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TABLE OF CONTENTS.
and for conducting education agreeably to a Republi-
ture and citizens of Pennsylvania, in the year 1786, . 1
languages, as a branch of liberal education, with hints
present state of society, manners and government, in
mination in the United States upon subjects interesting
Murder by Death, with Reason and Revelation, 164
A plan of a Peace Office for the United States, .. 183
Manners, and Government, in Pennsylvania, ..... 213
died on the 17th. of November, 1782, in the 103rd.
Ann Woods, an old woman of 96 years of age, 293
LITERARY, MORAL, AND PHILOSOPHICAL
A PLAN FOR ESTABLISHING PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN
PENNSYLVANIA, AND FOR CONDUCTING EDUCATION AGREEABLY TO A REPUBLICAN FORM OF GO VERNMENT. ADDRESSED TO THE LEGISLATURL AND
CITIZENS OF PENNSYLVANIA, IN THL YEAR 1786.
EFORE I proceed to the subject of this ef
say, I shall point out, in a few words, the influence and advantages of learning upon mankind.
I. It is friendly to religion, inasmuch as it assists in removing prejudice, superstition and enthusiasm, in promoting just notions of the Deity, and in enlarging our knowledge of his works.
II. It is favourable to liberty: Freedom can exift only in the society of knowledge. Without learning, men are incapable of knowing their rights, and where learning is confined to a few people, liberty can be neither equal nor universal.
III. It promotes just ideas of laws and govern. ment. “ When the clouds of ignorance are difpelled (says the Marquis of Beccaria) by the radiance of knowledge, power trembles, but the authority of laws remains immoveable.”
IV. It is friendly to manners. Learning in all countries, promotes civilization, and the pleasures of society and conversation.
V. It promotes agriculture, the great basis of national wealth and happiness. Agriculture is as much a science as hydraulics, or optics, and has been equally indebted to the experiments and researches of learned 'men. The highly cultivated state, and the immense profits of the farms in England, are derived wholly from the patronage which agriculture has received in that country, from learned men and learned societies.
VI. Manufactures of all kinds owe their perfection chiefly to learning-hence the nations of Europe advance in manufactures, knowledge, and merce, only in proportion as they cultivate the arts and sciences.
For the purpose of diffusing knowledge through every part of the state, I beg leave to propose the following simple plan.
1. Let there be one university in the state, and let this be established in the capital. Let law, physic, divinity, the law of nature and nations, ceconomy, &c. be taught in it by public lectures in the winter season,
after the manner of the European universities, and let the professors receive such salaries from the state as will enable them to deliver their lectures at a moderate price.
II. Let there be four colleges. One in Philadelphia; one at Carlisle; a third, for the benefit of our German fellow citizens, at Lancaster; and a fourth, some years hence at Pittsburg. In these colleges, let young men be instructed in mathematics and in the higher branches of science, in the same manner that they are now taught in our American colleges. After they have received a testimonial from one of these colleges, let them, if they can afford it, complete their studies by spending a season or two in attending the lectures in the university. I prefer four colleges in the state • to one or two, for there is a certain size of colleges as there is of towns and armies, that is most favourable to, morals and good government. Oxford and Cambridge in England are the seats of dissipation, while the more numerous, and less crouded universities and colleges in Scotland, are remarkable for the order, ! diligence, and decent behaviour of their students.
III. Let there be free schools established in every township, or in districts consisting of one hundred families. In these schools let children be taught to read and write the English and German languages, and the use of figures. Such of them as have parents that can afford to send them from home, and are disposed to extend their educations, may remove their children from the free school to one of the colleges.