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wherein any thing of divinity was supposed to reside. Usually there were images of the gods placed at the gates of cities, to remind those who went in or out, of the homage due to them. The Roman ceremony of adoration has been thus described: The devotee having his head covered, applied his right hand to his lips, the fore finger resting on his thumb, which was erect, and thus bowing his head, turned himself round from left to right. The kiss given, was called osculum labratum; for ordinarily they were afraid to touch the images of their gods themselves with their profane lips. Sometimes, however, they would kiss their feet, or even knees, it being held an incivility to touch their mouths, so that the adoration passed at some distance. Saturn, however, and Hercules, were adored with the head bare: whence the worship of the last was called institutum peregrinum, and ritus Græcanicus, as departing from the customary Roman method, which was to sacrifice and adore with the face veiled, and the clothes drawn round the head, to prevent any interruption in the ceremony, from the sight of external objects. The primitive Christians adopted the Grecian rather than the Roman method, and adored always uncovered. Their ordinary posture of prayer was kneeling, but on sundays standing; and a superstitious regard to praying towards the east was introduced at an early period. Hence some of their Pagan opponents alleged, that they adored the sun.

STANDING was an early eastern attitude of adoration; the body being inclined forward, and the eyes cast down to the earth; with the hands probably resting on the knees. Thus Solomon "stood before the altar of the Lord, in the presence of all the congregation of Israel, and spread forth his hands toward heaven, 1 Kings viii. 22. This was a posture practised both by the Greeks and Romans.

SITTING, wîth the under part of the thighs resting on the heels, was an ancient Egyptian practice of this kind; and most, if not all, the figures of Egyptian worshippers in their sacred edifices, are represented in this attitude. See also, 1 Chron. xvii. 16.


KNEELING, common in all ages and countries as a posture of adoration, we need hardly enumeIt seems naturally to import a person's endeavouring to lessen his own self importance, and his consciousness of intercourse with a superior being.

PROSTRATION, or the casting down of the whole person on the ground, accompanied sometimes by kissing the ground, was amongst the Persians the common mode of expressing reverence for their kings. If the party admitted to the royal presence, were a vanquished prince, he kissed, according to Herbelot, the prints of the horse-shoe of his conqueror, repeating this formula: The mark that the foot of your horse has left upon the dust, serves me now for a crown. The ring, which I wear as the badge of my slavery, is become my richest ornament. While I have the happiness to kiss the dust of your feet, I shall think that fortune favours me with her tenderest caresses, and her sweetest kisses.' The Jewish commander, Joshua, thus

adored by prostration, Josh. vii. 6, 10., as did
Manoah and his wife, Judges xiii 20. David
and his princes, 1 Chron. xxi. 16.; the prophets
frequently. Ezek. i. 28; iii. 23, &c.; and Jesus
Amongst the
Christ himself, Matt. xxvi. 39.
Romans, the sick were always directed to lie
down in the temple of Esculapius.

Kissing the feet, walking bare-footed, and pulling off the shoes in a ceremonious way from the feet, are other tokens of adoration practised both in ancient and modern times. For the last, see Exod. iii. 5. The Mahometans always observe this practice when they enter their mosques; and travellers report that there are seen as many slippers and sandals at the doors of an Indian pagoda, as there are hats hanging up in our churches. Mr. Wilkins mentions, upon his expressing a wish to enter the inner hall of the college of seiks, at Patna, he was informed, "it was a place of worship, and it was necessary for him to take off his shoes." Kissing the feet is a token of homage well known to be paid to the pope, and said by some writers to have been borrowed from a custom of the primitive church. in which the bishops were thus honoured; the people exclaiming as they offered this mark of respect, πроçкvw, I adore thee. Others derive it from a custom of the imperial court. His holiness is said to wear a crucifix on his slipper, that scrupulous consciences may transfer the homage to Christ. It is recorded of Diocletian, that he had gems affixed to his shoes, that the people might the more readily offer him the honour of adoration in this way.

The following curious account of the modes of Hindoo adoration, which they call PōōJA, is given by Mr. Ward in his "View of the history, literature, and religion of that people.".

"Previously to entering on this act of idolatry, the person bathes: returning home he washes his feet, spreads a blanket, or some other proper thing to sit upon, and then sits down before the idol, having the articles necessary for worship before him: a kosha or metal bason, and a koshee, or smaller one; a small wooden stand, a metal plate, an iron stand to hold five lamps, a censer, a brass stand with a small shell placed on it, a metal plate on which to place flowers, a metal bowl into which the water and flowers are thrown after they have been presented to the idol, a metal jug for holding water, a metal plate to be used as a bell; a shell, or sacred conch, which sounds like a horn; with a number of dishes, cups, and other utensils for holding rice, paint, incense, betel, water, milk, butter, curds, sweetmeats, flowers, clarified butter, &c. Having all these articles ready, the worshipper takes water from the kosha with the koshee; and, letting it fall into his hand, drinks it; he then takes a drop more, and then a drop more, repeating incantations. After this, with the finger and thumb of his right hand, he touches his mouth, nose, eyes, ears, navel, breast, shoulders, and the crown of his head, repeating certain forms. He then washes his hands, makes a number of motions with his fingers, and strikes the earth with his left heel three times, repeating incantations. When this is done, he flirts the first finger and thumb of his right hand, waving

his hand toward the ten divisions of the earth; closes his eyes, and repeats incantations to purify his mind, his body, the place where he sits, as well as the offerings about to be presented (which it is supposed may have become unclean by having been seen or touched by a cat, a dog, a shackal, a shoodru, or a Mussulman.) Next, he takes a flower, which he lays on his left hand, and putting his right hand upon it, revolves in his mind the form of the god he is worshipping. He then lays the flower on his head, recites the outward forms of worship in his mind, and presents the offerings:-first, a square piece of gold or silver, as a seal for the god, inviting him to come and sit down, or visit him; and then, asking the god if he be happy, repeats for him " very happy." After this, he presents water to wash the feet; then rice, a vilwu leaf, eight blades of doorva grass, paint, and water, with incantations. He then presents water to wash the mouth, curds, sugar, honey, water to bathe in; then cloth, jewels, gold, silver, ornaments, bedsteads, curtains, a bed, pillow, cloth, printed cloth; clothes for men, women, or children; shoes, brass drinking cups, candlesticks, and whatever would be proper presents to the brahmuns, &c. &c. &c.—At last the person prostrates himself before the object of worship, and then retires to feast on the offerings with other brahmuns. This is a detail of the form of worship on a large scale, at which time it occupies the officiating brahmun two hours." Vol. ii. p. 64, et seq. 8vo.

The reader will observe from the foregoing historical collections, how various are, and have been, the objects of human adoration. Every gradation of respect and homage has been indicated by it and its religious character is of course to be estimated entirely by our views of the being or object to whom it is addressed. It can scarcely need to be added that the second commandment seems expressly given to regulate our views of this subject, and to warn all sincere believers in Divine Revelation, of the guilt and danger of transferring any of the honours of jealous God.'




Ad: oro, from os, the mouth, properly to address oral prayers, but used more ADORATION, generally, to acknowledge ADORE MENT, the existence and power of ADOR ER. the supreme Being; to reverence, with sentiments of awe and love; to worship; to invoke; to supplicate; to intreat.

With that my fader vincust stert on fute, And to the goddis carpis to be our bute, The haly sterne adorit he rycht thare, Now, now, quod he, I tary no langare, I follow, and quhidder ze gide me sall I wend. Douglas, book ii. p. 62, Æneid. And miche more execrable is it to serue or worship the [images] with any reuerent behauiour, ether by adoracion, prostracion, knelyng, or kissing.

The Exposicion of Daniel by Geo. Joye, fol. 35. col. 2.

Votum in the scriptures hath not one only sygnyfycacyon, but many. Some where it is a knowledgyng of Gods benefyghtes, some where a faythe in hys promyses, some wher an adoracyon, a worshypp. Bale's Apology, fol. 52, col. 1.

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The priests of elder times deluded their apprehensions with soothsaying, and such oblique idolatries; and even their credulities to the literal and downright adoroment of cats, lizards, and beetles.

Brown's Vulgar Errours. The God of nature ordained from the beginning that he should be worshipped in various and sundry lines, should tend all to the same centre. forms of adorations, which, nevertheless, like so many Howell's Letters.

'Tis adoration, some say, makes the God, And who would pay it, where would be their altars, Were no inferior creatures?

Dryden's Troilus and Cressida.

The mountain nymphs and Themis they adore,
And, from their oracles, relief implore. Dryden.
The people appear adoring their prince, and their
prince adoring God.
Tatler, . 57.

Make future times thy equal act adore;
And be, what brave Orestes was before.

Pope's Odyssey.
Whilst as th' approaching pageant does appear,
And echoing crowds speak mighty Venus near;
I, her adorer too, devoutly stand,

Fast on the utmost margin of the land. Prior. kind of cakes made of fine flour, and offered in ADOREA, in Roman antiquity, grain, or a reward for some service; whence by metonymy sacrifice; or a dole or distribution of corn, as a it is put for praise or rewards in general..

ADORN', v. and n. Ad: orno. Orno is of ADORN'ING, adj. doubtful origin. Vossius S derives it from Gr. Opa,


time in general or any specific period, as Spring. In Greek authors, it also bears the signification of beauty, maturity; and may be applied to whatever is pleasing or agreeable. Wicklif uses ourn; to beautify, decorate, dress, or set off to the best advantage; to embellish.

Quham till this was the latter dulefull day, With festuall flouris, and bewis as in May, Did wele adorne, and feist and riot maid, Throwout the toun, and for myscheif was glaid. Douglas, b. ii. p. 47. At his first settyng foote on land, the garter of thorder was set and made faste aboute his [Philip of Spain] legge, whiche was sent vnto hym by the quene, richly adorned with precious iewelles.

Fabyan, p. 715.

The holie senate was adorned with olde prudent persons: And not without teares I saie, it is at this houre ful of iaglers and liers. The Golden Booke.

He hath clothed me with the garments of salvation he hath covered me with the robe of righteousness; as a bridegroom decketh himself with ornaments, and as a bride adorneth herself with her jewels. Isaiah, c. lxi v. 16.

This attribute was not given to the earth, while it was confused: nor to the heavens, before they had motion and adornment. Raleigh's History of the World, Her breast all naked, as net iuory, Without adorne of gold or silver bright, Wherewith the craftes-man wonts it beautifie, Of her dew honour, was despoyled quight.

Spencer's Faerie Queene, b. ii. c. 12

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The task of an author is, either to teach what is not known, or to recommend known truths by his manner of adorning them. Rambler.

ADOS, in chemistry, water in which red hot iron has been cooled.

ADOSCULATION, in botany, a term that has been used to express the impregnation of plants by the falling of the farina fœcundans on the pistil.

ADOSSEE, probably from ad, to, and dorsa, backs, in heraldry, two figures or bearings, placed back to back. See HERALDRY.

ADOT'ED. See DoгE.

It falleth that the most wise

Ben other while of loue adoted. Gower, Con. A. b. vi. ADOUR, a river of France, which rises in the mountains of Bigorre, in the upper Pyrenees, and running N. by Tarbes through Gascony, afterwards turns E., and passing by Dax, falls into the bay of Biscay, about three miles below Bayonne.

ADOUY, a market town of Hungary, in the county palatine of Stuhlweissenburg, on the Danube; also the name of several small towns in the counties of Bihar, Beregh, and Saboltsch, ADOWA, a city of Abyssinia, the capital of the province of Tigré, and residence of the sovereign; situated partly on the side, and partly at the foot of a hill, and commanding a magnificent view of the adjacent mountains. The houses are pretty regularly disposed into streets or alleys, and of a conical form, interspersed with trees and small gardens. The population cannot fall short of 8000. Here is a remarkable manufacture of cotton cloths, both coarse and fine, but particularly the former, which are considered to excel those made in any other part of Abyssinia, and which circulate like money. Adowa is the principal commercial town E. of the Tacazze, and the channel by which the communcation between the coast and the interior is almost exclusively carried on. The provinces to the south abound in cattle and corn, which, with

salt, constitute their chief articles of barter. About a thousand slaves pass through Adowa, to be shipped at Massuah and other ports on the Red Sea. A considerable number of Mahometans are resident, and visitors here, and are the only class of the population at all animated by the spirit of trade. The inhabitants are more civilized than is usual in Abyssinia. Long. 39°, 5. E. Lat. 14°, 12′, 30′′. N.



And stones adonward slonge vp hem ỷ nowe,
And mýd speres and myd flon vaste of hem slowe,
And myd suerd and myd ax.

R. Gloucester, p 362.
Whan Phebus dwelled here in erth adoun,
As olde bookes maken mentioun,
He was the moste lusty bacheler.
Of all this world, and eke the best archer.
Chaucer. The Manciple's Tale.
Thrice did she sink adown in deadly sound
And thrice he her revived, with busy pain.
Spencer's Faerie Queene.
In this remembrance, Emily, ere day
Arose, and dress'd herself in rich array;
Fresh as the month, and as the morning fair
Adown her shoulders fell her length of hair.

Her hair

Unty'd, and ignorant of artful aid,
Adown her shoulders loosely lay display'd,
And in the jetty curls ten thousand cupids play'd.
Prior's Solomon.

Adown Augusta's pallid visage flow
The living pearls with unaffected woe.
Discons❜late, hapless, see pale Britain mourn,
Abandon'd isle! forsaken and forlorn!

Falconer's Ode on the Duke of York. ADOXA, tuberous moschatel, hollow-root, or inglorious; in botany, a genus of the tetragynia order, belonging to the octandria class of plants; and in the natural method ranking under the thirteenth order, succulentæ.

The characters of this genus are: CAL. a perianthium beneath, divided into two segments, flat, persistent: COR. composed of one flat petal, divided into four ovate acute segments longer than the calyx: STAM. eight subulated filaments the length of the calyx; with roundisli antheræ PIST. has a germen beneath the receptacle of the corolla; four simple, erect, persistent styli, the length of the stamina; and simple stigmata: PER. a globular four-celled berry between the calyx and corolla. The seeds solitary and compressed. There is but one species, which is a native of the woods in Britain, and Europe.

ADPERCEPTION, in metaphysics, a term used by Leibnitz, to denote the act whereby the mind becomes conscious to itself of a perception.

AD PONDUS OMNIUM, to the weight of the whole; an abbreviation among physicians, signifying, that the last prescribed ingredient is to weigh as much as all the others put together.

AD QUOD DAMNUM, in the English law, a writ directed to the sheriff, commanding him to enquire into the damage which may befal the king, or other person, by granting certain privileges to a place, such as a fair, a market, or the like; or by granting lands in fee-simple to a body politic; or by turning or changing ligh

ways; in which cases, the party aggrieved may complain to the justices, at next quarter session; failing which complaint, the inquisition is recorded and becomes binding.

ADRA, a district and sea-port town of Granada in Spain, 45 miles S. E. of Granada, and 22 S. W. of Almeira. It was formerly called ABDARA, which see. Long. 3°, 10' W. Lat. 36°, 4′ N. The river also on which it stands 4' bears this name.

ADRACHNE, in botany, a species of the strawberry-tree, which grows plentifully in the island of Candy. See ARBUtus.

ADRACLA, another name for the preceding


ADRAGANTH, in medicine, gum dragon. It distils by incision, from the trunk or roots of a plant which grows in the Levant. The gum is of different colours, white, red, grey, and black, and is useful in medicine. Skinners use great quantities of it in preparing their leather, and prefer the red and black. It is the astragulus tragacanthus of Linnæus.

ADRAMIRE, or ADRHAMIRE, in law, to oblige one's self, before a magistrate, to do a thing. Bailey.

ADRAMMELECH, 72778, of 778, great ness, or 7, a cloak, and, a king, Heb. i. e. the king's greatness, or cloak, an idol of the Assyrians, sometimes represented by the figure of a peacock, sometimes by that of a mule, to whom they sacrificed their children, by fire, in the most cruel manner. See MOLOCH. Also the name of one of the sons of Sennacherib, king of Assyria.

ADRAMYTTENUS CONVENTUS, assizes or sessions, held at Adramyttium, being the eighth in order of the nine Conventus Juridici of the province of Asia.

ADRAMYTTENUS SINUS, in ancient geography, a part of the Egean Sea, on the coast of Mysia. ADRAMYTTIUM, in ancient geography, now Adramiti; a town of Mysia Major, at the foot of Mount Ida. It was an Athenian colony, with a harbour and dock near the Caicus. Strabo, 1. xiii.

ADRAMYTTIUM, a city on the N. coast of Africa, westward of Egypt.

ADRANA, a river of Germany; now the Eder, rising on the borders of the country of Nassau, to the north-east of Dillenburg, and running through the landgraviate of Hesse into the Fulda. See EDER.

ADRANITÆ, or HADRANITANI, the inhabitants of Adranum.

ADRANUM, or HADRANUM, in ancient geography, now Aderno; a town of Sicily, built by the elder Dionysius, at the foot of mount Ætna, 400 years before Christ, and so called from the temple of ADRANUS. which see.

ADRANUS, or HADRANUS, an idol worshipped by the ancient Sicilians.

ADRANUS, a river of Sicily, now called Fiume d'Aderno.

ADRASTEA, in antiquity, a name given to Nemesis, the goddess of revenge, or the punisher of injustice. The Egyptians placed her above the moon, that she might the more easily observe human actions. King Adrastus first erected a

temple to this goddess, and some suppose gave her this name.

ADRASTIA CERTAMINA, in antiquity, public games, instituted by Adrastus king of Argos, at Sicyon, A. M. 2700, in honour of Apollo.

ADRASTIA, in botany, a name given by De Candolle, to a plant of New Holland, called also oceana, of the class decandria, order digynia. Natural order, magnolia, according to Jussieu. Its characters are, CAL. inferior, of five permanent pointed leaves. PET, five oval, shorter than the calyx. STAM. filaments flat, anthers linear, of two cells. PIST. Germens two, globose. Styles straight and close together, awlshaped. Seed solitary.

ADRASTUS, king of Argos, son of Talaus and Lysimache, acquired great honour in the famous war of Thebes, in support of Polynices his son-in-law, who had been excluded the sovereignty of Thebes by Eteocles his brother. Adrastus, followed by Polynices and Tydeus another son-in-law, Capaneus, Hippomedon his sister's son, Amphiaraus his brother-in-law, and Parthenopaus, marched against the city of Thebes; and this is the expedition of the Seven Worthies, which the poets have so often sung. All seven of them lost their lives in this war except Adrastus, who was saved by his horse called Arion. The war was revived ten years after, by the sons of the deceased warriors, and called the war of the Epigones, which ended with the taking of Thebes. In this contest fell Egialeus, son of Adrastus ; which afflicted him so much that he died of grief. Also a Phrygian prince, who fled to the court of Crœsus, and being made guardian to his son Atys, inadvertently slew him while hunting, and afterwards killed himself. Herod. i. 35.

ADRAZZO, the same with ADJAZZO, or AJACCIO.


Ther n'as baillif, ne herde, ne other hine,
That he ne knew his sleight and his covine:
They were adradde of him, as of the deth.
Chaucer. The Prologue. The Reve.
And on that o side of the towne
The kyngé let make Ilion,
That high toure, that stronge place
Which was adrad of no manace
Of quarele, nor of none cngyne.

Gower Con. A. b. V. ADRETS, (Francis de Beaumont, baron des,) one of the chiefs of the Huguenots in France, who in 1562, signalised himself by many brave exploits, tarnished, however, by detestable cruelties. At some places he obliged his prisoners to throw themselves from the battlements, upon the pikes of his soldiers. When reproaching one of them for shrinking back twice from the fatal leap. "Sir, (replied the man,) I defy you, with all your bravery, to take it in three leaps." witticism saved the soldier's life. After the peace the baron turned Catholic, and died deservedly hated in 1587. A son of his was concerned in the massacre of Paris.-Nouv. Dict. Hist.


ADRIA, an episcopal town in Italy, situated on a peninsula formed by the river Tartaro and an arm of the Po, in that part of the Venetian territory called the Polesino di Rovigo, now belonging to Austria. This once flourishing town, the Atria of Pliny and Ptolemy, and the

Adrias of Strabo; and which gave name to the Adriatic sea, is now greatly decayed, and has not above 7200 inhabitants. 15 miles E. of Rovigo. Long. 12°, 2′ E. Lat 45°, 2′. N. ADRIAMPATAM, a town on the coast of Tanjore, Hindostan, 37 miles S. by E. of Tanjore. N. Lat. 10°, 20'. E. Long. 79°, 30′.

ADRIAN, or HADRIAN, PUBLIUS ELIUS, the fifteenth emperor of Rome. He was born at Rome, A. D. 76, and left an orphan, at ten years of age, under the guardianship of Trajan, and Cœlius Tatianus, a Roman knight. He began to serve very early in the armies, was tribune of a legion before the death of Domitian, and was chosen by the army, to carry the news of Nerva's death to Trajan, his successor. He accompanied Trajan in most of his expeditions, distinguished himself in the second war against the Dacii,and was successively appointed quæstor, tribune of the people, prætor, governor of Pannonia, consul, and governor of Syria. After the siege of Atra was raised, Trajan left him the command of the army, and when he found death approaching, adopted him. Adrian, who was then in Antioch, as soon as he heard of Trajan's death, declared himself emperor, A. D. 117, made peace with the Persians, and from generosity or policy, remitted the debts of the Roman people, which, according to the calculation of those who have reduced them to modern money, amounted to 22,500,000 golden crowns: and that the people might be under no apprehension of being called to an account for them afterwards, burnt all the bonds and obligations relating to those debts. There are medals still extant, in commemoration of this fact, in which he is represented holding a flambeau in his hand, setting fire to the bonds. He visited all the provinces, and did not return to Rome till the year 118; when the senate decreed him a triumph, and honoured him with the title of Father of his country; but he refused both, and desired that Trajan's image might triumph. No prince travelled more than Adrian; there being hardly a province in the empire, which he did not visit. In 120 he went into Gaul; from thence to Britain, in order to subdue the Caledonians, who were making continual inroads into the provinces. Upon his arrival, they retired towards the north: when he advanced as far as York, but was diverted from his intended conquest by the description which some soldiers, who had served under Agricola, gave him of the country. In hopes, therefore, of keeping them quiet, by enlarging their bounds, he delivered up to the Caledonians, all the lands lying between the two Friths and the Tyne; and at the same time, to secure the Roman province from their future incursions, built the famous wall which still bears his name. See ADRIAN'S WALL. Having thus settled matters in Britain, he returned to Rome, where he was honoured with the title of Restorer of Britain, as appears by some medals. Adrian soon after went into Spain, to Mauritania, and at length into the East, where he quieted the commotions raised by the Parthians. Having visited all the provinces of Asia, he returned to Athens, in 125 where he was initiated in the mysteries of

Eleusinian Ceres. From thence he went to Sicily, to view the phenomena of Mount Etna, and enjoy the extensive prospect from its top. He returned to Rome in 129; and again visited Africa and the East; was in Egypt in 132, revisited Syria, in 133, returned to Athens in 134, and to Rome in 135. The persecution against the Christians was very violent under his reign; but it was at length suspended, in consequence of the remonstrances of Quadratus, bishop of Athens, and Aristides, two Christian philosophers, who presented the emperor with some books in favour of the Christian religion. He conquered the Jews; and, by way of insult, erected a temple to Jupiter on Calvary, placed a statue of Adonis in Bethlehem, and caused images of swine to be engraven on the gates of Jerusalem. At last he was seized with a dropsy, of which he died at Baiæ, in the sixty-third year of his age, and the twenty-first of his reign. The Latin verses he addressed to his soul, not long before he breathed his last, are a fine instance of self-possession at such a moment, Animula, vagula, blandula, Hospes, comesque corporis, Quæ nunc abibis in loca Pallidula, rigida, nudula? Nec, ut soles, dabis jocos.


given by Pope, and probably supplying to him some of the finest thoughts of his celebrated Ode.

Ah! fleeting spirit! wandering fire,

That long has warmed my tender breast,
Must thou no more this frame inspire?

No more a pleasing, cheerful guest!
Whither, ah! whither art thou flying?
To what dark undiscovered shore?
Thou seem'st all trembling, shiv'ring, dying,

And wit and humour are no more! There are some fragments of other Latin poems of his extant, and some of his Greek verses in the Anthology. He also wrote the history of his own life: to which, however, he did not put his name, but that of Phlegon, one of his freed-men. He had great wit, and an extensive memory; and understood the sciences, but was jealous of others who excelled in them. One of the friends of Favorinus asked the latter, who knew the emperor's foible, why he improperly yielded to Adrian in an argument: "Wouldst thou not have me yield to the master of thirty legions?" he replied. He was also cruel, envious, and lascivious. Antoninus his successor obtained his apotheosis; and prevented the rescission of his acts, which the senate once intended.

ADRIAN, the African, abbot of St. Peter's, Canterbury, in the 7th century, accompanied Theodore, archbishop of Canterbury to England. The united efforts of these learned ecclesiastics, diffused no small degree of light over this dark period of Anglo-Saxon history. Adrian was the preceptor of Aldhelm, and Bede extols the happy time when the island enjoyed his tuition: and Kent "was the fountain of knowledge to the rest of England."

Turner's Anglo-Saxons, v. ii. 381. ADRIAN IV. (Pope) the only Englishman who ever had the honour of sitting in the papal chair. His name was Nicholas Brekespere; and

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