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are adorned with hair from the tail of the camel- erythrorhynchos, with a black tail; it feeds on leopard.

The birds of Abyssinia exhibit every variety of appearance and plumage. Many species of the eagle, vulture and hawk, are found, especially after the tropical rains. These carnivorous birds feed at first upon the fish washed from the saltsprings, where they had been nourished by the force of the inundation, and left after the subsiding of the waters: when these fail, they turn their attention to the bodies of elephants and other beasts, slain by the hunters in the lowlands; rats and field-mice become their next prey, to which may be added the cattle slaughtered by the Abyssinian armies, and the dead bodies which remain upon the field of battle. Many of the birds of Abyssinia feed upon insects, others upon grain, seeds, and fruits. It is an advantage of granivorous birds, that, as the country is crossed by mountains that divide the seasons, and the rains in different parts fall at different periods, they have but a short passage from time to time to supply themselves with food. Of the numerous species of pigeons, all except one, which occupies the eaves of houses, &c.; are migratory. The owls are large and beautiful. The swallows, common in Europe, appear in passage at the very season when they leave that continent: numerous other kinds however are found, which are unknown in Europe. The large birds, resident in the mountains of Samen and Taranta, have tubular feathers, the hollow part being filled with yellow dust, which, agitated by the motion of the animal, issues out in great abundance. The dust expressed from the wing of a nisser, or golden eagle, appeared, says Mr. Bruce, through a microscope with a strong magnifying power, like fine feathers. One of these birds measured eight feet four inches from wing to wing, and nearly five feet from the tip of his tail to the termination of his beak. The racha mah, or black eagle, with several other species, called erkoom, moroc, sheregrig, and waalia, are particularly described by Mr. Bruce, to which Mr. Salt has added a new species, called goodiegoodie, about the size of a falcon, the colour deep brown, and the breast a clear white; the crows have nearly an equal proportion of black and white. The black feathers of the raven are intermixed with brown ones, the tip of his beak white, and a tuft of white feathers on his head, somewhat resembling a chalice or cup. Webfooted water-fowl are generally scarce, but storks and snipes are numerous. There is but one species of goose, called the golden goose, or goose of the Nile, which is common through all the South of Africa. A new species of the vulture has been recently discovered. Ostriches are sometimes met with in the low districts to the north. The hern inhabits marshy ground. The solitary hornbill is often seen in the district of Tigre. The Egyptian goose, allied to the Anas Lybica, is seen in some parts occasionally. Quails, guinea fowls, and partridges, abound. Amongst other rare birds brought home by Mr. Salt from Abyssinia, may be mentioned the following: A new species of bucco, since called Bucco Saltii, which clings to the branches of trees, like the woodpecker; a variety of the upupa

the figs of the ficus sycamorus; a nondescript species of the merops; a new species of tanapa, which perches on the backs of cattle, and feeds upon the grubs which live upon them in hot weather; the columba Abyssinica, which flies wild among the daro trees; the Erodia ampnilorsis, supposed to be a new genus of the Arodea Pondiceriana; also the Cursorius Europaus, an extremely rare bird, shot on the sandy plains traversed by the river Tacazzé.

Of the insects produced in Abyssinia, the most dreadful is the tsaltsalya, a species of the fly somewhat larger than a bee, with colourless wings of pure gauze, placed separately, like those of a fly. This insect is distinguished by a large head and sharp upper jaw, armed at the end with a strong pointed hair, about a quarter of an inch in length, the lower jaw being furnished with two of these hairs, whilst the legs are serrated in the inside and covered with down. Its motion is rapid, like that of a gad-fly, producing a jarring noise, accompanied by a humming, which is no sooner heard than the utmost consternation prevails amongst the cattle, who use every effort to escape his attack. The thick skin of the camel is no security against the proboscis of this dreadful insect, which, whenever it wounds, injects a venom which causes the part to swell, break, and mortify, to the certain destruction of the animal. Of the ravages of the Abyssinian locust, Mr. Salt gives a most dreadful account. Bees are domesticated in the province of Wojjerat, and white honey is produced in great quantities, and sold at Antalo.

The large snake called boa, about the thickness of a man's thigh, and upwards of twenty feet in length, is frequent in Abyssinia. The grassy verge of large pools affords him an agreeable resort; his chief subsistence is antelopes and deer, which he swallows piece-meal after crushing their bones. The cerastes, or horned viper, is commonly about thirteen or fourteen inches in length, and its poison is contained in a bag under its canine teeth. This reptile moves in all directions with great rapidity, springing suddenly upon its victim after approaching with its head averted to a proper distance. The reality of the incantation of serpents and scorpions, which in some is natural, and in others produced by medical preparations, is asserted by Mr. Bruce.

The torpedo and binny are amongst the most remarkable fishes, the latter of which is good for food. It grows to a considerable size, and its body is covered all over with beautiful scales resembling silver spangles.

The agriculture of Abyssinia is not in a state of great perfection; the worst grain is used for seed; and as almost every man cultivates for the support of his own family, it is seldom sold. The ploughs are rudely formed from the root or branch of a tree, and drawn by oxen; although in some cases iron ploughshares are employed. The land is twice ploughed, and afterwards the clods broken by women: the corn, when half ripe, is weeded by men, women, and children, singing as they work. The harvests are reaped by females, who, when strangers pass, utter a

sharp shrill cry, the Liralect of Syria, where the same custom is in vogue. It is produced by trilling the tongue against the roof of the mouth, and is, in effect, a constant repetition of the syllable al, uttered with the utmost rapidity. The grain, when gathered, is in most places secured from the weather by a covering of tanned kid skins. The plain of Larai, near Dixan, is in a state of high cultivation, and is rendered eminently productive by the constant practice of irrigation. In appearance, it greatly resembles the vale of Evesham.

With respect to the government of this country, nothing can be more despotic, there being no legal control over the absolute will of the sovereign; and yet, from the want of adequate military force, his authority is capable of being set at defiance, in any of the districts, by the inferior governors; so that hereditary succession, in Abyssinia, imposes but a feeble restraint on those civil wars and commotions, which continue to barbarize the people. The ceremony of coronation consists in anointing the king with plain oil of olives, which, when poured upon the crown of his head, he rubs into his long hair with both his hands. In former times it was of a more splendid description. The king, arrayed in crimson damask, with a great chain of gold about his neck, his head bare, and mounted on a horse richly caparisoned, advanced at the head of his nobility, passed the outer court of his palace as far as the paved way before the church, where he was met by a number of young girls, daughters of the ambares, or supreme judges, with many other noble virgins, standing on the right and left of the court. Of these, the two most distinguished in point of rank held in their hands a crimson cord of silk, stretched across from one company to another, about breast high, as if to prevent the king's passing into the church. When this was prepared, the sovereign advanced at a moderate pace, displaying, as he passed, his skill in horsemanship; and being stopped by the string, the damsels asked who he was; to which he replied, "I am your king, the king of Ethiopia." The virgins then answered him, "You shall not pass, you are not our king." Retiring some paces, he again presented himself, and the same question was repeated, when he answered, "I am your king, the king of Israel;" the same reply was still given by the girls. But the third time, on being asked who he was, he replied, "I am your king, the king of Zion," and drawing his sword, cut the string asunder. Upon this, the damsels cried out, "It is a truth, you are our king; truly you are the king of Zion." Upon this, they began to sing hallelujahs, in which they were joined by the army and the whole concourse of the king's attendants. The king, in the mean time, advanced to the foot of the church stair, dismounted and sat down upon a stone resembling the altar of Anubis or the dogstar. A number of priests approached in procession. The king was then anointed, crowned, and accompanied half up the stairs by ecclesiastics, singing as they ascended. At an aperture made in one of the steps he remained stationary, and was fumigated with myrrh, aloes, and cassia;

after which divine service was celebrated, and he returned to the camp, where 14 days were spent in feasting and rejoicing.

The king is saluted like the ancient Persian monarch with the title of "king of kings;" and the royal person is approached with every external sign of adoration; nor in his presence does any one venture to rise from the ground till he receives orders to that effect. When he resides abroad or gives audience, his head is perfectly covered, and his eyes only are seen, while one hand is placed upon his mouth. He communicates with his subjects by means of an officer named Kal-Hatze, the voice or word of the king. When in council he sits enclosed in a balcony with lattice windows and curtains, through a hole in the side of which he speaks to the KalHatze. When in the field he is attended by an officer called Lika Magwass, who carries his shield and lance. Such formerly was the respect paid to him, that no king ever fell in battle, and even now he is often secured by arraying himself in his royal insignia.

The administration of justice in Abyssinia is deplorable, and complainants stand before the palace from day-break to evening, uttering loud cries in their respective languages. So accustomed is the king to these querulous tones of sorrow, that when the rains prevent such as are really distressed from repairing to the capital, a set of vagrants are provided whose object it is to raise the cry of artificial sorrow, lest he should feel a lonely quietness. The phrase adopted on all occasions is, Rete O jau hai, Do me justice, O king!

No satisfactory information has at present been obtained with respect to the population of Abyssinia. The account of Alvarez is, that it is one of the most populous regions of the globe. From Mr. Bruce, on the other hand, it appears that although in so barbarous a state, it may be supposed that every tenth person joins the army, yet it is difficult to raise a force of more than 30,000. It is probable that the truth lies between these two extremes.

The devastations committed by the Abyssinian army in their march, says a celebrated traveller are such that they leave nothing living behind them, not "even the vestige of an habitation, but fire and the sword reduce every thing to a wilderness and solitude. The beasts and birds, unmolested, have the country to themselves, and increase beyond all possible conception. The slovenly manners of this people, who, after a battle, bury neither friends nor enemies; the quantity of beasts of burthen that die perpetually under the load of baggage, and variety of mismanagement; the offal and half-eaten carcases of cows, goats, and sheep, which they consume on their march: all furnish a stock of carrion sufficient to occasion contagious distempers, were there not such a prodigious number of voracious attendants who consume them almost before putrefaction. There is no giving the reader any idea of their number, unless by comparing them to the sands of the sea. While the army is in motion, they are a black canopy, which extends over it for leagues. When encamped, the ground is dis

coloured with them beyond the sight of the eye, and all the trees are loaded with them." In Abyssinia, the number of criminals executed for high treason, whose bodies are cut in pieces and thrown about the streets, invite the hyenas to the capital, in the same manner as the birds of prey are invited by the carrion of the camp. To keep them off an officer called Serach Massery, with a long whip begins cracking and making a noise worse than twenty French postilions at the door of the palace before the dawn of day. This chases away the hyenas and other wild beasts: this too is the signal for the king's rising, who sits in judgment every morning fasting, and after that, about eight o'clock, goes to breakfast.”

The houses of Abyssinia are in general thatched and mean; those of the grandees are spacious, but the only approach to architectural grandeur is to be seen in their churches, which are built on commanding eminences of a circular form, with conical thatched roofs, surrounded with pillars of cedar; within which is commonly a refreshing arcade.

Gondar, the metropolis of Abyssinia, is built upon a hill of considerable height, the top of which is flat. It consists of about 10,000 families. The houses are mostly of clay, and the roofs thatched in the form of cones. The king's palace at the west end of the town, consists of four stories, flanked with square towers, commanding a fine view of the country southward as far as the lake Tzana. It was formerly a considerable edifice; but having been often burnt, most of it is now in ruins. The audience chamber is 120 feet long. The palace and its contiguous buildings are surrounded by a stone wall 30 feet high, with battlements and a parapet roof, from which the street is seen to great advantage. Koscam the palace of the Iteghe, is situated on the southern side of the Mountains of the Sun. It is a square tower of three stories, with flat roof and battlements, encompassed by a wall which is a mile in circumference, including the richest church in the kingdom. Higher on the hill are the houses of the people of rank, who are for the most part relations of the Iteghe.

are of stone, are built of poles and bent grass. It carries on a considerable trade, but upon small capitals; property where the hand of power is unlimited, being too precarious to risk a venture in valuable commodities. Gondar and all the neighbouring country depend for the necessaries of life upon the Agows, who inhabit the province at the sources of the Nile, and come down to the number of 1000, or 1500 at a time, loaded with wheat, honey, butter, cattle, hides, wax, &c. to the capital.

Axum, the ruins of which are very extensive, was the ancient capital of Abyssinia, supposed to have been constructed in the time of Abraham. Among the ruins are 40 obelisks of granite; but without hieroglyphics; also the traces of a magnificent temple, originally 110 feet in length, with two wings on each side, a double porch, and an ascent of 12 steps. Sire is larger than Axum, and is situated on the brink of a steep narrow valley. The houses are built of clay, and covered with thatch. Adowa, a town of great importance in the province of Tigré, does not contain more than 300 houses; although by reason of the inclosures of a tree, called the wanzey, surrounding each of the houses, it occupies a spacious area. It stands on the declivity of a hill, on the west side of a small plain, surrounded by mountains, and is watered by three streams, which never become dry, even in the most arid seasons. Masuah is situated on an island, and the houses, except about 20, which

The natives of this country are of a dark olive complexion, and are so averse to white, that they dislike white grapes on account of the colour. Their dress consists of a large folding mantle with a blue and yellow border, wrapped round them and bound with a sash. Close drawers are also common, to which the priests add a vest of white linen next the skin. They are commonly girt with a belt of white cloth; or among the higher orders, of red Indian cotton with girdles of silk or worsted, brought from the Levant. from the Levant. On the head they wear a small shawl of white cotton, with the crown exposed. Their principal liquor is called maize, made with honey, fermented with barley, and strengthened with the root of the Rhamnus inebrians, called sadoo. The liquor is drank out of Venetian decanters, called brulhes. common drink amongst the lower classes is made of the bread left at their feasts, and parched. barley: it is called sowa, and is drank out of horns.


Marriage amongst the Abyssinians is generally a civil contract, and for the most part imperfectly observed. The female, who is seldom consulted on the occasion, is carried to the house of her husband, either on his shoulders or those of his friends. The bride and bridegroom are sometimes seated on a throne of turf, shaded with boughs, round which the relations vociferate and dance. Marriage by civil contract, can be · dissolved at pleasure, and requires for this purpose, nothing more than the assent of one or other of the parties. It is renewed again as often as it is agreeable to both parties; who, after they have been divorced, and connected with others, cohabit together as before. "I remember," says Bruce," to have been once at Koscam, in the presence of the Iteghe, when in the circle there was a woman of great quality, and seven men who had all been her husbands, none of whom was the happy spouse at that time." Ladies of rank retain their estates and maiden names, and assume great superiority over their husbands. There is no distinction between legitimate and illegitimate children; and in case of separation, they are equally divided; the eldest son falls to the mother's first choice, the eldest daughter to the father, &c. If the numbers are unequal after the first election, the rest are divided by lot. The dowry which consists of gold, cattle, musquets, and cloth, is also returned in case of separation. Princesses of the royal blood are not permitted to marry foreigners; and when they take the air, they go in great state, with 400 or 500 women attendants. In some cases marriage is entered into by religious contract, and the sacrament taken imme

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diately after the ceremony; but these occasions collop of flesh from its buttock; after which they are seldom. The king himself only sends a drove the cow gently on as before." In another message to the lady he chooses. The usual place he tells us that the flesh was taken from. period of marriage is, in males about ten years the upper part of the buttock, after which the old, in females younger; and although in some skin was flapped over the wound, fastened with parts the same man cohabits with several wo- a skewer, and a cataplasm of clay put over all. inen, and provides them with separate residences; The following description of one of their feasts one only is deemed his lawful wife. The women will throw a great light upon Abyssinian manare of a healthy constitution, active, and mo- ners: "A number of people of the best fashion derately handsome, having neither flat noses in the villages, of both sexes, courtiers in the panor thick lips like the negroes. They stand in lace, or citizens in the town, meet together to little need of midwives, which is indeed the dine between twelve and one o'clock. A long case in most countries of the torrid zone. They table is set in the middle of a large room, and appear in public, the same as in Europe, with- benches beside it," for the accommodation of the out being forbidden the conversation of the men. guests. "A cow or bull is brought to the door, When a person is diseased, especially if his and his feet strongly tied. The skin that hangs disease be the Tigrè-ter, his relations shew him down under his chin and throat," called the dewall the gold and silver ornaments, fine clothes, &c. lap in England, "is cut only so deep as to arrive which they can collect, making at the same time, at the fat, of which it totally consists;" and is a dreadful noise with drums and musical instru- managed with such dexterity, that by the sepaments, to drive out the devil, who, as they im- ration of a few small blood vessels, six or seven agine, produces the disease. As death ap- drops of blood only fall upon the ground. Having proaches, the drums, &c. are silent, and are satisfied, as they imagine, the Mosaic law, by succeeded after the decease by howling, and pouring these six or seven drops of blood upon tearing the hair and skin from the temples. The the ground: "two or more of them fall to body is immediately washed, fumigated with work: on the back of the beast, and on each incense, sewed up in its former apparel, and side of the spine they cut skin deep, then putburied in great haste. After the burial, com- ting their fingers between the flesh and the mences the toscar, or feast of the dead. An skin, they begin to strip the hide of the animal image of the deceased in rich garments, is set half way down his ribs, and so on to the upon his favourite mule, and carried through buttock, cutting the skin whenever it hinthe city, accompanied by other mules, &c. in ders them commodiously to strip the poor anigay apparel, together with a number of hired mal bare. All the flesh on the buttock is cut female mourners, crying out, as in Ireland, off then, and in solid square pieces, without Why did you leave us? had you not houses bones or much effusion of blood; and the proand land?" On the return of the procession, an digious noise the animal makes, is a signal for There are immense number of the people are feasted, and the company to sit down to table. a repetition of this feast at intervals, is given by then laid before every guest, instead of plates, the different relations; who vie with each other round cakes about twice as thick as a pancake, in profusion and liberality. The property of the and something thicker and tougher. It is undeceased then descends to his children and rela- leavened bread of a sourish taste, far from being tions; and if these are wanting, is divided disagreeable, and very easily digested, made of between the priests and the poor. a grain called teff. Three or four of these are generally put uppermost for the food of the person opposite to whose seat they are placed. Beneath these are four or five of ordinary bread, and of a blackish kind. These serve the master to wipe his fingers on, and afterwards the servant for bread to his dinner. Two or three servants then come, each with a square piece of beef in his bare hands, laying it upon the cakes of teff placed like dishes down the table. By this time. all the guests have knives in their hands, and the men have large crooked ones, which they put to all sorts of uses during the time of war: the women have small clasp knives. The company are so ranged that one man sits between two women; the man with his long knife cuts a thin piece, which would be thought a good beef-steak in England; while you see the motion of the fibres yet perfectly distinct and alive in the flesh. No man in Abyssinia of any fashion whatever feeds himself, or touches his own meat. The women take the steak and cut it length ways like strings, about the thickness of your little finger, then cross-ways into square pieces, something smaller than dice. This they lay upon a piece of the teff bread, strongly powdered with black pepper or cayenne, and fossil salt;

In case of murder, the criminal is generally given up to the relations of the deceased, who take him to the market-place, and shortly despatch him with their knives and spears. A person accused of any crime, is immediately on his apprehension, tied by his garments to another, and if he runs away and leave his garments behind him, it is thought a certain proof of guilt. Disputes are commonly decided by the Ras, before whom each party stakes a mule, together with a considerable quantity of gold, slaves, salt, &c. on the veracity of his statement; and these, should his assertion be controverted, are forfeited to the Ras.

The cruel custom of cutting the shulada, the mention of which subjected Mr. Bruce to the imputation of romance, has been confirmed on the testimony of subsequent travellers in Abyssinia. It consists in cutting pieces of flesh or raw steaks from the living animal, and eating them raw, and even while yet quivering with life; after which the wound is closed and the animal driven forward. Mr. Bruce relates, that near Axum he fell in with three soldiers "driving a cow. They halted at a brook, threw down the beast, and one of them cut a pretty large

they then wrap it up in the teff bread like a cartridge: in the mean time the man having put down his knife, with each hand resting upon his neighbour's knee, puts his head forward, and opening his mouth, turns to the one whose cartridge is first ready, who stuffs the whole of it into his mouth, which is so full that he is in constant danger of being choked. This is a mark of grandeur; the greater a man would seem to be, the larger a piece he takes in his mouth; and the more noise he makes in chewing it, the more polite he is thought to be. Having dispatched this morsel, his next female neighbour holds forth another cartridge, which goes the same way, and so on till he is satisfied. He never drinks till he has finished eating; and before he begins, in gratitude to the fair ones who fed him, he makes up two small rolls of the same kind and form, each of his neighbours opening their mouth at the same time, while with each hand he puts their portion into their mouths. He then falls to drinking out of a large handsome horn. The ladies eat till they are satisfied, then all drink together, Vive la joye et la jeunesse.' A great deal of joke and mirth goes round, very seldom with any mixture of acrimony or ill-humour. At this time the unfortunate victim at the door is bleeding, indeed, but bleeding little. As long as they can cut off the flesh from his bones, they do not meddle with the thighs or the parts where the great arteries are. At last they fall upon the thighs likewise, and soon after the animal bleeding to death, becomes so tough that the cannibals who have the rest of it to eat, find very hard work to separate the flesh from the bones with their teeth like dogs." Such is Bruce's description of an Abyssinian feast; and although that of Mr. Salt in some respects softens the impressions produced by his predecessor, he nevertheless represents the barbarity of the inhabitants in a light almost equally degrading.

The languages spoken in Abyssinia and the neighbouring districts are a corruption of the Geez called Tigrè, Gafat, Amharic, Agow, Falashan, Teheretch, Agow, Galla, and Shangalla. The Amharic, the modern language of Abyssinia, is an Arabic dialect, more simple than the Geez in the form of its verbs. The Falasha is spoken by the tribes professing the religion of the Jews, who formerly ruled in Dembea, Samen, and near the Augrab; and Kahha is one of the ancient Ethiopian tongues. The people of Gafat speak a corrupt dialect of the Amharic.

The Abyssinians compute their time by the solar year, after the manner of the ancient Egyptians. Their month consists of thirty days, to which, in the month of August, is added five days and a quarter to complete the year. The year commences with the 29th or the 30th of August, which is the 1st of their month Mascaram; and to every fourth year they add a sixth day. Their common epoch is from the creation of the world, from which they reckon 5500 years to the birth of Christ, rejecting the odd eight years of the Greeks, who made that period. They have other epochs, as from the councils of Nice and Ephesus, but in ecclesiastical computations, they follow the golden number and epact, invented in the reign of Severus

by Demetrius, the twelfth patriarch of Alexandria. They also compute time, by calling their years after the names of the Evangelists, whose writings are read in order every year in their churches; thus, for example, they would say of any events, “6 They happened in the days of Saint Matthew," that is, in the first quarter of .a year, while the writings of Saint Matthew were read in their churches. Their computation of the day is very arbitrary. The beginning of the day comprehending the duration of the twilight they call naggé. From the beginning of evening twilight, to the rising of the stars, they call méset. Midday is called kater, or culmination; and every other part of the day is described by pointing out the place in the heavens where the sun was at the time of which they are speaking.

The use of money being unknown, the revenue is paid in bullion gold Agowmidre pays annually to the king 1000 ounces of gold, 1000 dabres of honey, and 1000 or 1500 cattle. Damel pays 800 ounces of gold, and thus the income of government is levied in different proportions all over the country. Fossil salt supplies the want of money, and passes current in square pieces. At Masuah several coins have been introduced. The Venetian sequin is equal to two and a quarter pataka; the pataka, or imperial dollar to 28 harfs; one harf to four diwani; one diwani to ten kibur; and one kibur to three boorjoorke or grains, which latter consists of small glass beads of all descriptions and colours, broken or entire. The wakea, or ounce, is equal to ten derims or drachms, and twelve ounces make a liter, rotal, or Abyssinian pound. A gondar or wekea is equal to six drachms forty grains troy weight, and is divided into ten drachms of forty grains each. The ordinary value of a wakea is about 76 of the salt pieces mentioned above. The grain measure used in Abyssinia is the ardeb, containing ten measures called madaga, each equal to twelve ounces Cairo weight. An ardeb of grain costs two derims, or two patakas, An ardeb of teff is the same, and six or eight ardeb of tocusso are equal to an ounce, or ten derims of gold.

The commerce of Abyssinia is confined mostly to the shores of the Arabian gulf, and its manufactures are few and insignificant. They unravel the threads of the blue cloth of Surat, and weave them into their own webs; and procure a black dye from earth, and red, light blue, and yellow, from vegetables. Fine cloth is manufactured at Gondar, and coarse at Adowa, and the latter, besides its common use, circulates as money. The natives of Abyssinia tan hides to great perfection, through the use of the plant merjombey, a species of the solanum, and the juice of the kolquall tree.

The Abyssinians appear in every respect greatly below the rank of civilized nations. They seem indeed, by their churches and other ruined places, to have had a knowledge of architecture. But the workmen were sent for from other countries; so that when these fabrics were reared, especially the imperial palace built by Fr. Paez, a Spanish Missionary, the people flocked from all parts of Ethiopia to view it, and admired it as a new wonder of the world. Gold, silver, copper, and iron, are the

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