who was voraciously devouring some food, dropto state, in his own experience at the Royal Ob-ped it from his mouth when the darkness came servatory, that at the same transit of Mercury on. In another, a swarm of ants, who were this phenomenon was seen with some telescopes busily carrying their burdens, stopped when the and was not seen with others. In the annular darkness came on, and remained motionless till eclipse of 1836, observed at Koningsberg, where the light reappeared. In another, a herd of oxen, the moon's limb but just entered completely on as soon as the totality was formed, collected the sun's, and where consequently it grazed themselves into a circle and stood with their along the sun's for many seconds of time, the horns outwards. Some plants (as the convolvuphenomenon appeared to resolve itself simply lus and silk-tree acacia) closed their leaves. The into points of light seen between lunar moun- darkness at Venice was so great that the smoke tains. The Lecturer expressed himself generally of the steamboats could not be seen. In several satisfied with Prof. Powell's explanation, that the places, birds flew against houses, &c. Where the phenomenon originates in that inevitable fault sky was clear, several stars were seen. In several of telescopes and of the nervous system of the places a reddish light was seen near the horizon. eye which tends to extend the images of lumi- A heavy dew was formed at Perpignan. - The nous objects (producing what is generally termed Lecturer cited an instance which had been related irradiation, and thus enlarges the sun's disk to- to him by M. Arago, in which the captain of a wards the sky, towards the moon or planet, and French ship had beforehand arranged in the most towards the bottom of its hollows.
careful way the observations to be made; but, In describing the total eclipse of 1842 (which when the darkness came on, discipline of every perhaps was better observed than any one pre-kind failed, every person's attention being irresistibly attracted to the striking appearances of, where the order of formation had been observed, the moment, and some of the most critical obser- the same prominence (the left-hand upper promi. vations were thus lost.
nence) was defined as the first seen. At Perpig. The most remarkable phenomenon observed in nan this was observed by M. Mauvais to show all preceding total eclipses, and seen equally in itself first as a small point and to project graduthis, is the ring of light surrounding the moon, ally as from behind the moon. The discordance in called the corona. The Lecturer described the these representations did not appear to the Lecturer magical change, from the state of a very narrow at all startling: it was not greater than the discordlune of solar light (the contour of the moon be- ance given in the accounts by two good observers in ing, totally invisible) to the state of an entire different rooms of the same building at Padua. dark moon surrounded by a ring of faint light, The determination of the locality and nature of as most curious and striking. The progress of these red prominences is one of the most difficult the formation of the ring was seen by his com- of all connected with the eclipse. The first impanion, and by some other persons: it commenced pression undoubtedly was, that they are parts of on the side of the moon opposite to that at the sun. If so, their height, at the lowest estimawhich the sun disappeared. In the general de- tion, is about thirty thousand miles. The principal cay and disease which seemed to oppress all na objection, however, to their solar location is the ture, the moon and corona appeared almost like difference in their forms as seen at different a local disease in that part of the sky. In some places : thus at Perpignan they are represented places, the corona was seen as distinctly double ; as widest at the top; at all other places they are it would appear that the ring which the Lecturer widest at the base. Moreover, at some places, saw (whose breadth, by estimate of repeated du- as Pavia and Vienna, where they were seen a long plication, he found to be about one-eighth part time, they underwent no change; whereas at | of the moon's diameter, or four minutes of an arc Perpignan one at least was seen to slide out as nearly) was the inner of the two rings seen by from behind the moon. In all cases, however, M. Arago and others. The texture of the coro- much is to be allowed for the hurried nature of na appeared in some places as if fibrous, or com- the observation. The only theory which has posed of entangled" thread; in some places, been formally propounded as explaining them is brushes or feathers of light proceeded from it. that of M. Faye, who conceives them to be the One photometric estimate of the quantity of result of a kind of mirage. light in the corona, cited by M. Arago, gave it The Lecturer explained the nature of ordinary equal to one-seventh part of full moonlight. mirage (the kind of reflection produced by the The most remarkable of all the appearances were bot air adhering to a heated surface of any solid) the red mountains or flames apparently project- and described the distortion produced in the ining from the circumference of the moon into the age of a star as seen in the Northumberland telinner ring of the corona, to the height of one escope of the Cambridge Observatory, when first minute of arc at the smallest estimation, or a mounted in a square pyramidal tube, whose anmuch greater height by other estimations. It gles were constructed more solidly than its sides, was afterwards discovered that these had been reducing the inner form to an octagon. When seen before by Vassenius, a Swedish astronomer, this tube had become warm before observation who observed the eclipse of 1733 at Goteborg in the open air, the angle-blocks remained warn (a place very favourable for the approaching after the sides and the internal air had become eclipse,) and whose account is given in the Phi- cool, and a kind of mirage was produced which losophical Transactions,' vol. xxxviii. This ob- distorted the image of a star into four long rays servation, however, was not known to any of the like the sails of a windmill. M. Faye has par observers in 1842, and all were therefore taken ticularly adverted to this instance, and conceived by surprise. Drawings were exhibited of these that in the circumstances of our atmosphere at red mountains as seen at Perpignan, Narbonne, the time of the eclipse, where the air on one Vienna, Pavia, Superga, and Lipetsk. It was side only of the path of light is somewhat beatshown that, by a trace still visible on the engraved by the sun, sufficient explanation might be ing, the drawing first made at Vienna had coin-found for the distortion of some inequalities of cided very exactly with that made at Pavia; the moon. The Lecturer professed himself tothat the Narbonne observations would be very tally unable to follow this theory in to details, reexactly reconciled with them by supposing the marking only that in the rapid passage of the error (very likely to occur to unpractised astrono- moon's shadow he conceived it impossible to find mers) of taking the north limb to be the upper air in the state required for the explanation. limb; that at Perpignan, Superga, Lipetsk, the The Lecturer then adverted to that part
of lowest of the red prominences was not seen; and his subject of which all that had been already that at Superga and Lipetsk only was the middle said was only introductory,-namely, the apone of the upper prominences seen, though in proaching eclipse of July 28. After quoting sa several places an irregular band of red light had American newspaper, showing the great interest been seen of which one salient point might be excited by this eclipse beyond the Atlantic, as the prominence in question. In all the places I one of the strongest inducements for Americans
to visit Europe in the coming summer, he invited, is the finer portion of the fibres of lint; a vegeattention to its course across Europe. Entering table which grows in almost any part of the Norway near Bergen, the shadow crosses both world, and more particularly in the high northcoasts of Norway, both coasts of Sweden, and the ern or southern latitudes. Russia, Prussia, and eastern coast of the Baltic: then ranges through the Netherlands are the chief lint-producing Poland and the south frontier of Russia across countries in continental Europe, and the quanthe sea of Azof through Georgia to the Caspian tity raised in Ireland is very considerable, Sea. It passes Christiana, Goteberg, Carlscrona, amounting this year to nearly 2,500 tons. New Dapzig, Koningsberg, Warsaw, and Tiflis. A Zealand appears to possess a soil and climate suitgreat part of this course, especially that from able for fax; and thence large supplies may Bergen to Koningsberg, is very accessible by sea, ultimately be procured. Latterly, the growing and Warsaw by land. The Lecturer trusted scarcity and enhanced price of cotton, and the that many English travellers might be induced diminished price of grain, have induced an to observe this eclipse. If possible, stations attempt to cultivate lint on an extended scale in should be chosen as well near the northern and England; but it may be doubted if the effort southern boundaries of the shadow as near the will prove so successful as is generally anticicentre. No particular skill in astronomical ob- pated. Great labour and attention are required servation is required, the phenomena being rather in the preparation of the crop, and consequently of a more generally physical kind : and indeed, unless where labour is cheap, and time of comas far as the observations of the eclipse of 1842 paratively small value, there will be a serious showed, the travelling physicists bad been more obstacle to its profitable culture. successful than the stationary astronomers. The No account being taken of the flax produced apparatus required would depend on the special throughout the British islands, it is impossible objects of the observer; a telescope and a watch to present an accurate view of the total quantity might be considered indispensable in every case: used in the linen manufacture. Whatever be for analysis of light, a common prism and a po- the amount of home growth, it is inadequate to lariscope might be taken by some persons : pho- meet the demand of manufacturers. It appears tometry, actinometry, &c., might be interesting that the quantity of foreign flax imported in to others, and appropriate instruments might be 1819 was 90,340 tons, and in 1850 it was required: other observers would be interested in 91,097 tous—a quantity believed to be more meteorology. The apparatus which the Lecturer than treble what is produced in Great Britain considered it most important to perfectionate and Ireland. The consumption of so vast an now, for use during the eclipse, is photogenic ap- amount of ilax is owing not more to the demand paratus ; it would be impossible to set too high for linen fabrics than the advanced state of a value on a series of Daguerreotypes or Talbo- mechanical appliances. So long as there were types of the sun and corona taken during the no other means of hackling—that is, separating eclipse.
the flax from the tow, or coarse fibres of the lint, The Lecturer concluded by saying that a series than by hand labour, no other method of spinof suggestions for the observations, accompanied ning than by the small domestic wheel, and no by a map, had been prepared by a committee of other species of wearing than by the common which he is a member
, and were nearly ready to loom, the linen manufacture remained on an leave the printer's hand : and he undertook to insignificant scale. It may be added, that so transmit a copy of these suggestions to any per-| the export of the manufactured article, little
long as bounties were given by government, on son who would make application to him. Athenæum, May, 1851.
good was done, even with improved means. The policy of recent times, wbich throws every man
on his own enterprise, along with the introducTHE LINEN MANUFACTURE.
tion of machinery in all departments, have revoA short time ago we spoke of the surprisingly lutionized the linen trade ; and now it assumes rapid growth of the cotton manufacture, that has an exceedingly important place in the national within a few years risen to be the great staple of economy. British industry, and any temporary depression Nothing is more curious in the history of inof which shakes the very fabric of society. The dustry than the manner in which a manufacture manufacture which has attained these gigantic takes root in a particular locality. The seat of dimensions is usually supposed to bave prospered the cotton manufacture is on the west side of only by the undue depression of the more an. Great Britain, in the vicinity of ports on the cient trade in linen. Judging from various cir-Atlantic, by which the material is chiefly introcumstances, it is perhaps not unieasonable to duced; that of the linen trade is on the east, a think so, and yet, when the subject comes to be ready access from the Baltic having probably examined, nothing is found to be further from determined the point. From the beginning of a the truth.
small trade, carried on with the domestic loom, Cotton is a woolly substance, produced in the the manufacture of linen of various qualities has pod of a tropical plant. Flax, on the other hand, grown to huge proportion in Fife and Forfar