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famous bridge, and Ovid makes it the scene of the loves of Leander and Hero. The inhabitants are called by some writers, a soft and effeminate people, much given, to detraction; hence the proverb, Ne temere Abydum; but when Philip, the father of Perseus, besieged the place, they nobly devoted themselves to death, in preference to captivity.

ABYDOS, in ancient geography, a town of Egypt, between Ptolemais and Diospolis Parva, towards Cyrene; famous for the palace of Memnon and the temple of Osiris; into which singers and dancers were forbid to enter. This city, reduced to a village under the empire of Augustus, now presents to our view only an heap of ruins without inhabitants; but to the west of these ruins is still found the celebrated tomb of Osymandes. The entrance is under a portico 60 feet high, and supported by two rows of massy columns, loaded with hieroglyphics. Beyond it, is a temple 300 feet long and 155 wide. Upon entering the monument we meet with an immense hall, the roof of which is supported by 28 columns, 60 feet high, and 19 in circumference at the base. They are 12 feet distant from each other. The enormous stones that form the ceiling, perfectly joined, and incrusted, as it were, one in the other, offer to the eye nothing but one solid platform of marble, 126 feet long, and 26 wide. Monsieur Chevalier, formerly governor of Chandernagore, who resided 20 years in that country, carefully visited this monument on his return from Bengal. He remarked here the gods Jaggrenat, Gonez, and Vechnou or Wistnou, such as they are represented in the temples of Indostan.-A great gate opens at the bottom of the first hall, which leads to an apartment, 46 feet long by 22 wide. Six square pillars support the roof of it; and at the angles are the doors of four other chambers, but so choaked up with rubbish that they cannot now be entered. The last hall, 64 feet long by 24 wide, has stairs by which one descends into the subterraneous apartments of this grand edifice. The Arabs, in searching after treasure, have piled up heaps of earth and rubbish. The walls, the roof, and the columns of this edifice, have suffered so little from the injuries of time, that did not the hieroglyphics mark its antiquity, it would appear to have been newly built. To the left of this great building we meet with another much smaller, at the bottom of which is a sort of altar, probably the sanctuary of the temple.

ABYLA. See ABILA. ABYO, or ABUYO, one of the Philippine islands in the E. Indies, E. of Layla. Lon. 124°, 15′. E. Lat. 10°, 6'. N.

ABYSM', n. Į a. ßvooos, without bottom. BotABYSS'. tomless. Hence the essential character of an abyss is unfathomable depth, profundity.

And brutish ignorance, ycrept of late Out of drad darkness of the deep abysm. Sp. Tears of Muses, 188. O the unfathomable abyss of eternity! how are our imaginations lost in the conceptions of it!

Stillingfleet's Sermons.

Nor second he that rode sublime
Upon the seraph wings of ecstacy,
The secrets of the abyss to spy.

Gray's Progress of Poetry.

ABYSS, in the Septuagint, denotes the water which God created at the beginning along with the earth, which encompassed it round, and which our translators render by deep, Gen. i. 2. Abyss is also used for an immense cavern in the earth, wherein God is supposed to have collected all those waters on the third day, which in our version, is rendered the seas, and elsewhere the great deep. Dr. Woodward and others, suppose that there is a mighty collection of waters in the bowels of the earth, communicating with those of the ocean, by means of certain hiatuses or chasms, passing between them and the bottom of the sea; but so, that the ordinary surface of the abyss, is never level with that of the ocean. The existence of such abyss or receptacle of subterraneous waters, is controverted by Camerarius; but the arguments on each side of this controversy may be seen collected and amplified, in Cockburn's Inquiry into the Truth and Certainty of the Mosaic Deluge, p. 271, &c. Vid. also, Whitehurst's Inquiry into the Original Formation of the Strata, &c.; also Journal des Sçavans, lviii. Mem. of Literature, viii. and Jamieson's Mineralogy, v. iii.

ABYSS, in antiquity, the temple of Proserpine; so called on account of the immense fund. of gold and riches deposited there, and as some say, hidden under ground.

ABYSS, in heraldry, denotes the centre of an escutcheon; in which sense, a thing is said to be borne in abyss,(en abysme, )when placed in the middle of the shield, clear from any other bearing: He bears azure, a fleur-de-lis, in abyss.


ABYSSINIA, ABASSIA, HABESH, or UPPER ETHIOPIA, an extensive kingdom of Africa, lying between the 7th and 16th degrees of N. lat. and 30° and 40° E. long. It is bounded on the east by the Red Sea, on the north by Senaar, on the west and south by Senaar and Kordofan, together with some vast barbarous regions, the names of which are scarcely known to Europeans. Mr. Pinkerton computes the superficial area at 770 miles in length, by 550, its medial breadth, in which perhaps he has not erred VOL. I.

egregiously; although from the indefinite nature and shifting demarcation of its boundaries, the true dimensions of this country are difficult to ascertain.

The ancients knew nothing accurately of this extensive region, and therefore included it, together with the adjacent territories, under the comprehensive name of Ethiopia; a term which they applied indiscriminately to all nations of a black complexion, and even to Arabia, Persia, Chaldea, and Assyria. Ethiopia Proper, called


by the Jews, Cush and Ludim, was bounded on the N. by Egypt, extending to the Lesser cataract of the Nile, and the Elephantine island; on the W. by Libya Interior; on the E. by the Red Sea, and on the S. by unknown parts of Africa. The Africans were divided into the eastern and the western Ethiopians, the latter of whom were also called Hesperians.

The Ethiopian kingdoms, of which the ancients had any knowledge, were two, the first Meroe, situated on a peninsula, which they erroneously supposed to be an island, formed by the union of the Nile with the Astaboras and the Astapus, (Blue River and Tacazze.) Its me tropolis of the same name stood upon the Nile, in lat. 16o. 26′. Mr. Bruce in passing through Senaar, saw near Chendi immense ruins, which probably belonged to this celebrated capital of Ethiopia. The second kingdom, unknown until the Greeks under Alexander had extended their navigation along the eastern coast of Africa, was that of the Axumitæ, situated upon the Red Sea, and occupying part of the Abyssinian province of Tigre. Its capital Axum, in a state of decay, remains to exhibit the ruins of its former greatness. It was from the port Adulis, in this territory, that the ancients derived the finest ivory.


When Mr. Salt was last in Abyssinia, it was divided into three distinct and independent states. TIGRE the most powerful was under the dominion of Ras Welud Selasse, who claimed the monopoly of all the muskets imported, and likewise of the salt. This division of Abyssinia comprehends about four degrees of lat. and the same of long. bounded by a strong sea-coast, and inhabited by a warlike people.

1. Tigrè the first sub-division of this region, bounded by the territories of the Baharnegash, the river Mareb and the Tacazze is a wealthy province, measuring 200 miles from N. to S. and 120 from E. to W. It consists of a range of hills intersected by deep vallies and cultivated plains. 2. Agamè, E. of Tigrè, consists of a rich and fertile level, at considerable altitude, enjoying a favourable climate. It is remarkable for the salt plain in its vicinity, also for the strength of its eastern frontier, near the Taltal.

3. Enderta, a mountainous province S. of Agamè, is celebrated for its capital, Antalo, in which the Ras resides for the sake of protecting the southern provinces from the Galla.

4. Wojjeral, S. of the preceding, is a wild district full of forests, in which the lion, elephant, and rhinoceros are frequent.

5. Wofila, contiguous to Wojjerat, is a small low division, bordering on the lake Ashangee, where the Galla profess Christianity, and mingle with the native Abyssinians.

6. Lusta is a rugged and mountainous district, the heights of which are almost inaccessible. To the north are two mountainous districts, between which and the Tacazze, are two low ones, inhabited by Christian Agows.

7. Still farther to the north lies Avergale, a narrow region stretching for about fifty miles N. and S. along the Tacazze, and inhabited like the preceding by the Agows.

8. Samen, E. of the Tacazze, is the highest

land in Abyssinia, running N. and S. about 80 miles, with a medial breadth of about 30.

9. Shire is the most picturesque part of Abyssinia, abounding with fine landscapes, flowery meadows, and shady groves. It lies to the west of Axum, and connects itself with the contiguous regions of

10. Zemben, a valuable district between Samen and Tigrè Proper.

11. The eleventh and last division of Tigrè is called the kingdom of Baharnogash.

AMHARA, the second independent state, is, according to Bruce, a mountainous region, 120 miles long, and 40 broad, containing the rock Geshen, once the residence of the royal family. This province is now almost entirely in possession of the Galla, whose chief Guxo is the enemy of Ras Welud Selasse, and enjoys an absolute power on the W. side of the Tacazze, and is strengthened in a considerable degree by his connexion with the southern Galla: the cavalry of this prince has been estimated at 20,000, and is derived chiefly from the district of Begemder; Gondar is under his jurisdiction. The men in this part of the country were reputed formerly the handsomest in Abyssinia.

The third division of this country, now entirely separated from the before mentioned by the Galla, consists of the united provinces of SHOA and EFAT, and is supposed to contain a larger portion of Ethiopian literature and manners, than any other part of Abyssinia.

Efat, a fine district between the ninth and eleventh degrees of lat., consists principally of high land, running N. and S., and declining on each side to an extensive plain. Numerous rivers flow on both sides from the lofty regions, and fall into the Nile and Ilawash, of which latter, two branches, sweeping round to a considerable extent, nearly encircle the province. The present ruler residing at Ankobar the capital, is the grandson of Yasous, whom Bruce mentions (as Dofter Esther told Mr. Salt incorrectly,) as having visited Gondar while he was there. The chief dependence of this province is upon its cavalry, who are both skilful and courageous.

Shoa lies on a lower level than Efat, and is extremely rich in pasturage. Its vallies are deep and beautiful, well watered by streams and rivers. The districts of Walaka and Gondar, dependent on these united provinces, are of no inconsiderable importance.

Walaka, between the rivers Geshen and Samba, is memorable as the province where the only surviving prince of the family of Solomon was preserved after the massacre by Judith, in consideration of which, great privileges were conferred upon the inhabitants. It is also memora ble for the monastery of Demba Libanos, where the saint Tecla Haimanout was bred, the famous founder of the power of the clergy.

The Macrobii of the ancients, according to Bruce, the present Kuara, S. of Dembea, is remarkable for a colony of Pagan blacks in its lower region, derived from the black slaves, who accompanied the Arabs after the invasion of Mahomet. One of the great officers of state has kettle drums of silver, which he alone

has the privilege of beating through the streets of Gondar.

The general appearance of Abyssinia is wild and magnificent, overspread with forests, morasses, deep vallies, and beautiful rivers. Travelling is exceedingly difficult, but delightful from the charms of romantic variety, ever opening upon the eye. The mountains are remarkable for their elevation, and in the opinion of some, exceed the Alps and Pyrenees. Some of them appear like obelisks and pyramids, while others are flat and square, grouped with the utmost irregularity, and exhibiting an almost infinite diversity of forms.

The mountains of Abyssinia generally are arranged in three ridges, of which the middle is the loftiest, and at the same time the most rugged and barren. E. of the kingdom are the heights of Taranta, which Bruce represents as so bare, that he found no possibility of pitching a tent there. On the lower part of the mountain he found the tree called kolquail in a state of high perfection, on the middle olives, which had no fruit, and on the upper part, the Oxycedras or Virginia cedar, called Arze by the natives. On the top is a small village named Halai, inhabited by poor shepherds, who keep the flocks of the rich people in the town of Dixan below. They are of dark complexion, and have black hair, curled artificially; they wear a girdle of coarse cotton cloth, swathed six times round their middle, and carry with them two lances and a shield made of bulls' hides; besides these weapons they commonly carry in their girdles a crooked knife with a blade about 16 inches in length, and near the lower part three in breadth. Here are also abundance of cattle; milk-white cows with wide horns, fine hair like silk, with dewlaps down to the knees; and black sheep with soft hair instead of wool. On the top of the mountain is a plain, which, at the period mentioned by our traveller, was sown with wheat. The air seemed excessively cold, although the thermometer was not below 59° in the evening, and on the western declivity, the cedars had degenerated into shrubs

and bushes.

Towards the centre of the kingdom, on the north west part of the mountains of Samen, is the celebrated Lamalmon, which Bruce tells us, he ascended by a winding path, not quite two feet broad, on the brink of a dreadful precipice, and frequently intersected by the beds of torrents which lay in vast irregular chasms of the mountains; the summit from below had the appearance of being sharp pointed, but was in reality, a large plain full of springs, and containing the sources of almost all the rivers in this part of the empire. These springs boil out of the earth, sending forth such quantities of water as would be sufficient to turn a mill. A perpetual verdure prevails upon the mountains; and Bruce thought that, with moderate industry, three harvests might be reaped annually. The Gauza lies in the south of the kingdom; beside which, the mountains of Adowa in Tigré, Amda Gideon, or Jews' Rock, in Samen, and the triple ridge of Afonnasha, Litchambard, and Amid Amid, supposed by the traveller already named, to be the Mountains of the Moon, are the most celebrated.

From all the Abyssinian mountains gold is washed down by the torrents in the rainy seasons.

Of the mineralogy of Abyssinia little is known, although from its mountainous character, but one opinion upon the subject has hitherto been formed. Near Weach are low hills of granite rocks, resting on beds of micaceous earth. In Tigré the soil is sandy, and the rocks composed of slate, schistus and granite lie in perpendicular strata, although in Geralta and Enderta, the strata are horizontal. But the great salt plain, fifty miles west of Amphila, on the road to Massowa, forms one of the most wonderful phenomena in Abyssinia. It is crossed in sandals made from the leaves of a species of the palm, and is four days' journey from N.W. to S. E. The plain is perfectly flat, and for the first halfmile the salt is soft, at a greater distance it becomes hard and crystallized, like ice on which snow has fallen after it has been partially thawed; branches of pure salt occasionally rising above the surface. For about two feet immediately under the earth it is hard and pure; at a greater depth it becomes coarse and soft, till exposed to the air. It is cut with an adze into pieces of the shape of a whetstone, and passed among the natives as money. The Galla frequently attack the workmen employed in cutting the salt from the plain; and Balgudda, a protector of the salt caravans, derives his emolument from the duty imposed on its exportation. A camel, the usual load of which is 200 pieces, pays 11; a mule, carrying 80, pays nine; an ass, pays six; but when it is brought away by men, no duty is paid.

The principal river of Abyssinia is the Bahrel-Azrek, or Blue River. It originates in two springs, arising from a small hillock, in a marsh of Sacala, near Geesh, and flows into the lake Dembea; emerging from which, it sweeps its semicircular course round the provinces of Damot and Gojam; after which, taking a northerly direction through Senaar, as far as Wed Hogela, in the 16th degree of latitude, it unites with the Bahr-el-Abiad, or principal branch of the Nile, originating in the mountains of the Moon. The Tacazzé rises W. of Antalo, from three small springs in the plains of Magilla, and joined by the river Arequa, runs through Senaar to the Nile, carrying with it nearly one-third of the water which falls on the whole empire. This river is extremely pleasant, being shaded with fine lofty trees, and the water remarkably clear. At the ford, where Bruce crossed, this river was 200 yards over, running very swiftly over a bottom of pebbles. At the very edge of the water the banks were covered with tamarisks, beautifully supported by a back ground of tall and stately trees, that never lose the charms of their foliage. It is however, infested with crocodiles and hippopotami, and the neighbouring woods are full of lions and byænas. Two rivers of Abyssinia, the Hanazo and the Hawash, flow towards the entrance of the Red Sea, and the Jemma. The Maleg, a large and important stream, after a parallel course on the W. joins the Abyssinian Nile. The Mareb forms the boundary between Tigrè, and the king-.

dom of the Baharnagosh. The principal lakes if it commence with the rainy season, is seldom

are the Dembea, commonly called Tzana, having in the midst of it an island of the same name. That of Lawasà in the southern region, together with Ashangee and Haik, near the rocks of Geshen and Ambazel.

The climate is cold, and for six months of the year, viz. from April to September inclusive, constantly rainy. During the other six months, the sun being vertical, and the sky cloudless, the heat is excessive through the day; but, still the nights are so cold, owing to the length of the rainy season, and the perpetual equality of the days and nights, that the ground feels disagreeable to the soles of the feet. The mountainous nature of the province generally, nevertheless exposes different situations to the various effects of heat and cold, dryness and humidity, and of a free circulation and stagnation of the atmosphere; those of the natives who live upon the hills, are healthy and sprightly, whilst those who live in the vallies, marshes, or sandy deserts, experience an excessive heat, with a humid suffocating atmosphere. To avoid the inconvenience occasioned by the overflowing of the rivers, during the rainy season, the inhabitants have built many of their towns and villages upon mountains; they are, however, generally mean and slight, consisting of only one story. On Lamalmon, one of the highest of these hills, Mr. Bruce observed the thermometer stood at 32° in the depth of winter; the wind N.W. clear and cold. A light hoar frost fell with the wind, which vanished a quarter of an hour after sunrise, but there appeared no sign of, congelation; but upon Amid Amid, he remarked that hail lay for three hours in the forenoon. One of the natives describing a fall of snow, for which no term had been previously invented, uses the following language: "This village (Zinzenam) has its name from an extraordinary circumstance that once happened in these parts; a shower of rain fell, which was not properly of the nature of rain, as it did not run upon the ground, but remained very light, having scarce the weight of feathers, of a beautiful white colour like flour; it fell in showers, and darkened the air more than rain, and liker to mist. It covered the face of the whole country for several days, retaining its whiteness the whole time, then went away like dew, without leaving any smell or unwholesome effect behind it." Mr. Salt, nevertheless in his visit to Abyssinia, found snow upon the mountains of Samen; and Mr. Pearce, in his passage over them, experienced a heavy fall.. The thermometer in March, April, and May, averaged, according to the former gentleman, 70° at Chelicut, 65° at Antalo, 95° on the banks of the Tacazzé, and upon the mountains of Samen, was below the freezing point.

The inhabitants of Abyssinia are especially subject to fevers of different kinds, which are commonly fatal on the third day; after which period, those who survive, commonly recover. The tertian fever is particularly common. Fevers in Abyssinia not unfrequently terminate in intermittents; and if long continued, in dysenteries, which are often mortal. That species of dysentery beginning with a constant "diarrhea


cured. Bark, ipecacuanha, water, and fruit not over ripe, are sometimes administered with success; ipecacuanha in particular, provided the be favourable, either removes it, or changes it to an intermitting fever, which yields to the bark. Another endemial disease is the hanzter,' (the hogs or swine) a swelling of the glands of the throat, and the parts under the arms; which by unsuccessful attempts to produce suppuration, and opening the tumours, becomes a running sore resembling the evil. Swellings of the whole body, especially the arms, thighs, and legs, accompanied by ulcers in the nose and mouth, are common in this country. These diseases sometimes yield to mercurials, and the last is speedily cured by antimonials. Farenteit, or the worm of Pharaoh, commonly attacks those who are in the habit of drinking stagnant water. It appears in all parts of the body, and is a worm with a small black head, and a white hooked beak, and a white body of a silky texture, resembling a small tendon. The natives seize it by the head, and wind it gently round a piece of silk, or on a bird's feather, and then extract it without much inconvenience. But the most terrible of all diseases, is the elephantiasis; for which, no cure has ever been discovered. See ELEPHANTIASIS. To the alternations of scorching heat and chilling cold, thin clothing, the use of stagnant putrid water, for four months in the year, &c. the endemial diseases of Abyssinia are attributed.

The variety of elevation in different parts of the country, occasions a proportionate variety of soil and productions. Corn is produced in great abundance. Teff is their chief article for bread; and where the grounds are unfit for the production of this, the tocusso plant is raised, yielding a black bread for the lowest classes. Although wine is not made in more than one or two places, there is every where the greatest profusion of fruits. Sena, cardamom, ginger, and cotton, are produced in great quantities. A species of rose grows upon large trees, and is in fragrance much superior to those which grow on bushes. The Balessan balm, or balsam plant, which produces the balm of Gilead mentioned in scripture, is found among the myrrh trees, on the coast of the Red Sea, all the way to Babelmandel. Sassa, myrrh, and opocalpasum are common in the same region. The ensete is an herbaceous plant, in Narea, which thrives chiefly in swampy places, and forms a considerable part of the vegetable food of the natives. The kolquall is a tree of which the lower part alone is woody, the upper being herbaceous and succulent; it makes a beautiful appearance, bearing a fine golden coloured flower, which ripens to a deep crimson fruit. The geshe-el-aube is a kind of grass, about Ras-el-Feel, which grows to the height of nearly three feet and a half. The gaguedi tree, running to the height of about nine feet, is a native of Lamalmon, and produces beautiful yellow flowers, which like the helianthus, are turned towards the sun. The wansey tree, common throughout the whole of Abyssinia, flowers the first day on which the rains cease; it grows to the height of 18 or 20 feet, and is highly

of oil.

esteemed by the Abyssinians, and by the Galla even worshipped. Kuara, a beautiful tree growing in the southern and western parts of Abyssinia; producing a fruit resembling a red bean, which in the early ages was used as a weight for gold. From this circumstance, Mr. Bruce imagines the imaginary weight carat, is derived. The wooginoos, or brucea antidysenterica, common in valleys throughout the whole country, is an' antidote to the dysentery. Cusso, or banksia anthelmintica,.is a beautiful tree, so called from its being a strong anthelmintic. Nook, or nuk, resembling our marigold, produces abundance The lehem, or toberne montana, a tree common near the lake of Dembea, is remarkable for its beauty and fragrance; it grows to a considerable size, the extremities of its branches trailing on the ground, covered with flowers from top to bottom, each.cluster containing between 85 and 90; open or shut the fruit is taken, but has rather a harsh. taste. The anguah, found near the Tacazzé, produces a gum resembling frankincense. The leaves of the geesh, are put by the natives into their maize, and sometimes reduced to powder, and mixed with other materials, of which they make sowa. The mergombey, a species of solanum, is used as a cathartic; and, from. the niche, or niege, a species of the sesanum, they extract vegetable oil. A species of narrow ficus, near Shela, called by the natives chekupit, of which the inner bark is converted into matches for fire arms. Near Adowa, Mr. Salt found a new and beautiful species of amaryllis, bearing 10 or 12 spikes of bloom on each stem, emerging from one receptacle, as large as those of the belladonna. It is sweet scented, like the lilly of the valley, and has a white corolla, each petal being marked down the middle with a slight streak of bright purple. The bulbs are frequently two feet under ground.

Numerous plants and trees of Abyssinia, are however, yet undescribed; although Mr. Salt in his two recent journies added eight genera, and 128 species, to our vocabulary. The process of fructification is, in many instances, very singular. Although the same part of the tree flowers only ence in 12 months, the blossoms appear and the fruit ripens, first, on the western boughs, next on the southern, then on the northern, and finally, on the eastern; which continues to produce blossoms and fruit, till the commencement of the rainy season. The leaves of the trees being generally of a rough texture, and varnished, are admirably adapted to resist the rains.

The quadrupeds of Abyssinia are among the most remarkable in the world; and have, accordingly, attracted the attention of travellers. Many of the cow species have no horns, but are distinguished by bosses on their backs; others, nave horns of a prodigious size, as the galla, or sanga, whose horns are capable of holding ten quarts each. The horns of one of these animals are in the Museum of the College of Surgeons, in London. They are however, by no means common, being brought only by the Cafilas, or salt caravans, as valuable presents from the south. The sheep are small and black; the horses strong and beautiful; goats, mules, asses, and camels, are common. Of dogs there are two

species, one of which lives in packs in the villages, like the paria dog in India; the other, is kept for game, especially guinea fowl, in taking which it is very expert. Cats are found in every house, and rats are numerous in the fields.

Of wild animals, Abyssinia furnishes rast numbers. There is a great variety of antelopes, one of which is supposed to be allied to the chamois. Several species of the monkey, wildboar, porcupine, cavy, (nearly allied to that of the Cape) hares, and squirrels, are plentiful, but are thought unclean; also, an undescribed species of lemur, the size of a cat, with a long tail, faintly striped with black and white, and white bushy hair at the end; and clear white hair all over the body, except on the back, where there is a large oval spot covered with short deep black hair, of which every man in Tigrè is proud to have a piece on his shield. Elephants are hunted by the Shangalla for their teeth. The cawe leopard is rare and very shy, being only found in the interior districts. The two-horned rhinoceros is also rare, being found only in the forests of Wojjerat, and the low country, near the Funge. Of its horns, the foremost is two feet long, having no connexion with the bone of the head. The opinion of Sparrman is not improbable, namely, that the animal can raise or depress. them at pleasure. The skin of this rhinoceros has no folds in it, as that of the one-horned species has, but is of sufficient strength to be made into shields; as is also that of the buffalo. Zebras are common in the southern regions, and their manes are used to decorate the collars of the horses belonging to the most distinguished chiefs on days of state. Wild asses and lions, are found in thesandy districts, near the Tacazzé, and the skin of the latter richly ornamented, forms a dress like that worn by the Caffre chiefs. Whoever kills one of these animals, wears the paw on his shield. Of the leopard there are several species, one of which is black, and extremely rare, whose skin is worn only by governors of provinces. The lion-cat, tiger-cat, or grey lynx, and wild cat, are not uncommon. Civet is procured from the libet, and is an article of commerce. Wolves, foxes, sea foxes, and jackals, are numerous in every part of the country. But of all the quadrupeds of Abyssinia, none exceed the merciless hyæna. "They were a plague" says Mr. Bruce,


in every situation, both in the city and in the field, and surpassed the sheep in number. Gondar was full of them, from the time it turned dark, till dawn of day; seeking the different pieces of slaughtered carcases, which this cruel and unclean people expose in the streets without burial. The hyena, Mr. Salt remarks, has a singular cry, consisting of three distinct deeptoned cries, then silence for a few minutes, succeeded by the same kind of noise. The hippopotami are chiefly found in the deep pits, like lochs between the fords of the Tacazzé; where they roll and snort like a porpus, but are not able to remain longer than five or six minutes at a time under water. Their colour is a dusky brown, like the elephant, and their usual length 15 feet. Whips, to brush away the flies in hot weather, are made of their skins, the butt-ends of which,

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