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British judge and collector are now stationed re, subordinate to the Bareily division. ALLINGHEY, a town in the province of Dindigul, Hindostan, thirty miles south-west of Dindigul.

ALLINEGHUR, a town of Hindostan, in the Oude, twenty miles north of Ghazypore.

ALLIONİ, (Charles,) a physician and botanist of Piedmont, born in 1725, and died in 1804; leaving many works on botany and medicine, of which the following are the principal: 1. Pedemontii Stirpium Rariorum Specimen Primum, 4to. Taurin. 1755. 2. Oryctographia Pedemontana Specimen, 8vo. Paris, 1757. 3. Enumeratio Stirpium Nicaensis, 8vo. Paris, 1757. 4. Synopsis Methodica Horti Taurinensis, 4to. Taurin. 1762. 5. Flora Pedemontana, 3 vols. folio, Taurin. 1785. 6. Auctarium ad Flora Pedemontana, Taurin. 1789.

ALLIONIÁ, in botany, a genus of plants of the monogynia order, belonging to the tetandria class; in the natural method ranking under the forty-eighth order, Aggregate. The characters are; the common CAL. oblong, simple, threeflowered, five-parted, and persistent; the proper one, obscure, above: the proper COR, monopetalous and funnel-shaped; the mouth quinquefid and erect STAM. four bristly filaments, longer than the corolla, and bending to one side; the antheræ roundish: PIST, an oblong germen beneath; the stylus bristly, and longer than the stamina; the stigmata are multifid and linear: no pericarpium: the seeds are solitary, oblong, and naked: the receptaculum is naked. There are two species, viz. 1. Allionia incaranata, 2. Allionia violacea, both natives of Ame

rica.

ALLIOTH, Arab. a horse: in astronomy, a star in the tail of the Great Bear, marked (e) by Boyer, whose observation is much used at sea, for finding the latitude. The Arabs give this name to each of the three stars in the tail of the Greater Bear, on account of their appearing like three horses, ranged for drawing a waggon. See URSA MAJOR.

ALLIOTICA, ALLIOTICS, from aλow, to vary, Galenic medicines for purifying the blood, consisting chiefly of the roots of dandelion, succory, fennel, and raisins; with the herbs endive common ox-eye, lettuce, sorrel, &c.

ALLISTAR, or ALLESTAR, a mean looking town in the peninsula of Malacca, and kingdom of Quedah, two or three leagues from the mouth

of a river. The inhabitants are a mixed race of Indians and Chinese, and the natives of the latter have a large temple here. The sovereign of Quedah resides in a fortress built at Allistar, but his palace hardly equals a respectable English farmhouse and yard.

ALLITERATION, Ad: litera, to a letter. ALLITERA'TIVE, The placing words in ALLITERA TOR, succession, or at short intervals from each other, commencing with the same letter.

The prosody of the Welsh bards depended much on alliteration. Hence they seem to have paid an attention to the scaldic versification. The Islandic poets

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are said to have carried alliteration to the highest pitch of exactness in their earliest period.

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T. Warton's Hist. of the Eng. Poetry, Thus the fields must be flowery, beauty must be beaming, ladies must be lovely, and in the same manner must the waves wind their wat'ry way,' the 'blust'ring blasts blow,' and 'locks all loosely lay,' not for the sake of the poetry, but the elegance of the alliteration. Connoisseur, No. 83.

ALLITERATION has been used by the most celebrated poets, both ancient and modern; Virgil, Lucretius, and even Homer not excepted. The Italians were particularly fond of it, as were also our Spenser and Shakspeare. It would be difficult to appropriate this figure to any particular passion, since rage and grief, pity and despair, have been alike expressed by it; also the roughness, strength, smoothness, airiness, and gaiety of the muse. No satisfactory account of alliteration has been given in the writings of the critics. They seem to have passed it over in silence, either as a false refinement, or as a mere trifle. Many chapters have been composed on quantity, on the beauties resulting from different arrangements of long and short syllables, and on the powers of pauses variously placed; but not a word on alliteration. This is the more extraordinary, as one should think it impossible for any man to examine minutely, and dissect a number of verses, without perceiving the vast abundance of this ornament. It is as if an anatomist should publish a complete table of the arteries in the human body, and affect never to have seen a vein nor a nerve: for we may safely affirm, that upon examining any number of verses, remarkable either for sweetness or for energy, many of them will be found in some degree alliterative. We do not say that the sweetness and energy of versification depend chiefly on this circumstance, yet we cannot help believing that it may claim a considerable share: for the poets whose fame dealers in alliteration.—The trifling appearance, is highest for versification, are most extensive and the frequent abuse, of the ornament itself, are circumstances which have induced a degree of neglect. How common is it for writers, who affect to be comic, when in want of other means for raising a smile, to use affected alliteration with success! But, in the fine arts, no beauty or grace is beyond the power of ridicule. The noblest attitudes in painting have been rendered laughable by caricature. So fares it with alliteration. Nor is it to be wondered at, that much of the delight afforded by versification arises from the same letter or sound on the accented parts of so trifling a cause as the occasional repetition of a verse; since there are many other causes of pleasure which, when dissected, seem equally contemptible. The fact is, that the principal operation of this ornament is no doubt mechanical. It It is easier for the organs of speech to resume, at short intervals, one certain conformation, than to assume a number of different ones, unconnected and discordant. For example, a succession of labials, interspersed at regular distances with dentals and gutturals, are more easily pronounced than an irregular and random interspersion of all the three. Sounds of which the

articulation is easiest, are most completely in the power of the speaker. Not to add the pleasure that results to the ear from the repetition of the same letter, and which has been compared to the frequent returns of the key-note in music. The ear is pleased with alliteration, as it contributes to the superior ease of recitation; for what is recited with ease must be heard with pleasure. —These remarks might be illustrated by numberless passages from the best poets. Pope's works are full of alliterations; and Grey, who learned his versification from Dryden, as Dryden did from Spenser, seems to have paid particular attention to this grace: indeed these three abound in alliterations. This ornament is almost always founded upon a repetition of one or more consonants; and generally on those in the beginning of the emphatic words; but a verse is held to be alliterative, which has a letter repeated on its accented parts, although those parts do not begin words; the repeated letter bearing a strong analogy to the bars in a musical phrase. The following lines, selected from Pope's Essay on Man,

afford instances of both kinds of alliteration.

Reason is here no guide but still a guard.
In spite of pride, in erring reason's spite.
Who for thy table feeds the wanton fawn
For him as kindly spreads the flow'ry lawn.
The bounding steed, you pompously bestride,
Shares with his lord the pleasure and the pride.
Man cares for all; to birds he gives his woods;
To beasts his pastures, and to fish his floods :
For some his int'rest prompts him to provide;
For more his pleasure; yet for more his pride.
That very life, his learned hunger craves,
He saves from famine, from the savage saves :
Nay feasts the animal he dooms his feast,
And, till he ends the being, makes it blest.
That Virtue's ends from vanity can raise :
And not a vanity is giv'n iu vain.

Most strength the moving principle requires;
Active its task, it prompts, impels, inspires.
In lazy apathy let Stoics boast

Their virtue fix'd; 'tis fix'd as in a frost.

The young disease that must subdue at length, Grows with his growth, and strengthens with his strength.

Death still draws nearer, never seeming near. Great standing miracle! that heav'n assign'd Its only thinking thing this turn of mind! Alliterations contribute more to the beauties of poetry, than is generally supposed, and cannot, therefore, be deemed unworthy of a poet's regard in composition. If two words offer of equal propriety, the one alliterative, the other not, the first ought to be chosen if it suit the purpose in every other respect; but the beauty of alliteration, when happy, is not greater than its deformity when affected, or forced. Alliterations are evidently improper, where the sense is sacrificed to the sound; as in the following unnatural metaphor of Grey; "Eyes that glow and fangs that grin ;" where the poet ascribes a property to the fangs, that can only belong to the face of an animal; and in the following couplet of Pope's, in the first line of which, however, the alliteration is unexceptionable, viz.

The arts of building from the bee receive; Learn of the mole to plough, the worm to weave.” The idea of a worm weaving, which seems to be introduced as much for the sake of alliteration, as of the rhyme, scarce even poetical licence can justify; for though the silk-worm is an excellent spinster, we believe none of the insect tribe merits the epithet of a weaver except the spider, which does not belong to the class of vermes, or worms.

Alliteration was much affected by the Saxons, as appears from many instances of this kind which occur in their laws. It is oftentimes so frequently introduced as to make the work in which it appears completely ridiculous, an instance of which occurs in the Nugævenales, attributed erroneously to one Lates, from Germany, music master in the university at Oxford, which begins thus:

Plaudite, porcelli, porcorum pigra propago And it consisted of nearly 350 lines! the real Progreditur. author's name, however, was Petrus Placentius, and he assumed the name of Petrus Porcius, from the subject he so laboriously discussed. Aldhelm, one of the three great luminaries of the Anglo Saxons, also appears to have carried this ornament to the extreme. His letter to Eahfred contains a most elaborate specimen of Latin alliteration. Fifteen words begin with the same letter in the first paragraph: 'Primitus (pantorum procerum pretorumque pio potissimum paternoque præsertim privilegio) panegyricum poemata que passim prosatori sub polo promulgantes stridula vocum symphonia ac melodia cantilenæque carmine modulaturi hymnizenus.' In the same letter we have afterwards 'torrenda tetræ tortionis in tartara trusit.' We are told of one Theobaldus, a Monk of the order of St. Benedict, who flourished in the time of Charles the Bald, to whom he presented a panegyric on baldness, every word beginning with the letter C. The plays and romances of Lilly, which consist wholly of affectation and conceit, contributed to spoil the state of the age in which he lived. Those who are fond of the figure would perhaps equally enjoy a poem composed by the lipogrammatists or letter-droppers of antiquity, who would take an exception against some particular letter in the alphabet so as not to admit it once into a whole book. One Tryphidorus, a great master in this kind of writing, is said to have composed an Odyssey consisting of 24 books, excluding from the first book the letter A, from the second B, and so on: thus shewing the whole 24 letters, one after another, that he could do his business without them. It must have been very pleasant to have seen this poet making his escape through the several Greek dialects, when he was pressed with it in any particular syllable, with the same earnestness as another would avoid a false quantity; for the most apt and elegant word in the whole language was rejected, like a diamond with a flaw in it, if it appeared blemished with a wrong letter. In allusion to this, Mr. Addison says he saw in a dream the phantom of Triphidorus the Lipogrammatist engaged in a ball with 24 persons, who pursued him by turns through all the intricacies and labyrinths of a country dance, without being able to overtake him.

ALLIUM, from aλɛw, to avoid, because many shun the smell of it: garlic; a genus of the monogynia order, belonging to the hexandria class of plants; and in the natural method ranking in the ninth order, Spathaceæ. The characters are: CAL. a common spatha, roundish, and multiflorous: cor. six oblong petals: STAM. six subulated filaments, often the length of the corolla; the antheræ are oblong and erect: PIST. a germen above, shorter, nearly three-cornered, with angles engraved with a line; the styli are simple; the stigmata acute: PERICARP. a very short, broad, three-lobed capsule, with three cells and three valves: the seeds are many and roundish. Of this genus forty different species are enumerated by Linnæus, among which he includes the and porrum, or onions and leeks.

cepa

1. ALLIUM ASCALONIUM, or eschalot, was found wild in Palestine by Dr. Hasselquist. The root of this species is very pungent, has a strong, but not unpleasant smell, and therefore is generally preferred to the onion for making high-flavoured soups and gravies. It is also put into pickles, and in the East Indies they use a great deal of it for this purpose.

2. ALLIUM CEPA, or common onion, differs from the garlic only in the swelling pipy stalk, which is much larger in the middle than at either end. From whence this was first brought into Europe is not known; but that it is natural to Africa is beyond a doubt, it being evident that onions were eaten by the Egyptians about 200 years before Christ; and they make a great part of their constant food to this day.

3. ALLIUM PORRUM, or leek, has been so long cultivated, that its native place of growth cannot be traced. It is the same as that mentioned in the eleventh chapter of Numbers, where it is said that the Israelites longed for leeks and onions. Their general use as a potherb is well known. Their culture is the same with that of the onion.

4. ALLIUM SATITUM, or garlic, has a bulbous root, of an irregularly roundish shape, with several fibres at the bottom; each root is composed of a number of lesser bulbs, called cloves of garlic, enclosed in one common membraneous coat, and easily separable from one another. All the parts of this plant, but more especially the roots, have an acrimonious, and almost caustic taste, with a strong offensive smell, which last has induced those who preserved some of the species in gardens, on account of their yellow flowers, to eradicate them.

5. ALLIUM SCHOENOPRASUM, or cives, is an inhabitant of Siberia, and a very small plant compared with the former. Its taste, smell, and virtues, are much the same as those of the

common onion.

6. ALLIUM SCORODOPRASUM, or rokambole, grows naturally in Denmark and Sweden.

7. ALLIUM URISNUM, or wild garlic, is very common and useful in Kamschatka for medicine as well as food. Both Russians and natives gather it in great quantities for winter service. They steep it in water, then mix it with cabbage, onions, and other ingredients, and form out of them a ragout which they eat cold. It is also the principal remedy for the scurvy. As soon as

this plant appears above the snow, they seem to put this dreadful disorder at defiance, and find a cure almost in its worst stages.

ALLIX, (Peter, D. D.) a learned French Protestant born at Alençon in 1641, and minister of the reformed church at Rouen, where his reputation as an author induced the reformed to call him to Chanenton, about a league from Paris. being the principal church they had in France. On the revocation of the edict of Nantz, he retired to England; and studied the language with much success, leaving behind him many testimonies of his literary abilities, and theological zeal. Among the number of his writings are 1. Dissertatio de Sanguine D. N. I. Christi. 2. Dissertatio de Tertulliani Vita et Scriptis. 3. Les Maximes du Vrai Chretien, joined with Bonnes et Saintes Pensées pour tous les Jours du Mois, Amsterdam, 1687. 4. Reflections upon the Books of the Holy Scriptures, to establish the Truth of the Christian Religion, republished by Bishop Watson in his Tracts. 5. Some Remarks upon the Ecclesiastical History of the ancient Churches of Piedmont, 4to. London, 1690. 6. Remarks upon the Ecclesiastical History of the ancient Churches of the Albigenses. 4to. Lond. 1692. 7. The Judgment of the ancient Jewish Church against the Unitarians, &c. Of this last work bishop Horsley speaks highly in his controversy with Dr. Priestley. He was complimented with the degree of D. D. and in 1690 was made treasurer of the church of Salisbury. He died in 1717.

ALLOA, a town and parish of Scotland, in the county of Clackmannan, extending about four miles from east to west and about two from north to south, containing about 3900 acres. The Forth is its southern boundary, and the course of the river is so circuitous, that its banks on the border of the parish measure five miles and a half. Upon the west it is watered by the Divon, which joins the Forth about a mile from Tullibody, and has a pier built at its mouth, where vessels of tolerable burden can load. The climate is good, and the soil various. The rivers produce salmon, trout, &c. and the coast is frequented by sturgeons, soles, turbots, skate, haddocks, Congo eels, &c.; and a peculiar species of herrings, called GANDANOOKS, which see. Upon the eastern extremity of the parish there is an artificial lake, turning various niills, cleansing the harbour, &c. On the north-east extremity is the elegant seat of Shaw Park. The colliery affords employment to many of the inhabitants, and furnishes 35,000 tons of coal annually for export. The machinery used is excellent. There were formerly 100 looms employed in the manufacture of camblets, but these are now almost wholly discontinued; as well as the manufacture of serges and inferior woollen stuffs. Here are two extensive distilleries, two celebrated breweries, tanneries of repute, and a glass manufactory of great extent.

The town of Alloa was the Alauna of the ancient Romans, and is seated on the north side of the Forth, seven miles east from Stirling by land, but above seventeen by water, about thirtytwo north-west from Edinburgh by land, and twenty-seven and a half higher up the Frith than Leith. It is pleasantly situated and contains

from 5000 to 6000 inhabitants. It has two market days in the week, and four annual fairs. Alloa is remarkable for its fine castle, the seat of the ancient earls of Mar, and for the coal mines near it. The harbour is extremely commodious, with great depth of water; enabling vessels to load expeditiously. An excellent dry dock has been erected, capable of receiving ships of the reatest burden and above the dock there is a ferry, with two very complete piers, one on each side of the river. The tower and lands of Alloa were exchanged by David II. king of Scots, in 1365, with Thomas Erskine, for the lands and estate of Strathgartney in Perthshire; and since that period the castle of Alloa has been the favourite residence of the family of Mar. The turret of the tower is eighty-nine feet in height; and the walls are eleven feet in thickness. It was built in the end of the thirteenth century. Its situation is uncommonly beautiful. The gardens were the first that were laid out on a great scale in Scotland; they contain about forty acres. In this residence of the family of Erskine, many of the Scottish princes received their education, having been for more than two centuries the wards of the lords Erskine and earls of Mar. The last heir of the Scottish monarchy who was nurtured in it, was Henry, prince of Cumberland, son of king James VI. The streets of Alloa are, in general, narrow and irregular; but there is one, called John's street, built by the late earl upon a regular plan, which runs in a line parallel to the gardens, and leads to the harbour, between seventy-six and eighty feet broad, and terminating in a beautiful gravel walk. A row of limetrees on each side adds to its beauty, and affords an agreeable shade in summer. The church of Alloa is rather small for its population. It has a post-office and custom-house; a subscription library, on a respectable footing; and contains a burgher, antiburgher, and relief meeting houses. Alloa is governed by a baron-bailie. Market on Saturday.

ALLOBROGES, from Allobrox: a people of Gallia Narbonensis, situated between the Isara and the Rhone, and the lake Lemanus: commended by Cicero for their fidelity; but censured by Horace on account of their fondness for novelty. Epod. 16, v. 6.

Novisque rebus infidelis Allobrox. ALLOBROX, in ancient history, a name given by Berosus to the fifteenth king of the Gauls; whence some have derived the name of the Allobroges. Dupleix, Mem. des Gaules, 1. 2.

c. 16.

ALLOCATION, in law, an allowance made on account in the Exchequer.

ALLOCATIONE FACIENDA, a writ for an accountant to receive such sums from the treasurer as he has expended. Reg. Orig. 206.

ALLOCATO COMITATU, in law, a new writ of exigent allowed before any county court holden, on the former not being fully served or complied with.

ALLOCATUR, in law, i. e. it is allowed; a term applied to the certificate of allowance by the master on taxation of costs.

ALLOCHROITE, in mineralogy, an opaque

garnet, of a greyish, yellowish, or reddish colour, Quartz scratches it, but it strikes fire with steel. It has externally a glistening, and internally a glimmering lustre. Its fracture is uneven, and its fragments are translucent on the edges: sp. gr. 3.5 to 3.6. It melts before the blowpipe into a black opaque enamel. Vauquelin's analysis is the following: Silica 35, lime 30.5, oxide of iron 17, alumina 8, carbonate of lime 6, oxide of manganese 3.5. M. Brogniart says it is absolutely infusible without addition, and that it requires a flux, as phospate of soda or ammonia. With these it passes through a beautiful gradation of colours. It is covered at first with a species of enamel, which becomes on cooling reddish-yellow, then greenish, and lastly of a dirty yellowish-white. He represents it as rather difficult to break. It was found by M. Dandrada in the iron mine of Virums, near Drammen in Norway, and is accompanied by carbonate of lime, protoxide of iron, and brown garnets.

ALLOCUTIO, in Roman antiquity, the oration of a general addressed to his soldiers to animate them to fight, to appease sedition, &c. A mount of earth was frequently raised on the occasion, and from this the general pronounced his harangue to the several squadrons around him. ALLOCUTION, n. or ADLOCUTION, sing the speech to.

Ad: loquor, locutus, to speak to. Addres

Upon such a high tribunal or scaffold [the ẞnua, or times sitting in medals and ancient bass-relievos; both pulpit] we often see the emperor standing, and somein adlocutions to the army, and in distributing their bounty to the people.

Sir G. Weeler, on the Churches of the Prim. Chris.

ALLODIARIUS, in feudal customs, the proprietor of allodial lands; also a lord paramount of a manor. See next article; also FEE and FEODAL.

ALLODIUM, most probably of German original: a possession held in absolute independence, without any acknowledgment of a lord paramount. It is opposed to fee, or feudum, which intimates some kind of dependence. There are no allodial lands in England, all being held either mediately or immediately of the king.

ALLOEOTHETA, in rhetoric, aλoolera; from aMotoç various, Oɛros disposed: a figure of grammar varying from the ordinary rules of syntax, as a noun in the singular with a verb plural, Pars abiere.

ALLOGIA, in antiquity, of locus, Lat. a place: winter quarters appointed for the soldiery.

ALIOGNE, in military affairs, the cordage used with floating bridges, by which they are guided from one side of a river to the other.

ALLOISI, BALDASSARE, a celebrated painter of Bologna, who obtained the name of Galanino. He was born in 1578, and studied under the Caracci, whose style he retained in all his compositions. The Italians have considered him a second Vandyck. He died in 1638.

ALLONBY. See ALANBY.

ALLONGE. n. s. allonge, Fr. 1. A 0 pass thrust with a rapier, so called from the lengthen ing of the space, taken by the fencer. 2. It is

likewise taken for a long rein, when the horse is trotted in the hand. ALLOOʻ, interj.

or

HALLOOʻ.

Loo, aloo, halloo, lo, imperative of the verb look. Alew is found in Spenser.

Awhile she walkt and chauft; awhile she threw Herself apon her bed and did lament:

Yet did she not lament with loude alew

As women wont, but with deepe sighes and singulfes
few.
Spenser's Faerie Queene, book v. c. vi.
List, list; I hear

Some far off halloo break the silent air.

Milton's Comus. Alloo thy furious mastiff, bid him vex The noxious herd, and print upon their ears A sad memorial of their past offence. Philips. ALLOOR, a town of Hindostan, in the Northern Carnatic, 114 miles north of Madras. N. lat. 14°. 40'. E. long. 80°. 3'.

ALLOPHANE, in mineralogy, a stone of a blue, and sometimes a green or brown colour, which occurs massive, or in imitative shapes. Lustre vitreous; fracture imperfectly conchoidal; transparent or translucent on the edges. Moderately hard, but very brittle. Specific gravity 1.89. Composition,silica 21.92, alumina 32.2, lime 0.73, sulphate of lime 0.52, carbonate of copper, 3.06, hydrate of iron 0.27, water 41.3. Stroineyer. It gelatinizes in acids: it is found in a bed of iron-shot limestone in greywacke slate, in the forest of Thuringia.

ALLOPHESES, aopaois, in medicine, is speaking of things differently from what they are,

delirium.

ALLOPHYLLUS, in botany; a genus of the monogynia order, belonging to the octandria class of plants. The characters are: CAL. a four leaved perianthium, with orbicular leaflets, the opposite ones less: COR. four orbicular equal petals, less than the calyx; the claws broader, the length of the smaller leaves of the calyx: STAM. eight slender filaments, the length of the corolla: the ANTH. are roundish: PIST. a round didymus germen above; the stylus filiform, longer than the stamina; and the stigma bifid, with revolute divisions. There is but one species, viz. allophyllus zeylanicus, a native of Ceylon.

ALLORI, Alexander, or Bronzino, a painter of Florence, who successfully followed Michael Angelo, and died in 1607, after having gained a great reputation.

ALLORI, Christophano, son and disciple of the preceding, was born 1577, and died at the age of 42, leaving many small pictures, executed with remarkable correctness and delicacy. ALLOT', v. According to Tooke, the ALLOTMENT, Ang. Sax. lot or lot is the ALLOTTERY. regular past tense of hlidan, to cover, and means something covered. Hence, probably, the verb allot. To put to lot; to distribute by lot; parcel out; to`give; grant; ap

portion.

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I shall deserve my fate if I refuse That happy hour, which heaven allots to peace. Dryden.

There can be no thought of security or quiet in this world, but in a resignation to the allotments of God and nature. L'Estrange. Though it is our duty to submit with patience to more scanty allotments; yet thus much, we may reasonably and lawfully ask of God.

Rogers's Sermons. It is laid-out into a grove, for fruits and shade; a vineyard; and an allotment, for olives and herbs.

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ALLOY, OF ALLAY, alliage, Fr. Legiren metallversetsung, Germ. lega, Ital. This word language, from the Latin, ad-ligatio; which sigis supposed to be derived through the French nifies the act of tyeing, binding, or connecting together. The term formerly was almost wholly confined in England to the goldsmiths, and the mint, where it was appropriated to the lowering of the purity of gold or silver, previous to its being coined, and hence seems gradually to have assumed the meaning of the English verb, to allay, i. e. to abate, to lower. All the other known combinations of metal with each other, were simply called 'mixed metals,' but the term alloy, has at length been made to comprehend all the binary and more complicated metallic compounds. Those of which mercury makes a part, are generally known by the name amalgam.

An alloy, therefore, amongst philosophical chemists, may be defined a combination of any two or more metals into one homogeneous mass to the exclusion of more mechanical mixtures

The most valuable and useful of these have acquired particular names, as brass; which is an alloy of copper and zinc; bell-metal which is an alloy of copper and tin, &c. When any precious metal is mixed with another of less value. the assayers call the latter the alloy.

Every alloy is distinguished by the metal which predominates in its composition, or which gives it its value. Hence, English jewellery trinkets are ranked under alloys of gold, though most of them deserve to be placed under the head of copper. Since there are about 30 different permanent metals, independent of those evanescent ones that constitute the bases of the alkalies and earths, there ought to be about 870 different species of binary alloy. Only 132 species, however, have hitherto been made and examined. Some metals have so little affinity

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