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stead of tiles. From those leaves they obtain paper, thread, needles, clothing, shoes, stockings, and cordage; and, from its copious juice, they make wine, honey, sugar, and vinegar. Of the trunk, and thickest part of the leaves, when well baked, they make a very tolerable dish of food. Lastly, it is a powerful medicine in several disorders, and particularly in those of obstructions of the urine. It is also one of the plants the most valued and most profitable to the Spaniards. As to the medical properties of Aloes, the substance, known by the name of aloes, is the inspissated juice of some of the above-mentioned species. The ancients distinguished two sorts of aloes: the one was pure, and of a yellowish colour, inclining to red, resembling the colour of a liver, and thence named hepatic; the other was full of impurities, and hence supposed to be only the dross of the better kind. At present, various sorts are met with, distinguished either from the place whence they are derived; from the species of the plants; or from some difference in the juices themselves. Of these, we shall notice the common aloes, or juice of the officinal aloe-hepatic aloes, the juice of the guinea aloe, so called from its liverlike colour-caballine, or horse aloes, from the same plant, but a coarser sort, commonly given to horses; Socotorine aloes, from the juice of the aloe of Socotora. Those commonly sold in the shops may be arranged in three classes, viz.

1. Aloes caballinæ, fœtid, caballine, or horsealoes, is supposed to be a coarse sort obtained from the aloe perfoliata; according to others, it is the produce of the aloe disticha. It is chiefly distinguishable by its strong rank smell.

2. Aloes hepaticæ, hepatic, Barbadoes, or common aloes, the juice of a variety of the former, is not so clear and bright as it; it is also of a darker colour, more compact texture, and for the most part drier. Its smell is much stronger and more disagreeable; the taste intensely bitter and nauseous, with little or nothing of the fine aromatic flavour of the Socotorine. The best hepatic aloes come from Barbadoes in large gourd shells; an inferior sort, which is generally soft and clammy, is brought over in casks. Of the cultivation and preparation of hepatic aloes in the island of Barbadoes, we have the following account in the London Medical Journal, vol. viii. art. 8.-' The lands in the vicinity of the sea, that is, from two to three miles, which are rather subject to drought than otherwise, and are so stony and shallow as not to admit of the planting of sugar-canes with any prospect of success, are generally found to answer best for the aloe plant. The stones, at least the larger ones, are first picked up, and either packed in heaps upon the most shallow barren spots, or laid round the field as a dry wall. The land is then lightly ploughed, and very carefully cleared of all noxious weeds, lined at one foot distance from row to row, and the young plants set, like cabbages, at about five or six inches from each other. This regular mode of lining and setting the plants is practised only by the most exact planters, in order to facilitate the weeding of them, by hand, very frequently;



because, if they are not kept perfectly clear and free from weeds, the produce will be but very small. They will bear being planted in any season of the year, even in the driest, as they will live on the surface of the earth for many weeks without a drop of rain. The most general time, however, of planting them, is from April to June. In the March following the labourers carry a parcel of tubs and jars into the field, and each takes a slip or breadth of it, and begins by laying hold of a bunch of the blades, as much as he can conveniently grasp with one hand, while with the other he cuts it just above the surface of the earth, as quickly as possible, that the juice may not be wasted; and then places the blades in the tub, bunch by bunch, or handful by handful. When the first tub is thus packed quite full, a second is begun (each labourer having two;) and, by the time the second is filled, all the juice is generally drained out of the blades in the first tub. The blades are then lightly taken out, and thrown over the land by way of manure; and the juice is poured out into a jar. The tub is then filled again with blades; and so, alternately, till the labourer has produced his jar full, or about four gallons and a half of juice, which is often done in six or seven hours and he has then the remainder of the day to himself, it being his employer's interest to get each day's operation as quickly done as possible. It may be observed, that although aloes are often cut in nine, ten, or twelve months after being planted, they are not in perfection till the second and third year; and that they will be productive for a length of time, say ten or twelve years, or even for a much longer time, if good dung, or manure of any kind, is strewed over the field once in three or four years, or oftener if convenient. The aloe juice will keep for several weeks without injury. It is therefore not boiled till a sufficient quantity is procured to make it an object for the boiling house. In the large way, three boilers, either of iron or ot copper, are placed to one fire, though some have but two, and the small planters only one. The boilers are filled with the juice; and as it ripens or becomes more inspissated, by a constant but regular fire, it is ladled forward from boiler to boiler, and fresh juice is added to that farthest from the fire, till the juice in that nearest to the fire (by much the smallest of the three, and commonly called by the name of tatch, as in the manufactory of sugar) becomes of a proper consistency to be skipped or ladled out into gourds, or other small vessels used for its final reception. The proper time to skip or ladle it out of the tatch, is when it is arrived at what is termed a resin height, or when it cuts freely, or in thin flakes, from the edges of a small wooden slice, that is dipped from time to time into the tatch for that purpose. A little lime water is used by some aloe boilers, during the process, when the ebullition is too great.-As to the sun-dried aloes, which is most used for medicinal purposes, very little is made in Barbadoes. The process is, however, very simple, though extremely tedious. The raw juice is either put into bladders, left quite open at top, and suspended in the


sun, or in broad shallow trays of wood, pewter therefore are frequently employed in chlorosis, or tin, exposed also to the sun, every dry day, or where the menstrua are obstructed. They are until all the fluid parts are exhaled, and a perfect a good stomachic purge, and given in all cases resin formed, which is then packed up for use, where such a one is wanted; but are considered or for exportation.'-The Barbadoes aloes is as a heating medicine, and not proper in bilious said to be common also in the other West India habits, or where there is much heat or fever; islands; and the following account of the manner and a continued use is apt to bring on the piles. of preparing it in Jamaica is given by Dr. Aloes are given in substance from five grains to Wright in the same volume of the Medical a scruple, though formerly it used to be prescribed Journal, art. 1. The plant is pulled up by the in doses of two or three times that quantity; roots, and carefully cleansed from the earth or but these large doses sometimes brought on other impurities. It is then sliced and cut in troublesome symptoms. As they operate slowly, pieces into small hand-baskets or nets. These they are generally taken at bed time, and operate nets or baskets are put into large iron boilers next day. With regard to aloes, as well as all with water, and boiled for ten minutes; when other resinous purges, it ought to be observed, they are taken out, and fresh parcels supplied that when they are given in substance without till the liquor is strong and black. At this period any mixture, they are apt to adhere to the the liquor is thrown through a strainer into a coats of the intestines, and to occasion griping deep vat, narrow at bottom, to cool, and to de- and uneasiness; for these reasons aloes are geposite its feculent parts. Next day the clear nerally mixed with some saponaceous or resolvent liquor is drawn off by a cock, and again com- body to destroy their viscid tenacity: they are mitted to the large vessel. At first it is boiled given in substance. The substances which are briskly; but towards the end of the evaporation, most used for this purpose are, a small quantity is slow, and requires constantly stirring to prevent of the fixed alkaline salts, soap, the yolk of an burning. When it becomes of the consistence egg, and gummous vegetable extracts. Mr. of honey, it is poured into gourds or calabashes Barton alleges, that by triturating aloes with a for sale. This hardens by age.' small quantity of alkaline salts, their tenacity was more effectually destroyed than by any other thing he tried: that Castile soap and the yolk of an egg answered next best; that manna, sugar, and honey, were far inferior to them; and that gummous, or mucous vegetable extracts, such as the extracts of gentian, or of liquorice root, triturated with the aloes, in the proportion of one part of the extract to two of the aloes, and then made up into pills with a sufficient quantity of syrup, destroyed the viscidity of the aloes and rendered their operation mild. Socotorine aloes contain more gummy matter than hepatic and hence are likewise found to purge more, and with greater irritation. The first sort therefore is most proper where a stimulus is required, as for promoting or exciting the menstrual flux; whilst the latter is better calculated to act as a common purge. For preparations of aloes, see PHARMACY, Index.

3. Aloes perfoliata, Socotorine aloes, brought from the island of Socotora in the Indian ocean, wrapt in skins; it is obtained from the fourth species above-mentioned. This sort is the purest of the three; it is of a glossy surface, clear, and in some degree pellucid; in the lump, of a yellowish red colour, with a purple cast; when reduced to powder, of a bright golden colour. It is hard and friable in the winter, somewhat pliable in summer, and grows soft betwixt the fingers. Its taste is bitter, accompanied with an aromatic flavour, but insufficient to prevent its being disagreeable: the smell is not very unpleasant, and somewhat resembles that of myrrh. With regard to the physical effects of aloes, all the different kinds are gum resins, which contain more gummous than resinous parts. Water, when of a boiling heat, dissolves all the soluble parts of aloes; but if let stand till it grows cold, they drop most of their resin. A strong spirit dissolves and keeps suspended almost the whole of the aloes, though they contain such a large portion of gummous parts; hence it is evident, that aloes contain some principle, saline or other, which renders water capable of dissolving resin, and spirit capable of dissolving gum. Aloes are a stimulating stomachic purge, which, given in small quantity, operates mildly by stool; but in large doses acts roughly, and often occasions an irritation about the anus, and sometimes a discharge of blood. They are good opening medicines to people of lax habit, or who live a sedentary life; and to those whose stomach and bowels are loaded with phlegm or mucus, or who are troubled with worms, or are debilitated; because, at the same time that they carry off those viscid humours, which pall the appetite, and overload the intestines, they serve as strengtheners. In small doses, repeated from time to time, they not only cleanse the primæ viæ, but likewise tend to promote the menstrual discharge in women; and

With regard to aloes wood, many authors mistake the plant and tree for each other; because, we have but little knowledge of the tree; and the drug which the plant produces is much better known, and of much greater use. The aloe tree grows in China, in the kingdom of Lao, in Cochin China, Champac, and Sumatra. It is about the same height and form as the olive tree ; its trunk is of three colours, and contains three sorts of wood: the heart is dearer in the Indies. than even gold itself; it serves to perfume clothes and apartments, and is reckoned a sovereign cordial in fainting fits, and against the palsy It destroys the tinea and ascarides in children. It is used at sacrifices, as incense, by the Chinese, and all the heathen Moors. It is also used to set the most precious jewels that are worked in the Indies. The aloes wood is very highly valued; and divers strange fables have been invented as to the origin of the tree that yields it; some feign that it grew in paradise, and was only conveyed to us by means of the rivers overflowing

Paradise Lost, b. iv.

their banks, and sweeping off the trees in their Murm'ring and with him fled the shades of night. way!!! Others suppose it to grow on inaccessible mountains, where it is guarded by certain wild beasts, &c. See XYLOE ALOES.

We shall only add that Braconnot was the first person who imagined he detected in aloes a peculiar principle, similar to the bitter resinous which Vauquelin has found in many febrifuge barks. The recent juice of the leaves absorbs oxygen, and becomes a fine reddish purple pigment.

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ALOEDARY, aloedarium, adondapiov, a purging medicine, wherein aloes is an ingredient; or an aloetic. It is also used for a history of the class of plants, under the denomination of


ALOEUS, in entomology, a species of scarabæus, or beetle. Characters: thorax three-horned, intermediate longer and simple; head submuticous; elytræ unistriated; found in America. ALOEUS, in ancient mythology, a giant, the son of Titan and Terra, who married Iphimedia, by whom Neptune had the twins Othus and Ephialtus. Aloeus educated them as his own, whence they were called Aloides. They grew nine inches every month, and when nine years old, made war against the gods, but were slain by Apollo and Diana. They also built Ascra, a town at the foot of Mount Helicon.


ALOEXYLUM, aλon§vλor, in botany, aloeswood, a name given to the tree producing this precious wood, by Loureiro; who refers it to the class and order decandria monogynia, and its natural order seems to be lomentaceæ, Linnæus; leguminosa, Jussieu. Its General Characters are: The CAL. perianthium inferior, of four acute, hairy, deciduous leaves; the lowermost falcate, incurved, nearly twice as long as the rest: COR. petals five, unequal, longer than the calyx STAM. filaments ten: PIST. germ. superior, elongated, curved, compressed: STYLE thread-shaped: PERIC. legume woody, smooth, falcate: SEED Solitary, oblong, curved, tunicated. Essential Characters: CAL. four acute deciduous leaves; the lower one longest: PETALS five, unequal: LEGUME curved: SEED Solitary, tunicated. 1. A. Agallochum. Fragrant aloes-wood.Native of the loftiest mountains of Cochin China, near the great river which runs between that kingdom and Laosios, and is a large lofty trec, with erect branches. Bark fibrous, brown, smooth, thin. Leaves alternate, stalked, lanceolate, flat, entire, smooth, coriaceous, about eight inches long. flowered.

Flower-stalks terminal, many

ALOFT. adv. & prep. On loft; A. S. Lyft, air: Lyft, luft, loft, above.

pe weder was fulle soft, pe wynde held pam stille,
pe saile was hie o loft, pei had no wynde at wille.
R. Brunne. p. 169.
The great luminary

(Aloft the vulgar constellations thick,
That from his lordly eye keep distance due)
Dispenses light from far. Milton's Par. Lost.
The fiend look'd up and knew

Ilis mounted scale aloft: nor more, but fed

For I have read in stories oft, That love has wings, and soars aloft. Suckling. Upright he stood; and bore aloft his shield, Conspicuous from afar; and overlook'd the field. Dryden. All crimes shall cease, and ancient frauds shall fail, Returning Justice lift aloft her scale, Peace o'er the world, her olive wand extend, And white rob'd innocence from heaven descend. Pope's Messiah.

All hands unmoor! proclaims a boist'rous cry, All hands unmoor! the cavern'd rocks reply. Rous'd from repose, aloft the sailors swarm, And with their levers soon the windlass arm. Falconer's Shipwreck. ALOGIANS, in church history, from a, privative, and Xoyos, the word, a sect of ancient heretics, who denied that Jesus Christ was the Logos, and rejected the gospel of St. John.— Some ascribe the origin of the name, as well as of the sect of Alogians, to Theodore of Byzantium, by trade a currier. They rose toward the close of the second century.

ALOGOTROPHIA, in medicine, a term signifying the unequal growth or nourishment of any part of the body, as in the rickets.

to the aloe palustris, or fresh water aloe; often ALOIDES, in botany, a name given by some called in England, water soldier, and by Linnæus, stratiotes.

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ALONE', adv. & adj. ALONE'LY, adv. & adj.all


All one: one being all; unaccompanied.

He fond no man pat durst, for non had myght,
With Colibrant alone in bataile to fight.

R. Brunne, p. 31.

If they set down before's; 'fore they remove,
Let us alone, to guard Corioli:
Bring up your army.


Ben Jon.

Let you alone, cunning artificer; See, how his gorget peers above his gown, To tell the people in what danger he was. Eagles we see fly alone; and they are but sheep, which always herd together. Sidney

Alone, for other creature in this place, Living or lifeless, to be found was none.



I never durst in darkness be alone.
But midst the crowd, the hum, the shock of men,
To hear, to see, to feel, and to possess,
And roam along, the world's tired denizen,

With none who bless us, none whom we can bless :
Minions of splendour shrinking from distress!
None that with kindred consciousness endued,
If we were not, would seem to smile the less
Of all that flatter'd, follow'd, sought, and sued;
This is to be alone; this, this is solitude!


Lord Byron's Childe Harold.

ALONG, v. & prep. Į On long. See LONG. Along, the past participle, means, produced from the A. S. Gelang, (Tooke) to long, to make long.

Here I salle þe gyne alle myn heritage,

& als along as I lyue to be in pin ostage.

R. Brunne, p. 196. I your commission will forthwith dispatch; And he to England shall along with you.


Shakesp. Hamlet. Hence then! and Evil go with thee along! Thy offspring, to the place of evil, hell. Religious zeal is subject to an excess, and to a defect; when something is mingled with it, which it

should not have; or, when it wants something, that ought to go along with it. Sprat. Command thy slaves my free-born soul disdains A tyrant's curb, and restive breaks the reins. Take this along; and no dispute shall rise (Though mine the woman) for my ravish'd prize.

A needless Alexandrine ends the song:

afterwards placed by Theseus on the throne of his grandfather.

ALOPECIA, or ALOPECE, in ancient geography, two islands: viz. 1. An island of the Bosphorus Cimmerius; and 2. In the Ægean sea, over against Smyrna. Dryden.

That like a wounded snake drags its slow length along
Pope's Essay on Criticism, 356.
Slow sinks, more lovely ere his race be run,
Along Morea's hills the setting sun;
Not as in northern climes obscurely bright,
But one unclouded blaze of living light!

Lord Byron's Corsair. ALONG-LYING, in maritime affairs, a term applied to a vessel when pressed down sideways, by the action of a side wind against the


ALONG-SHORE, is applied to coasting navigation, or to a course which is in sight of, or nearly parallel to, the shore.

ALONG-SIDE, side by side, or parallel to a wharf, ship, or any other object.

ALOO, STRAITS OF, a channel in the Eastern seas, between the islands of Lomablem and Pantar. ALOOF, adv. All off, entirely separate; at a distance. Perhaps of the same origin with aloft.

Then bade the knight this lady yede aloof,
And to an hill herself withdraw aside;
From whence she might behold the battle's proof,
And else be safe from danger far descried.

Faerie Queene.

As next in worth, Came singly where he stood, on the bare strand; While the promiscuous crowd stood yet aloof. Milton's Paradise Lost. The noise approaches; though our palace stood Aloof from streets, cncompass'd with a wood. Dryden. Under the law we might look at Christ aloof; now, under the gospel, we may come near him.

Hall's Contemplations. No domestic difficulties, no domestic weakness reached him; but aloof from the sordid occurrences of life, and unsullied by its intercourse, he came occasionally into our system, to counsel and to decide. Grattan's Character of Lord Chatham. ALOOF, has been supposed to be a sea term; and its similarity with the phrases keep a luff, or keep the luff, probably gave rise to this conjecture. If a sea phrase originally, it seems to have referred to the danger of a lee shore, in which situation the pilot might naturally apply it in the sense of keep all off; it is, however, never expressed in that manner by seamen now. See LUFF.

ALOPE, in entomology, a species of the sphinx, with wings dentated and brown, the posterior yellow and black at the apex, the abdomen black, and having interrupted pale-coloured bands, found in India.

ALOPE, in ancient history, a daughter of Cercyon, king of Eleusis, who having a child by Neptune, exposed it in the woods, covered with a piece of her garment. The child being found, and brought to Cercyon, he recognised the garment, and ordered his daughter to be put to death. She was changed by Neptune into a fountain. Her son, named Hippothoon, was

ALOPECIA, in medicine, a total falling off of the defect of nutritious juice, or by a viscous the hair from certain parts, occasioned either by

corrosion of the roots of it. The word is formed from aλwπn, vulpes, a fox; because it is a disease which is common to that creature. The alopecia properly differs from defluvium capilo rum, as in the former certain parts are left entirely bald, whereas in the latter the hair only grows immoderately thin. It also differs from the ophiosis, as this latter creeps in spires abou: the head, like windings of a serpent, whereas the former is not confined to any figure. The remedies which remove the proximate cause of this malady are called μɛraσvykρirika, metasyncritica. A multitude are to be found in the works o Taranta, Rondeletius, Hollerius, Celsus, and other physicians. Alopecia is also used by Galen, for a change of the hair to another colour. See PLICA POLONICA.

ALOPECIAS, in ichthyology, a name of the vulpes marina, or sea fox.

ALOPECURUS, or Fox-TAIL GRASS, in botany, a genus of the triandria digynia class; and in the natural method ranking under the 4th order, gramina. The characters are: CAL. a single flowered bivalve glume: COR. one valved: STAM. three capillary filaments; the antheræ bifurcated at both ends: PIST. a roundish germen; there are two styli; and the stigmata are villous. The pericarpium is a corolla clothing the seed; and the seed is ovate and covered. There are 8 species: viz. 1. A. agrestis, a native of France. 2. A. bulbosus, or bulbous fox-tail grass. 3. A. genikulatus, or flote fox-tail grass; these two species grow wild in Britain. 4. A. hordeiformis, a native of India. 5. A. Monspeliensis, a native of France, and the southern parts of Europe. 6. A. Indicus, or Indian fox-tail grass, a native of the East Indies. 7. A. Paniceus, a native of France, and the south of Europe. 8. A. pratensis, grows wild in Britain. See GRASS.

ALOPEX, in zoology, a species of the canis, with a strait tail and black tip. It is commonly called the field-fox.

ALOPEX, in entomology, a species of the scarabæus melolontha, hair yellow; clypeus reflex and emarginated; elytræ smooth and black: found at the Cape of Good Hope. Gmelin refers to this genus the following species, beside those above enumerated, viz. A. ciliatus, with a culm spiked and erect, and ciliated glumes. A. Carolinianus, with radicating culm, subspiked panicle, smooth glumes, and awned corolla. A. typhoides, with simple raceme, and awnless flosculi. A. caudatus, with spiked caudated panicle, and flosculi intrenched with awns. ovatus, with panicle ovated, contracted, resembling a spike, and exterior petal awned before the apex. A. Capensis, with cylindric spike, and smooth awnless glumes, a native of the Cape of Good Hope. A. Antarcticus, with elect


culm, ovated spike, hairy glumes, and awned corollæ, the awns being longer than the calyx; native of the Straits of Magellan. A. echinatus, with spiked ovated panicle,punctuated, ciliated glumes, and geniculated culm; native of the Cape of Good Hope.

digent inhabitants and travellers, to supply the
want of other food. This animal when full-grown
is said to be as large as a calf, and to live on
the fruit of the banana-tree.
ALOUD', adv. On loud.
On loud. Past part of the
verb to low, or to bellow (i. e. be-low); lowed,

ALOSA, in ichthyology, the shad, a species of low'd, loud. the clupea. See CLUPEA.

ALOSAT, in chemistry, argentum vivum. ALOSE', v. Latin, laus, praise. To praise, ALOSED'. S or commend. Loos was formerly common.

Noper lacky ne alose, ne leyve þat þer were Eny wickeder in þis worlde, þan y were myself. Vision of Pier's Ploughman, p. 326. ALOSE, in ichthyology, a species of fish, which some take for the shad, (see ALOSA,) but it more in fact resembles the sardine, or pildine, or pilchard, though it is much larger. It is seldom seen in the British seas, and only visits the rivers in spring. The roes are valued in the East Indies, and form a lucrative article of trade.

ALOS'ING. In loosing.

And as they were a lossynge ye colte, the owners thereof sayde vnto them, why loose ye the colte?

Bible, 1539, S. Luke, chap. xix. ALOST, or ALEST, a district of the Netherlands, which was the scene of some manoeuvres during the French revolutionary war; also a town in the above-mentioned district, seated on the Dender, fifteen miles north-west of Brussels, and thirteen south-east from Ghent. It has but one parish; the church is collegiate, and has a provost, a dean, and twelve canons. It has two convents of Carmelites, one of capuchins, three nunneries, an hospital, and a convent of Guillemins, in which is the tomb of Theodore Martin, who first introduced the art of printing into the low countries. It was taken from the French in 1706, after the battle of Ramillies. Near this place Lord Moira effected a junction of the troops under his command, with those of General Clairfayt, in July 1793.

ALOUATE, in zoology, Buffon's name for the simia seniculus, or long-tailed, bearded, red monkey, of the Linnæan system, having a prehensile tail; the arabata of Gumilla, Öronoko, and royal monkey of Pennant. This species is sometimes found in Brazil, and is common in Cayenne. Its voice and manners are the same with those of the Simia Beelzebul. They are commonly seen in the woody islets of large fooded savannahs. Their cry or scream inspires terror, and seems as if the forests contained the united howlings of all its savage inhabitants together. This clamour, usually made in the morning and evening, is repeated in the course of the day, and sometimes in the night. In a state of captivity the animal loses its voice, and seldom lives long. The male is larger than the female, and the latter always carries her young on her back. In order to kill these animals, it is necessary to fire several times; while any life remains, and after they are dead, they will remain clinging to the branches by the hands aud tail. Their fesh, after all the trouble of possessing them, is not good; it is always tough, and never admitted to any tables but to those of in

And he wepte alowde, so that the Egypcians, and the house of Pharao herde it.

Bible, 1539. Genesis, c. xiv.
Strangled he lies! yet seems to cry aloud,
To warn the mighty, and instruct the proud;
That of the great, neglecting to be just,
Heav'n in a moment makes an heap of dust. Waller
Then heav'n's high monarch thund'red thrice aloud,
And thrice he shook aloft a golden cloud. Dryden.
ALOW', v. & adv. See ALLOW. Signifying
to be humbled.

Narcissus may example bee

and myrrour to the prowde,

By whome they may most plainely see

how pride hath been allowde. Turberville. The quene [widow of Edward 4th] her self satte alone alowe on the rishes all desolate and dismayde, whome the archebishoppe comforted in the best manner hee coulde. Sir Thos. Moore's Works, f. 43. c. 1. ALOWAY, or ALLOWAY. See ALLOA. ALP, in zoology, an English name used for the bull-finch.

ALPAGE, alpagium, in ancient writers, denotes the right of feeding cattle on the Alps or other high mountains, or a sum paid for the purchase of such a right.

ALPAGNA, or CAMELUS PACO of Linnæus, in zoology, an animal of South America, much like the vigognas, except that the legs are shorter, and its muzzle thicker and flatter, so that it almost resembles a human face. The Peruvians use these animals as beasts of burden, and some of them carry a hundred weight. Of their wool they make stuffs, ropes, and bags, and of their bones tools for weavers.

ALPAM, in botany, the siliquosa indica, a native of the Indies. The stem of this plant, which divides itself twice or thrice, is covered with a bark of an ashy-green colour, inodorous, and of an acid astringent taste. It bears flowers and fruit as well at the end of the year as at the beginning, and is always full of leaves. Any part of this shrub made into an ointment with oil, is a remedy for the scab, and old ulcers. The juice of the leaves, with calamus aromaticus, is good against the venom of serpents.

ALP ARSLAN, the second sultan of the dynasty of Seljuk in Persia, was the son of David, and great grandson of Seljuk, the founder of the dynasty. He was born A. D. 1030, of the Hegira, 412. In place of Israel, which was his original name, he assumed that of Mohammed, when he embraced the Mussulman faith, and was afterwards surnamed Alp Arslan, which, in the Turkish language, signifies a valiant lion, on account of his military prowess. Having held the chief command of Khorasan for ten years, as lieutenant of his uncle, Togrel Beg, he succeeded him in 1063, and at the commencement of his reign saw himself sole monarch of all the countries from the river Oxus to the Tigris. In 1068 he invaded the Roman empire, the seat of which

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