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ACUITION, in grammar, medicine, and prosody. See AcUTITION.

ACUL, a sea-port on the north coast of St. Domingo, whence the French were expelled in 1794, by the English, who took it by storm, S. S. W. of Cape François, distant eight miles. Also a small town of St. Domingo, on the south coast, sixteen miles S. W. of Les Cayes.

ACULEATED FINS, in ichthyology, a term applied by naturalists to the fins of fishes, which are armed with prickles. Those which want them are called, non-aculeated. Hence the pugnitius marinus, or stickle-back, a small prickly fish in the West Indies, is called also the Ac


ACULEOSA, in botany, the Carduus polyacanthos, or Gorteria cibaris of Linnæus.

ACULER, in the menage, is the motion of a horse, when in working upon volts, he does not go far enough forward at every motion.


ACULEUS, in zoology, a name sometimes given to the sting of a bee, scorpion, or the like. AC'UMEN, n. Acuo, to sharpen; acuACUMINATE, men, sharpness. ExpressSing or referring to keenness ACUMINATION. of the intellectual powers. The word was much affected by the learned Aristarchus in common conversation, to signify genius or natural acumen. Pope. This is not acuminated and pointed as in the rest; but seemeth, as it were, cut off.

Brown's Vulgar Errours. As it is reasonable, and even scriptural, to suppose that there is music in heaven, in those dismal regions perhaps the reverse of it is found; tones so dismal as to make even woe itself more insupportable, and to acuminate even despair. Couper's Letters.

ACUMEN, in ancient music, was used to signify a sound produced by the intension or raising of the voice.

ACUMINA, in antiquity, a kind of military omen, or auspice, taken from the points, or edges of darts, swords, or other weapons, by examining whether they were bright or solid, sharp or blunted, and predicting the issue of a battle accordingly.

ACUMULO, a small town in Abruzzo Ulterior, seventeen miles N. W. of Aquila.

ACUNA, (Christopher de,) a Spanish Jesuit, born at Burgos, 1587. Having devoted some years to study, he went to make proselytes in Chili and Peru; and to make discoveries respecting the river of the Amazons. He is principally known as the author of a curious work, entitled Nuevo Descumbrimiento de Gran Rio de los Amazones, i. e. "A new Description of the Great River of the Amazons." This was published at Madrid, in four parts, in 1641; but all the copies, except two, were destroyed. From one of them a translation was made of the work, into French, and published in 4 vols. 12mo. 1682.

ACUPUNCTURE, in surgery, the operation, common among the Chinese and Japanese, of pricking diseased parts of the body with a gold or silver needle. It is also employed in some parts of America, but rather as an ornament than as a remedy. See Philosophical Trans. vol. xiii. No. 148.

ACURON, in botany, a name of the ALISMA, of LINNEUS, which see.

ACUS, in ichthyology, a species of SYNGNATHUS, of which there are two varieties, viz. the acus of Aristotle, or tobacco-pipe fish, and the acus of Oppian, or gar fish. See SYNGNA


Acus, in ichthyology, the Ammodytes, or Sand-eel.

ACUS MOSCHATA, in botany, a name for the Also a name of the Geranium muschatum. Scandix.

ACUSILAUS and Damagetus, in history brothers of Rhodes, and celebrated conquerors in the Olympic games. The Greeks strewed flowers over their father, Diagoras, complimenting him for having two such sons.

ACUSILAUS, a Greek historian, who lived, according to Josephus, before the expedition of Darius into Greece. He wrote a work entitled Iερi тwv Tevɛaλoytov, which the Jewish historian often quotes. Also an Athenian, who taught rhetoric at Rome, in Galba's reign. ACUTE', adj. ACUTE LY, ACUTE'NESS.


Acuo, to sharpen: made sharp, whetted,` ingenious, piercing, penetrating, cun

PAROLL. I am so full of businesses, I cannot answer thee acutely.

Shakspeare's All's Well, fol. 231, act i. sc. 1. He, that will look into many parts of Asia and America, will find men reason there, perhaps as acutely as himself, who yet never heard of a syllogism. Locke.

M. Colbert, the famous minister of Louis XIV. ledge of detail, of great experience, and acuteness in was a man of probity, of great industry, and know

the examination of public accounts.

Smith's Wealth of Nations.

ACUTE ACCENT. See ACCENT. ACUTE ANGLE, in geometry, is that which is less than a right angle, or which does not subtend ninety degrees.

ACUTE-ANGLED CONE, is according to the ancients, a right cone, whose axis makes an acute angle with its side.

ACUTE-ANGLED TRIANGLE, is a triangle whose three angles are all acute.

ACUTE-ANGULAR SECTION of a cone, is a term sometimes used by the ancient geometricians for the ellipsis.

ACUTE DISEASES, in medicine, are such as come suddenly to a crisis. It is used in distinction from chronic diseases.

ACUTE, in music, is applied to a sound or tone that is sharp or high, in comparison of some other tone. In this sense, acute stands opposed to grave.

ACUTELLA, in botany, the common ononis, or rest-harrow, a small prickly plant, with red or white flowers, and a tough spreading root.

ACUTIATOR, or ACUTOR, in old writers, a person that whets or grinds cutting instruments. ACUTITION, or ACUITION, in medicine and chemistry, is used for sharpening or increasing the force of any medicine.


ACYROLOGIA, Gr. from axupos, improper, and λoyoç, speech, an improper acceptation, or expression, wherein a word or phrase is used in

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AD LIBITUM, is sometimes used in music, for at discretion, and is opposed to 'obligato.'

AD LUDOS, in antiquity, a Roman sentence, whereby criminals were condemned to entertain that barbarous people, either by fighting with beasts, or with each other, and thus executing Justice on themselves.

AD METALLA, in antiquity, the punishment of being doomed to work in the mines: the criminals were called metallici.

AD VALOREM, in commerce, is used in speaking of the duties, or customs, paid for certain commodities; rated according to the value or worth sworn to by the owner.

ADAES, the name of a lake, river, and town of Los Texas, New Mexico, not far from Louisiana. The lake is five leagues broad, ten in circumference, and of great depth. It abounds with fish. The river runs in a south east course, joining the Mexicano. The town of Adaes is 450 miles N. W. of New Orleans. AD'AGE, n. Etymologists are perplexed AD'AGY, with regard to the derivation ADAGʻICAL. of this word. It comes immediately from the Latin adugium; a saying handed down from antiquity; an antique proverb.

certain for the vncertain.

The trite and common adage saith, Leaue not the
HUGH. But thus you see the old adage verified,
Multa cadunt inter-you can guess the rest,
Many things fall between the cup and lip.

Jonson's Tale of a Tub, act iii. sc. 4. The antithetic parallelism gives an acuteness and force to adages and moral sentences; and, therefore, abounds in Solomon's Proverbs.

ADALIDES, in Spanish history, officers of justice, in military matters. In the laws of king Alphonsus, they are spoken of as officers appointed to direct the marching of the forces in time of war.

ADAM, □18, Heb. red earth, the first of the human race, and the progenitor of all mankind. The particulars of his creation, of his being placed in the garden of Eden, of the trial of his obedience, of his review and nomination of the animals, of the creation and introduction of his wife, of their disobedience, apologies, and punishment, of the birth of three of their children, with the murder of one of them, and Adam's own death, in his 930th year, are briefly narrated by Moses, in the first five chapters of Genesis ; and as they are, or ought to be well known to every Christian, need not be here enlarged upon. ADAM (Melchior.) See MELCHIOR.

ADAM, or ADOM, a town in the Peræa, or on the other side the Jordan, over against Jericho, where the Jordan began to be dried up on the passage of the Israelites. Josh. iii. 16.

ADAM, (Alexander,) a learned grammarian and school-master, was born at Rafford, in the county of Moray, 1741, of humble parents, who however, obtained for him so good an educalion, that he had read the whole of Livy before he was sixteen. In 1761, he became assistant master of the high school of Edinburgh, and in 1771, head master: soon after which, a dispute arose between him and his assistants, in consequence of his endeavours to introduce a new Latin grammar; and Dr. Robertson, the principal of the University being appealed to, and deciding against the use of our author's, Dr. Adam's work was published in 1772, under the title of The Principles of Latin and English Grammar. He also compiled a Summary of Geography and History, 1794. 8vo.; Roman Antiquities, 1791, 8vo.; Classical Biography and History; and an abridged dictionary, entitled, Lexicon Linguæ Latina Compendiarum, 8vo. ; all of which are much esteemed. Dr. Adam, at the commencement of the French Revolution, imprudently mixed himself with party politics, which he too freely introduced amongst his pupils; but time cooled these dissensions and set him right with the public. He died of apoplexy in 1809, aged sixty-eight, and was honoured with a public funeral. Life of Dr. Adam, Edin. 8vo, 1810.

ADAMAH, a fenced city of Judea, belonging to the tribe of Naphtali.

ADAMANTINE'S Lowth's Isaiah, Prelim. Diss.

ADAGIO, ADAGEO. ado, Ital. in music, softly, leisurely. When repeated, it signifies the slowest of all movement, sometimes called ADAGISSIMO. ADAJA, a river of Spain, which enters the Douro, between Torderillas and Simancas.

ADARE, an ancient town of Ireland, on the river Maig, over which is a fine old bridge of nine arches. Here also are the remains of two religious houses, and of an ancient castle belonging to the Earl of Desmond. It is eight miles S. W. of Limerick.

AD'AMANT, n. a not: daμaw, to tame; ADAMANT EAN, not to be tamed, impressed or broken; applied by the ancients to hard substances, particularly the loadstone or magnet, the diamond and most probably to granite.

As true as steel, as plantage to the moon,
As sun to day, as turtle to her mate,

As iron to adamant. Tro. and Cres. act iii. sc. 2.
You draw me, you hard-hearted adamant,
But yet you draw not iron; for my heart
Is true as steel.


Let him change his lodging from one part of the town to another, which is a great adamant of acquaintance.


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Tho' adamantine bonds the chief restrain, The dire restraint his wisdom will defeat, And soon restore him to his regal seat. ADAMANTÆA, in mythology, the nurse of Jupiter in Crete, who suspended his cradle to a tree, that he might not be found either in heaven, earth, or sea, and had drums beat to drown his cries. She is supposed to be the Amalthea of Lactantius, and the Adrasteia of other writers. ADAMANTII, in church history, a name given by some historians to the followers of Origen.

ADAMANTINE SPAR, in mineralogy, a stone of peculiar hardness, (approaching to that of the diamond) which has lately attracted the attention of chymists. It is found in China and Hither India, and as M. Pini alleges, in Italy; and exhibits two principal varieties.

The first, found in China, is of a grey colour of different shades, the larger pieces opaque; its fracture very brilliant, and its texture spathose, which causes its surface to appear striated. Its crystals are covered with a very fine crust of plates of silvery mica, mixed with particles of red felspar sometimes sulphate of iron has been found on them. It is crystallized in six-sided prisms without pyramids, the length of which varies from half an inch, to an inch; and their thickness is about three-quarters of an inch. This stone will cut glass easily, and mark rock crystal. Its specific gravity is 3.710.

The second variety is the Corundum of Bombay, of a more spathose texture, whiter colour, and having fewer grains of magnetic iron.

'From its hardness,' says Dr. Ure, 'this stone is extremely difficult to analyze. M. Chenevix, by repeatedly heating it red hot, and then plunging it into cold water, caused it to appear fissured in every direction. He then put it into a steel mortar, about three quarters of an inch in diameter, and three inches deep, to which a steel pestle was closely fitted. A few blows of the pestle caused it to crumble, and the fragments were then easily reduced to an impalpable powder by an agate pestle and mortar. This powder was fused in a crucible of platinum with twice its weight of calcined borax; and the glass was dissolved by boiling in muriatic acid about twelve hours. The precipitates from this solution being examined, a specimen from China was found to give from 100 parts, 86.50 of alumina, 5.26 of silex, 6.50 of iron: one from Ava, alumina 87, silex 6.5, iron 4.5: one from Malabar, alumina 86.5, silex 7, iron 4: one from the Carnatic, alumina 91, silex 5, iron 1.5. The Rev. Mr. W. Gregor analyzed a specimen from Thibet, in the collection of Mr. Rashleigh, which gave him alumina 81.75, silex 12.125, oxide of titanium 4, water 0.937, but no iron.'

ADAMAS, in natural history, a name given

by Pliny to the spume or scoria of gold; which is cast away as not being malleable.

ADAMĀS, ADAMANT, in mineralogy, the diamond, is a genus of siliceous earth, composed of carbon and silica; found generally in sand or light earth. It is extremely hard, so as to be the best material for cutting glass, &c., retains the sun's rays in the dark, and consumes altogether as an inflammable substance. It is brought into Europe from Golconda and Brazil.


ADAMBEA, in botany, a genus of plants of the class polyandria and order monodelphia, of which but two species are known. CAL. hemispheric, containing five or seven COR. from five to seven petals. CAP. polyspermous fleshy, covering the calyx. It grows on the coast of Malabar, on stony and mountainous parts.

ADAMI POMUM, in anatomy, a protuberance in the fore part of the throat, the convex part of the thyoid cartilage. Also, in botany, the citrus aurantium of Linnæus.


ADAMITÆ, ADAMITES, in ecclesiastical history, the name of a sect of the second century, supposed to have been a branch of the Basilidians and Carpocratians. Epiphanius tells us, that they pretended to re-establish the state of innocence, in which Adam was at the moment of his creation, and imitated him in going naked. That they detested marriage; inaintaining, that the conjugal union would never have taken place upon earth had sin been unknown, &c. Dr. Lardner wholly denies the existence of such a See Works, v. ix. Similar absurdities are charged in the twelfth century, upon Tandamus, since known by the name of Tanchelin, of Antwerp, who was constantly attended by 3000 profligates in arms. His sect did not, however, continue long; but a similar one arose shortly after,under the name of Turlupins, in Savoy and Dauphine, where they committed the most brutal actions in open day. And in the beginning of the 15th century, one Picard, a native of Flanders, spread these notions in Germany, and Bohemia, particularly in the army of the famous Zisca. Some partizans of Picard, in Poland, Holland, and England, assembled in the night, and one of the fundamental maxims of their society, was said to be contained in the following verse:

Jura, perjura, secretum prodere noh. But see ADAMITISM.

ADAMITISM, the opinions and practices of the Adamites. Beausobre, has shown, that the Adamitism, i. e. the nakedness of these people, is a mere calumny, forged by their adversaries, the Calixtines and Papists, at the time when the Vaudois first appeared. Jovet and Moreri speak of Adamites in England; and indeed the Romanists and reformed mutually reproach each other with having Adamites among them.

ADAMITUM, and ADIMITA, the hardest white stones, and stones in the bladder. The former, Paracelsus says, are a species of tartai.

ADAMPE, in geography, a territory on the Gold Coast of Africa, adjoining Acra, and extending to the Volta, and similar in its general character and appearance, but not so fertile.

ADAMPORE, a town of Bengal, in the dis trict of Burdwan.

ADAM'S PEAK, or IIAMMALED, a lofty mountain of Ceylon, said to be visible 150 miles off, and so named from a tradition of the natives, that Adam here obtained his last view of Paradise. It is 60 miles N. E. of Columbo. N. lat. 7°, 6′ E. lon. 80°, 43′.

ADAM'S APPLE, in botany. See ADAMI POMUM. ADAM'S BRIDGE, a reef of rocks, which runs between Ceylon and the continent. See ADAM'S PEAK. ADAM'S NEEDLE. See Yucca.

ADAMSON, (Patrick,) Archbishop of St. Andrew's, was born in 1543, at Perth. In 1566, he set out for Paris, as tutor to a young gentleman; and Mary, queen of Scots, being that year delivered of a son, Mr. Adamson wrote a Latin poem on the occasion, hailing the royal infant as king of England and France, for which he was confined in France for six months. As soon as he recovered his liberty, he retired with his pupil to Bourges; and there wrote a Latin poetical version of the book of Job, and the Tragedy of Herod in the same language. In 1573, he returned to Scotland; and became minister of Paisley. He was afterwards one of the commissioners for settling the jurisdiction and policy of the church; and chaplain to the Earl of Morton, then regent. On the death of bishop Douglas, he was promoted to the archiepiscopal see of St. Andrew's, a dignity which brought upon him great trouble. In 1578, he submitted to the general assembly, which procured him peace for a short time, but the year following, they brought fresh accusations against him. Being attacked with a disease, in which the physicians could give him no relief, he happened to take a simple medicine from an old woman, which did him service; and who, being charged with witchcraft, he was accused of dealing with witches. In 1583, king James sent him ambassador to queen Elizabeth, at whose court he resided for some years: but returning to Scotland in 1584, the Presbyterian party was very violent against the archbishop, and excommunicated him. Accused of various frivolous crimes, the king deserted him, and granted the revenue of his see to the duke of Lennox, until goaded by poverty and oppression, he submitted to the wretched humiliation of recanting his opinions upon church government, publicly; which, however, availed him nothing. He died in abject poverty, in 1599. His works are contained in a 4to. vol. Lond. 1619.

ADAMSTOWN, a parish and town in the county of Wexford, Ireland; lamentably memorable on account of Scullabogue barn, in which 195 protestants were burnt alive, at the time of the Irish rebellion, in 1798. The remains of this building are still to be seen. Also a small town of Pennsylvania, North America.

ADAMUS, in alchemy, a name for the philosopher's stone.

ADANA, an ancient town of Asia, in Natolia, the capital of the province of Aledulia, and seated on the river Choquen, or Adana; on the banks of which, stands a strong little castle, built on a rock. It has a great number of beautiful fountains brought from the river by means of waterworks. Over the river there is a stately bridge of fifteen arches. The climate is very pleasant

and healthy, and the winter mild and serene: but the summer is so hot as to oblige the principal inhabitants to retire into the neighbouring mountains, where they spend six months among shady trees and grottoes, in a most delicious manner. The adjacent country is rich and fertile, both in corn and fruits. Adana is also a considerable wine market. It is 30 miles NE. of Tarsus on the road to Aleppo.

ADANAD, a town of Hindostan, in the district of Shirnada, and province of Malabar, 25 miles S. E. of Calicut. It is remarkable as the principal residence or throne of the Alvangheri Tamburacul, the chief of the Namburies, a very proud class of Brahmins, who will take their meals with no other class, and only suffer the elder branches of their families to marry, lest the distinction should be rendered too common.


ADANSONIA, in botany, ETHIOPIAN SOURGOURD, MONKIES-BREAD, OF AFRICAN CALABASH TREE, a genus of plants of the order monodelphia, class polyandria; and the characters of which are: CAL. a perianthium one-leaved, half five-cleft, cup form, (the divisions revolute,) deciduous: cor. five petals, roundish, nerved, revolute, growing reciprocally with the claws and stamina: STAM. of numerous filaments, coalesced beneath into a tube, and crowning it, expanding horizontally; the antheræ kidney form, incumbent: PIST. an egged germ; the stylus very long, tubular, variously intorted; the stigmata numerous (10) prismatic, villous, ray expanded: PER. an oval capsule, woody, not gaping, two celled, with farinaceous pulp, the partitions membraneous: The seeds are numerous, kidney-shaped, rather bony, and involved in a friable pulp.

There is at present but one known species belonging to this genus, the Baobab, abavi, abevo arbu, or guanabanus, which is perhaps the largest production of the whole vegetable kingdom, aud is a native of Africa.


Ad: apto to fit or suit one thing to another. An adept is one who possesses the qualifications suited to a specific purpose or employ.

For no man so soone as hee knowes this [criticism] or reades it, shall be able to write the better; but as he is adapted to it by nature, he shall grow the per

fecter writer.

Jonson's Discoveries.

'Tis true, but let it not be known, My eyes are somewhat dimmish grown; For nature, always in the right, To your decays adapts my sight.


It is not enough, that nothing offends the ear; but a good poet will adapt the very sounds, as well as words, to the things he treats of. Pope's Letters.

Composed upon particular occasions, yet designed for general use; delivered out as services for Israelites under the law, yet no less adapted to the circumstances of Christians under the gospel; they present religion to us in the most engaging dress, communicating truths which philosophy could never investigate in a style which poetry can never equal, while history is made the vehicle of prophecy, and creation lends all its charms to paint the glories of redemption.

Bishop Horne on the Beauties of the Psalms. From stucco'd walls smart arguments rebound, And beaux adept in every thing profound, Dic of disdain, or whistle off the sound.

Cowper's Hope.

ADAPTERS, or ADOPTERS. See CHEMISTRY. ADAR, 178, Heb. mighty, the name of a Hebrew month, answering to the end of February, and beginning of March, the 12th of their sacred, and 6th of their civil year. On the 7th day of it, the Jews celebrate the death of Moses; on the 13th, they have the feast of Esther; and on the 14th, the feast of Purim, for their deliverance from Haman's conspiracy. See VEADAR.

ADARCE, in the materia medica of the ancients, a saltish humour concreting about the stalks of reeds, and other vegetables, in Cappadocia and Galatia: we also read of it in Italy; and of a native kind produced in Indian reeds, as sugar in the cane. It was used as a topic to rub the skin in leprosy, sun-burning, freckles, &c. ADARCOÑ, ADARCONIM, an ancient coin mentioned in Scripture, usually of gold, derived, as some think, from the gold pieces coined by Darius, called dapɛixoi. They are valued variously; according to Dr. Bernard, they weighed two grains more than our guinea, but the gold being very fine and little alloyed, it may be taken at worth about twenty-five shillings sterling. There was one in lord Pembroke's cabinet a few years since, which weighed 129 grains.

ADARIDGE, or ADARIGES, in chemistry, sal-ammoniac.

ADARME, in commerce, a small Spanish weight, the sixteenth part of an ounce troy. ADARNECH, in chemistry, auripigmentum, or orpiment.

ADARTICULATION, in medicine, is used by some physicians for ap@pwdia, by others, for diapopwors. See ARTHRODIA and DIARTHROSIS.

ADATAIS, ADATSI, or ADATYS, in commerce, a fine muslin or cotton cloth, made in Bengal. ADAUNT', to discourage, subdue. DAUNT.


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SAL. To guard a title that was rich before; To gild refined gold; to paint the lily; To throw a perfume on the violet ; To smooth the ice, or add another huc, Unto the rainbow; or with taper light To seek the beauteous eye of heaven to garnish, Is wasteful and ridiculous excess.

Shakspeare's King John.
Only retain

The name, and all th' addition to a king;
The sway, revenue, execution,
Beloved sons, be yours; which to confirm,
This coronet part between you.

Shakspeare's King Lear.
Mark if his birth makes any difference;
If, to his words, it adds one grain of sense.

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The additory fiction gives to a great man a larger share of reputation than belongs to him, to enable him to serve some good end or purpose. Arbuthnot Additionally to this, they[the Jews] observed numberless rites and customs, according to the tradition of the elders. Bryant. ADDEEM', or ADDOOM'.

From deem and doom. See

For loe, the winged god, that woundeth harts,
Caused me be called to account therefore;
And for reuengement of those wrongful smarts,
Which I to others did inflict afore,
Addem'd me to endure this penance sore.

Spenser's Faerie Queene, b. vi. can. 8.
She scorns to be addeem'd so worthless base,
As to be mov❜d to such an infamy.

Daniel's Civil Wars.

ADDA, in geography, a river of Switzerland and Italy, which rises in the mount Braulio, in the country of the Grisons, and passing through the Valteline, traverses the lake Como, and the Milanese, and falls into the Po, near Cremona. Its navigation was much improved by a canal, dug in 1771.

The ADDA gave name, in part, to that portion of the Italian republic and kingdom of Italy, (now subject to Austria,) called the departmen of the Adda and Oglio, and which contained the northern part of the Bergamasco, and the whole of the Valteline.

AUDA-EL, in zoology, the Arabian name of a small species of lizard, described by Bruce, as found at Atbana, beyond the ruins, near the site of the ancient Mene, and to which many medicinal virtues are ascribed by the natives.


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