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of probability in favour of our hypothesis, which will now rest on the evidence for or against this fact; and which may be summed up in the following manner:-Among the European nations we find none who can pretend any right to the discovery of letters. All of them derived the art from the Romans, excepting only the Turks, who had it from the Arabians. The Romans never laid claim to the discovery; but confessed that they derived their knowledge from the Greeks, and the latter owned that they had it from the Phoenicians; who, as well as their colonists the Carthaginians, spoke a dialect of the Hebrew scarcely varying from the original. The Coptic or Egyptian resembles the Greek in most of its characters, and is therefore to be referred to the same original. The Chaldee, Syriac, and latter Samaritan, are dialects of the Hebrew, without any considerable deviation, or many additional words. The Ethiopic differs more from the Hebrew, but less than the Arabic; yet that these languages have issued all from the same stock, the similarity of their formation, and the numberless words common to them, all sufficiently evince; and the Persic is very nearly allied to the Arabic. Alterations indeed would naturally be produced, in proportion to the civilization of the several nations, and their intercourse with others; which will account for the superior copiousness of some above the rest. It appears then, that all the languages in use amongst men, that have been conveyed in alphabetical characters, have been the languages of people connected ultimately or immediately with the Hebrews, who have handed down the earliest specimens, of writing to posterity; and we have therefore the greatest reason to believe, that their method of writing, as well as their language, was derived from the same source. This proposition will be farther confirmed from considering the sameness of the artificial denominations of the letters in the Oriental, Greek, and Latin languages, accompanied also by a similar arrangement, as alpha, beta, &c. Herodotus informs us, that those Phoenicians who came with Cadmus, introduced many improvements among the Greeks, and alphabetical writing too, not known among them before that period. At first they used the Phonician character; but in process of time, as the pronunciation altered, the standard of the letters was also changed. The Ionian Greeks inhabited at that time the parts adjacent to Phoenicia; who having received the art of alphabetical writing from the Phoenicians, used it, with an alteration of some few characters, and confessed ingenuously, that it was called Phoenician from the introducers of it.' He tells us that he had himself seen the characters of Cadmus in a temple of Ismenia Apollo at Thebes in Boeotia, engraven upon tripods, and very much resembling the Ionian characters. Again, the old Samaritan is precisely the same as the Hebrew language; and the Samaritan Pentateuch does not vary by a single letter in twenty words from the Hebrew: but the characters are widely different; for the Jews adopted the Chaldaic letters during their captivity at Babylon, instead of the characters of their forefathers. 3. What we know of those nations who have continued for many centuries

unconnected with the rest of the world, strongly militates against the hypothesis of the human invention of alphabetical writing. The experiment has been fairly made upon the ingenuity of mankind for a longer period than that which is supposed to have produced alphabetical writing by regular gradations; and this experiment determines peremptorily in their favour. The Chinese, a people famous for their discoveries and mechanical turn of genius, have made some advances towards the delineation of their ideas by arbitrary signs, but have nevertheless been unable to accomplish this exquisite device; and after so long a trial to no purpose, we may reasonably infer that their mode of writing, which is growing more intricate and voluminous every day, would never terminate in so clear, so comparatively simple an expedient as that of alphabetical characters. The Mexicans, too, had made some rude attempts of the same kind; but with less success than the Chinese. Hieroglyphics were also in use among the Egyptians posterior to the practice of alphabetical writing by the Jews; but whether the epistolography, as it is called, of the former people, which was in vogue during the continuance of the hieroglyphics, might not be another name for alphabetical writing, cannot be decided.

We shall not pursue this argument further, but offer the reader a table of the most celebrated alphabets of ancient and modern times referring to GRAMMAR, LANGUAGE, and the articles which treat of the respective countries, where they are or have been spoken, for further imformation respecting them.

ABYSSINIAN Alphabet. In substance the same as the ETHIOPIC, which see.

ADAM, Alphabet of, a Chaldean alphabet attributed to Adam.

EOLIAN, an ancient Greek alphabet, according to Thesius Ambrosius.

ANGLO-NORMAN, a variety of the GOTHIC alphabet, which see.

The ARABIC Alphabet is in its most ancient form called the Kufic from the city Kufa, on the Euphrates. It consists of initial letters used at the beginning; medial letters, or those used in the middle; and final letters, or those used at the end of words. The modern Arabic is said to have been invented by the vizier Molach, A. D. 933, who wrote the Koran three times in it, so fair and correct as to make it a perfect model of writing. This consists also of four sorts of characters, namely, single, initial, medial, and final, which is the common character of the Arabians, Turks, and Persians; but the two latter nations have added four more letters, ch, namely, sh, Ś and given a こ different power to others. There are two other variations of the Arabic, namely, the African and Mauritanian, which are said to be used in different parts of Africa.

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ARCADIAN, a Latin alphabet, taken from the Eugubian tables, and so called because supposed to have been brought by Evander from Arcadia into Latium.

ARMENIAN approaches, in many respects, very near to the Chaldee or Syriac, and to the

Greek in others. There is a common printing character of the Armenian capitals and small letter; and an ornamental kind of character, which is termed blooming, or flowery, because it is used for the titles of books: Duret likewise mentions an ancient Armenian character, which he says was taken from an inscription over an entrance into the castle of Curcho. Schroeder. Thesaur. Ling. Armen.; Duret. Tresor. des Lang. p. 725. It is used in Asia Minor, Syria, and Tartary, as well as Armenia.

ATTIC, a variation of the ancient Greek, which see.

BALI, a dialect used in Bali, an island north of Java.

BARMAN, an alphabet of the kingdom of Ava, in the order, power, and general form of its letters greatly resembling the Sanscrit.

BASTARD OF MONGREL, first made by a German named Heilman, in 1490, was in common use in France, in the fifteenth century; so called because it was derived from the Lettres de Forme, or Gothic character; but it has most of its angles cut off or diminished. Fournier gives four varieties of this bastard character.

BATTA, one of the most extensive languages in the island of Sumatra.

BENGALLEE, the alphabet of Bengal, very similar to the Sanscrit.

BULGARIAN, a character similar to that of the Illyrian.

BULLANTIC OF IMPERIAL, an alphabet of ornamented capitals, so called because it was employed in writing the papal bulls.

CADEAUX, flourishing capitals, that were used in French writing of the fifth century.

CADMEAN, the original Greek alphabet, supposed to have been first introduced into Greece by Cadmus.

CHALDEE alphabets can scarcely be distin guished from the Phenician or Syriac. Severa have been ascribed by the Rabbin to Adam, Enoch, Noah, &c. Its character, as at present known, is that of the Hebrew.

Of CHARLEMAGNE, the name of three alphabets attributed to the emperor Charlemagne, by whom they are said to have been introduced, at the commencement of the ninth century, for the purpose of improving the letters used in his dominions.

The CHINESE language has no literal alphabet, but consists of 214 key-words, or radical characters, that serve to form 80,000 characters, of which it is composed.

COPTIC, So called from Coptos, in Egypt, a mixture of Greek and Egyptian. There are two characters under this name, one of which is the ancient, and the other the modern Coptic. The latter, consisting of thirty-two letters, is only to be met with in the books of Egyptian Christians, by whom it was used in the translation of the Sacred Writings. Kircher. Edip. Egypt. et opt.; Pocock. in Not. ad Spec. Hist. Arab. CROATIAN, a variety of the ILLYRIAN alphalet, which see

DALMATIAN, said to have been invented by St. Jerome. Duret. Tresor, des Lang. &c. p. 738. DORIC, a variety of the ancient GREEK. EGYPTIAN. Ancient Egyptian characters were

of three kinds; namely, πisoλoypapıkòs, or vulgar; iɛparikòs, or sacred; and iɛpoyλupuòs, hieroglyphic. Vestiges remain of them all, of which only conjectural explanations can be offered. Their letters are in all probability lost. The Coptic is the only Egyptian character that remains. Herod. 1. 2, c. 36; Diodor. Sic. 1. 3; Heliodor. Ethiop. 1. 4; Clem. Alexandrin. Strom. 1.5; Eustath. ad Hom. Il. 6, v. 168.

ENGLISH, Old, or Black Letter, called by the French, Lettres de Forme, was first used by Guttemberg and Faust, at Mentz, and by them denominated Lettres Burgeoises.

The ETHIOPIC, AMHARIC, or ABYSSINIAN alphabet, is evidently derived from the Samaritan or Phoenician; only, contrary to the Oriental custom, it is written from right to left.

ETRUSCAN was the earliest alphabet used in Italy, so called from the Etrusci, the most ancient inhabitants of that country. It is a sort of Pelasgian or Arcadian character, frequently found on coins, and disposed after the Greek fashion, Bespoondov, i. e. alternately from left to right, and from right to left. Two other alphabets are attributed to the Etruscans, which were used as sacred characters by their priests.

FLEMISH is the proper alphabet of the Austrian and French Netherlands, and is used in their common printing, which resembles the old English.

FRANCO-GALLIC, so called from its being a mixture of French and Gaulish characters, was used under the first race of the kings of France in their public acts.

FRANKS, an alphabet used by the earliest inhabitants of the Low Countries, and afterwards transferred to Gaul, was a variety of the Latin alphabet. Another alphabet under this name belonging to the Lingua Français, is a kind of jargon spoken on the shores of the Mediterranean; the characters of which are composed of French, vulgar Greek, Spanish, and Italian.

FRENCH, Ancient, an alphabet of this name was used in the fifth century, under the first race of the French kings.

The GEORGIAN is an alphabet which consists. of four different characters; namely, ancient Georgian, immediately derived from, and nearly allied to, the Greek; two, called sacred, consisting of capitals and small letters; and the fourth, a writing-hand of the Georgians.

GERMAN consists of two characters, capital and small letters, which are used for printing, and two also for writing, or the current-hand.

GOTHIC TO Ulphilas, a bishop of the Goths, in 388, is attributed the most ancient alphabet of this name. It bears a strong affinity to the Runic; a second Gothic alphabet is formed from the Greek and Latin; a third, attributed to Albert Durer in the sixteenth century, is very similar to the German.

Gornic, Modern, an old English or Norman character, called in French,les Lettres Tourneures. It was much used in adorning the missals of the Romish church.

GREEK. We have seen the testimony of Herodotus, (similar to that of Pliny, Plutarch, and others,) that Cadmus, the Phoenician, introduced the first Greek alphabet into Brotia, where he

settled B. C. 1500; although Diodorus is of opinion that the Pelasgian letters were prior to the Cadmean. From comparing the Cadmean and Pelasgian alphabets, however, with the Phonician, it is clear that they sprung from one and he same origin. The Cadmean, or, as it is otherwise called, the Attic or lonic alphabet, is principally found on coins and medals, the Pelasgian is drawn from the Eugubian tables: the former consisted originally of only sixteen letters, to which eight others were afterwards added; the number of the latter varies, according to the account of different writers, from twelve to twenty letters. The next Greek alphabet of ancient times is the Sigean, so called because the letters which composed it are taken from the inscription on a marble pillar near the town of Sigeum. The antiquity of this alphabet is evinced by its being read alternately from left to right, and from right to left, which manner of writing was called ßaspoøndov, because it resembled the turning of oxen at both ends of a furrow. It is besides observable that the H for the long E, and the 2 for the long O were not then in use, but afterwards introduced by Simonides. Other Greek characters are drawn from medals and inscriptions; namely, the Nemean, B. C. 430, engraven on marbles, as is supposed, before the Peloponnesian war; the Delian, from inscriptions on the remains of a stately building on Mount Cynthus, in the island of Delos; the Athenian; and the Teian. About 500 years before the Christian æra, Simonides completed the Greek alphabet, called the Ionic; and other Greek alphabets of different ages are-one used in the time of Alexander the Great, B. C. 330; another drawn from the coins of the Antiochi, kings of Syria, &c. B. C. 240 to 187; that of Constantine the Great, A. D. 306; of Justinian the Great, A. D. 527; of Heraclius, A. D. 610; of Leo Jaurus, A. D. 716. To these may be added that of the Alexandrian MS. of the New Testament. See ALEXANDRIAN MANUSCRIPT, for a specimen.

HEBREW. The Rabbins attribute the invention of two Hebrew alphabets to Solomon. Those most worthy of note are the ancient and modern Hebrew, the former of which is supposed to have been invented by Esdras after the captivity, and to have given rise to the latter. This question, however, has undergone much discussion among the learned, both Jews and Christians; but while the two Buxtorfs contend that the Hebrew now in use was that in which Moses wrote, the prevailing opinion is, that the Samaritan or Phoenician was the original Hebrew character, and that the present alphabet was invented after the captivity. Pl. III. MISCELLANEOUS, contains specimens of Samaritan inscriptions on coins, which it is admitted were struck prior to captivity. Fig. 1, represents the censer on the obverse, and, on the reverse, Aaron's rod budding; the inscriptions, the Shekel of Israel' and 'Jerusalem the Holy.' The first, which has over the censer, was a half shekel; the second having, the third of a shekel; and the third also having the fourth of a shekel. The Rabbinical Hebrew

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is the current hand in use among the Jews at present.

The HuNs, an alphabet so called because used by the Huns, who settled in Pannonia, or Hungary, in 370.

JACOBITE, a corruption of the Greek alphabet, used by the Jacobites, an heretical sect, in their religious services.

JAPANESE Consists of three characters; namely, two that are in common use, and one that is used only at court. Like the Chinese, it is written from top to bottom.

ICELANDIC, the same as the Runic.

ILLYRIAN. There are two alphabets of this name; one said to have been invented by St. Cyril, and the other by St. Jerome, or, according to Aventinus, by one Methodius, a bishop of Illyrium, who used it in the translation of the Scriptures: the former bears a great affinity to the Russian, the latter to the Dalmatian. Duret. Tres. des Lang. p. 741.

INDIAN, the same as the Ethiopian. Duret mentions another Indian alphabet, which is generally used among the Easterns.

The IRISH alphabet bears, in the opinion of Vallancy, a great affinity to the Phoenician, from which he supposes it to be derived. The Irish also used mysterious alphabets in their incantations, after the manner of those given under the name of ogums, from oga and ogma, an augury. Their three principal ogums, were the ogum Beath, when bt or beath was placed always for the letter a; ogum coll, when, for vowels, diphthongs, and triphthongs in the ogum, the letter c was variously repeated; ogum croabh, or the virgular ogum, having a line or stem called the croabh, through which, on each side, are drawn perpendicular strokes.

KUFIC, the ancient Arabic. See ARABIC.

LATIN, from the ETRUSCAN, which see. This alphabet underwent successive changes, until it arrived at its present state, in which it is more generally known by the name of Roman.

The LOMBARD is also a variety of the Latin character.

MESO-GOTHIC, an alphabet attributed to Ulphilas, bishop of the Goths, in the ninth century, and used in the translation of the Scriptures.

vowels, and thirty-five simple consonants or MALABARIC, an alphabet consisting of sixteen radicals. Alphabet Var. Congregat. de Propagand. Fide, vol. ii. gand. Fide, vol. ii.

MALAYAN is a character similar to the Arabic, MANTCHON, a sort of Tartaric. See TAR


MENDEAN, an alphabet used by the Mendes, a people of Egypt, A. D. 277; formed from the Syriac.

Britons by cutting letters upon sticks, either in Moxk's, a mode of writing among the ancient which is given as a specimen of the Welsh or a square or triangular form, very similar to that Bardic alphabet.

this name on the authority of Bede, one of which NORMAN. Two alphabets are given under was a variety of the Greek.

PALMYRIAN was first decyphered by the Abbe

Barthelemé, is read from right to left. It bears a strong affinity to the Hebrew.

PELASGIAN is a name given to the alphabet which the Greeks derived from the Phoenicians, whom they called IIλaryot, Pelasgii, quasi Pelagi, from wελayos, the sea, because they traversed the ocean for the purposes of commerce.

PERSIAN, Modern, is nearly the same as the Arabic alphabet, except the addition of four letters, and a few slight differences in the powers given to the letters. Hyde gives an ancient character called Zend or Pazend, and supposed to have been used by Zoroaster. Hyde de Relig. Vet. Persar.

The PHOENICIAN alphabets comprehend a great variety of characters, drawn generally from coins or inscriptions, and as ancient characters as any in the world. Scaliger supposes this to have been the original Hebrew character, otherwise called the Samaritan.

RUNIC, a variety of the Maso-Gothic, used by several nations of the North.

The RUSSIAN alphabet is evidently derived from the Greek.

SAMARITAN is the name given to that variety of Phoenician character, which is supposed to have been used by the Jews from the time of Moses to the captivity. See HEBRRW. This name was given to it, because the Samaritans continued to use it, after the captivity, in writing the Pentateuch. It has been collected by Walton from coins and inscriptions: the modern Samaritan differs somewhat from the ancient.

SANSCRIT. The alphabet of the Sanskrita, i. e. the perfect or polished language of the Hindoo class, is called also the Devanagari.

SARACEN. The Saracen alphabet, used at the time of their conquests, bears some affinity to the Phoenician. Another alphabet under this name is quoted by Morton, on the authority of Kircher, which is very similar to the Arabic.— Duret. Tres, des Lang. p. 475.

SAXON Consists of two characters, the ancient and modern.

SCLAVONIAN, the alphabet used by the ancient inhabitants of Sclavonia, and which bore some resemblance to the Illyrian.

SERVIAN, an alphabet bearing some resemblance to the Greek, is attributed to St. Cyril, A. D. 700; and other characters, under this name, to St. Jerome.

SIAMIC is an alphabet bearing affinity to Chinese.


STRANGELO, the ancient Syriac, from the Greek spoyyulos, round, or rather, rude and rough, said to have been in use, B. C. 300. The modern Syriac, consists of initials, medials, and finals, like the Arabic. From this character two others were formed, called Nestorian, from the Nestorians of Syria, but differing only in some slight particulars. A fifth and sixth sort of Syriac have been given under the names of SyroGalilean and Syro-Hebraic.

SUMATRAN. The dialects of Sumatra have each a peculiar alphabet, of which Marsden has taken notice in his Comparative Vocabulary, as the Batta, Lampoor, Rejang, &c.

TALENGA, an alphabet of the kingdom of Decan, similar to the Malabaric.

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TAMOULIC, an alphabet of India, much used in letter-press printing.

TARTARIC, the same as the Arabic; but the Mantchou Tartar is a different character. TEUTONIC, a northern alphabet, bearing considerable affinity to the Saxon.

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THIBETAN, the alphabet used by the Lamas, according to the Alphabeta Varia Typis sacre Congregationis de Propaganda Fide.'

TURKISH is the same as the Arabic, with the addition of five letters.

WELSH, (Coelbren y Beirs, i. e. the Bardic alphabet,) consisted of sixteen primitive or radical characters, and twenty-four secondary ones. It was formed by cutting the letters on a stick in a triangular or square character.

The learned author of Hermes states, that to about twenty plain elementary sounds, we owe that variety of articulate words which have been sufficient to explain the sentiments of such an innumerable multitude as all the past and present generations of men. Mr. Sheridan says, that the number of simple sounds in our tongue are twenty-eight; while Dr. Kenrick contends, that we have only eleven distinct species of articulate sounds, which even by contraction, prolongation, and composition, are increased only to the number of sixteen ; every syllable or articulate sound in our language being one of the number. Bishop Wilkins and Dr. William Holder speak of thirty-three distinct sounds.--After the analysis or decomposition of language into the elementary sounds, the next step towards the notation of it by alphabetical characters would be the delineation of a separate mark or letter to represent each sound; which marks, though few in number, would admit of such a variety of arrangements and combinations, as might be capable of producing that infinity of articulate sounds which compose language. The ingenious Wachter, in his Naturæ et Scripturæ Concordia, p 64, endeavours to show, that ten marks or characters are sufficient for this purpose. From a calculation made by Mr. Prestet, it appears, that, allowing only twenty-four letters to an alphabet, the dif ferent possible words that may be made out of those letters, would amount to the following number, 1391,724,288,887,252,999,425,128,493, 402,200! Of all known languages, the Greek has been regarded as one of the most copious, the radices only of which are estimated at about 3244; but then it abounds so exceedingly in compounds and derivatives, that Wilkins thinks they may be moderately computed at about 10,000. Hermanus Hugo asserts, that no language has so few as 100,000 words; and Varro is frequently quoted by learned men, as having affirmed that there are in the Latin no less than 5,000,000; reckoning all the variations of nouns and verbs by composition, conjugation, declension, and inflection.

Bishop Wilkins charges all the alphabets extant with great irregularities, in respect to order, number, power, figure, &c. The order of them certainly appears inartificial, precarious, and confused and even in the Hebrew alphabet there are letters both redundant and deficient. Most known alphabets are redundant, either by allotting several letters to the same power and

sound, as in the Hebrew and , and the ordinary Latin c and k, ƒ and ph; or by reckoning double letters among the simple elements of speech; as in the Hebrew, the Greek and 4, the Latin x, z, and j consonant: and deficient, in various respects, especially in regard to vowels, of which there are seven or eight kinds commonly used, though the Latin alphabet only takes notice of six; besides which, the difference among vowels, in respect of length or brevity, is not sufficiently provided for: the ancients, we know, used to express a long vowel, by doubling its character, as amaabam, naata, ree, seedes; and the vowel i, instead of being doubled, was frequently prolonged, as in EDILIS, PISO, VIvus. The method used in English for lengthening and abbreviating vowels, viz. by adding e quiescent to the end of a word, for prolonging a syllable; and doubling the following consonants, for the shortening of a vowel, are equally improper; because the sign ought ever to be where the sound is. Again, their powers are not always fixed; the vowels, for instance, are generally acknowledged to have each of them several sounds: thus the vowel i has at least three different

sounds, and one of these only is expressed in writing no less than in six several ways, viz. by e, as in he; by ee, as in three; by ie, as in field; by ca, as in near; by eo, as in people; and by i, as in privilege. Nor are the consonants of more determinate power; witness the two different pronunciations of the same letter c in the same word circo; and of g in negligence. To add no more, the letters c, s, and t with an i after it, are used alike to denote the same power; and the letters is commonly used for z; and which is yet worse, some letters of the same name and shape are used at one time for vowels, and at another for consonants; as j, v, w, y; which yet differ from one another, says bishop Wilkins, sicut corpus et anima; as much as soul and body. From this confusion in the power of letters, there arise divers irregularities; such as, that some words are distinguished in writing, which are the same in pronunciation, e. gr. cessio and sessio, &c. and others are distinguished in pronunciation, which are the same in writing; as I now read—I have read, &c.

Various plans have been suggested to remedy these imperfections, and very plausible schemes have been exhibited for that purpose, by Mr. Lodwick, Bp. Wilkins, Dr. Franklin, &c.; but the great difficulty, if they should be ever so perfect, lies in bringing them into general use. Mr. Sheridan observes, that, in our English alphabet, there are many sounds for which we have no letters or marks: and that there ought to

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be nine more characters or letters to make a com

plete alphabet, in which every simple sound should have a mark peculiar to itself. The following is his scheme of the English Alphabet. Rhet. Gram. p. 9.

Number of simple sounds in our tongue 28.




9 Vowels, a

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3 I 1

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Semivowels, fl m n rsv z th th sh zh ng, or liquids. flm nr

Vocal, l m n r v z th zh ng.

4 Aspirated, fs th sh.

Divided again into

4 Labial, b p r f.

8 Dental, d t th th 2 ss zh esh.
4 Palatine, g

3 Nasal, m n ng.

ALPHEA, in entomology, a species of the phalana bombyx, with ferruginous wings, a white point in the middle, and a punctuated brown streak ;-found in New Holland.

ALPHENUS VARUS. See ALFERNUS. ALPHERATZ, in astronomy, a fixed star of the third magnitude in Aquarius.

ALPHERY (Mikipher), a native of Russia, and of the imperial line. When that country was torn in pieces by intestine quarrels, in the latter end of the 16th century, this gentleman and his two brothers were sent over to England under the care of a Russian merchant, who entered them at Oxford, where two of them died of the small pox. This surviving brother entered into orders; and in 1618 obtained the rectory of Wooley in Huntingdonshire; and though twice invited to return to his native country by a political party, he chose rather to remain with his flock. In 1643 the republicans took him by force from his pulpit, as he was preaching, and turned his wife and children into the street. He raised a tent in the church-yard, over against his house, and lived there with his family for a week. Mr. Alphery afterwards left Huntingdonshire, and resided at Hammersmith till the restoration again put him in possession of his living; but, being aged and infirm, he could not perform its duties; and having settled a curate, retired to his son's house at Hammersmith, where

he died.

ALPHESIBOA, 'AXpeσißoía, in mythology daughter of Phlegeus, and wife of Alcmeon, the son of Amphiareus, abandoned by her husband for Calirrhoe, the daughter of Achelous. He attempted to obtain a necklace from her which she had received as a bridal present, and was killed by her brothers in revenge.

ALPHESTES, in ichthyology, the name of a fish, the cinædus of Linnæus, seeming to approach very much to the turdus or wrasse kind, but having the rays of its back-fin prickly all the way to the tail; whereas the turdi have only the anterior rays of that fin prickly, the rest smooth. It is a small fish, caught about the shores, and among rocks; its back is purple, and its sides

hall hat hate beer note noose bet sit but and belly yellowish. Its mouth is small, and has


short oo

19 Consonants,

Y short ee

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( b d f g k l m n p r s t voth the star Lucida Corona.

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sh ching.

ALPHEUS, or ALCHLIUS, in ancient geogra

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