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Committees of a large body of the people soon after met at Westminster, and amongst other measures, passed the following resolve. “ That it is the duty of the inhabitants wholly to renounce and resist the administration of the government of New York, until such time, as their lives and property can be secured by it ; or until they can have opportunity to lay their grievances before the king, with a petition to be annexed to some other government, or erected into a new one, as may appear best for the in. habitants."

Sec. xiv. Matters now appeared about to form a most sanguinary crisis.

Both parties were in the highest state of resentment, and exasperation; when an event, the most tremendous in its consequences, arrested the attention of all, and gave a new channel to the torrent of popular fury.

The breaking out of the American war at Lexington, by presenting new scenes, and greater objects, seems to have prevented either party from proceeding to open hostilities, and turned their attention from their particular contest, to the general cause of America. Local and provincial contests were at once swallowed up, by the novelty, the grandeur, and the importance of the contest, which then opened between Britain and America.*

* Williams.

What measures were taken by the settlers ?
What resolutions were passed at Westminster ?

xiv. What is said of the controversy at this time? vented their proceeding to open hostilities?

10*

What pre1. When did the dissensions between Great Britain and the colonies commence ? -In what did they originate ?- -What was contended by the colonies ?

CHAP. XI.

COMMENCEMENT OF THE REVOLUTIONARY

WAR.

Origin of the controversy with Great Britain. State of affairs in the colony.

Convention appoint delegates to the Provincial Congress. War breaks out at Lexington. Disturbances in New York. Capture of Ticonderoga and Crown Point. Gov. Tryon arrives. Expedition against Canada. Surrender of Chambly, si Johns and Montreal. Montgomery appears before Quebec. His death. Inhabitants of Tryon county disarmed. Provincial troops enter New York. Americans evacuate Canada. Declaration of Independence.

Sec. 1. The dissentions between the colonies and their mother country commenced soon after the peace of 1763 ; and originated in the right claimed by the king and parliament to tax the colonies, and to make laws binding them in all cases. The colonies contended, that taxation and representation were inseparable; and that, as they had no representation in the British parliament, such right could not exist.

Previous to the peace of '63, the colonies had been permitted to tax themselves without the interference of parliament. The first act for the avowed purpose of raising a revende from the colonies, was passed by the British parliament in 1764, laying a duty on sundry articles of American consumption. Of this act, the colonies highly disapproved, because it recognised a right to tax them without their consent. In pursuance of the same policy, the celebrated stamp act was passed the following year, and excited general indignation throughout the colonies.

How had the colonies been taxed previous to 1763 ?

SEC. II. The controversy, thus introduced, had been continued for ten years, increasing in animosity; and had gathered strength and maturity from various circumstances of aggression and violence. The state of affairs during this period presents a series of coercive and oppressive measures on the one hand, and of uniform and unshaken resistance on the other.

The Americans had no desire for a separation from England, and neither party appears to have anticipated a civil war.

Both parties were resolutely determined not to abandon the ground they had assumed; and were indulging the hope, that they should ultimately find means to bring their opponents to submission. Matters were however obviously tending towards that point, at which, all hope of reconciliation must be banished for ever.

1775. The second continental congress was to be assembled the present year at Philadelphia in May. The subject of sending delegates to this congress was agitated in the assembly of New York; and, on the refusal of that body to appoint them, a provincial con

Sec. III.

When was the first act passed by the British parliament for this purpose ?Why was it disapproved ?- What other act is inentioned ? 11. What is said of the progress of the controversy?

-Of the state of affairs during this period ?-Did the Americans desire a separation from England? What hope was indulged by both par-, ties?

111. What congress in 1775—What was agitated in the New York Assembly?

vention was called by the people for this purpose. The convention assembled at the city of New York on the 22d of April, and proceeded to make the appointments.

This convention was composed of deputies from New York, Albany, Dutchess, Ulster, Orange, Westchester, King's and Suffolk counties. They appointed Philip Livingston, George Clinton, James Duane, John Alsop, Simon Boerum, William Floyd, John Jay, Henry Wisner, Philip Schuyler, Lewis Morris, Francis Lewis, and Robert R. Livingston, jr. delegates to the continental congress, who, or any sive of them, were entrusted with full power to concert with the delegates from the other colonies, and determine upon such measures, as should be judged most effectual for the preservation and re-establishment of American rights and privileges, and for the restoration of harmony between Great Britain and the colonies.

The event which occurred on the 5th of March, will convey a tolerable idea of the state of feeling at that time in the city of New York. “The whig citizens, whose hearts were set upon having delegates for the new continental congress, upon the assembly's declining to appoint them, contrived to collect their fellow citizens together in order to obtain their opinion•!

6. When assembled in a body, there was a confused cry of Congress, or no Congress ?' After much altercation, the tories had recourse to compulsive reasoning, and began to deal about their blows. The whigs were in the worst situation, not being provided with similar arguments, till two of their number repaired to an adjacent cooper's yard, from whence they drew forth to their friends, a number of hoop sticks, which they reduced to a proper length, and forwarded to the combatants. The whigs soon carried the day, by club law, and beat their opponents off the ground."*

* Gordon. The terms whig and tory were applied to those in favor of and opposed to the continental congress; and were afterwards used, as synonymous with republican and royalist. By whom were they appointed ?

Who were appointed delegates ?With what powers were they entrusted ? Give some account of the event on the 5th of March. sv. What event took place at Lexington on the 19th of April ?What effect did this event produce upon the colonies !

Sec. iv. The massacre of the provincial militia by the British troops, at Lexington in Massachusetts, on the 19th of April, opened the scene, and introduced the war of the revolution. The intelligence of this event excited a general burst of indignation throughout the continent.

The people of New York were much divided in their opinions with regard to the measures to be pursued. Many were still disposed to continue the exertions for effecting a reconciliation of the controversy with Great Britain. To most, it was, however, obvious, that the period of reconciliation was now past, and that the only safety for the colonies was to be found in vigorous and effectual defence against the arms and attacks of their mother country.

SEC v. The disturbances in the city of New York, May the 5th, assumed so menacing an aspect as to require extraordinary means for securing the public tranquillity. A committee of one hundred of the citizens was appointed for this purpose. This body presented a spirited address to the authorities of the city of London, stating their determination, never to submit 10 the oppressive measures of the British government.

In this address, they declared, that “The disposal of

-What is said of the sentiments of the people of New York at this time ? v. What is said of disturbances in the city ?- -What committee

-What was appointed ? To whom did they present an address ? statement did they make ?

Give some further account of this address.

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