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ates the bridge. The arch through which the water is discharged is about 10 feet wide, and 5 in height.

In Willsborough, on Lake Champlain, is a remarkable

Split Rock.” The whole coast of the lake, for a number of miles, is formed by rude and rocky mountains, which seem to hang over the water, and threaten the passing sailor. From one extremity of these cliffs, a rocky promontory projected about 50 yards into the lake,

By some violent convulsion of nature, it has been broken off, and removed from the main rock about 20 feet. The opposite sides exactly fit each other, the prominences of each corresponding perfectly with the cavities of the other. The point broken off contains about half an acre, and is covered with wood. The height of the rock above the water, on each side of the fissure, is about 12 feet.

Under the head of Curiosities may also be included those giant productions of our forests, for which some parts

state have been so much celebrated. A black walnut tree, near the mouth of the creek to which it has given name, measures twentyseven feet in circumference. The trunk, to the height of seventy feet, is straight, destitute of limbs, and diminishes very little in diameter.

In Reading, is a white oak, which measures seventeen feet six inches in circumference, six feet from the ground. It is perfectly erect, and diminishes very little for fifty feet. In Mentz, there is a hollow buttonwood tree, which is thirtythree feet in circumference, three feet from the ground. Elder Smith preached to an audience of thirtyfive persons in the cavity of this tree, and asserted, that it would have held fifteen more. Its diameter is seventeen feet. There is another in Oswego, which measures thirtyfive feet six inches in circumference, two feet from the ground; and is now in a growing and healthy condition.

of our

Describe the Split Rock.- What remarkable vegetable productions are mentioned ? -Describe them.

CHAP. III.

NATURAL GEOGRAPHY-CONTINUED.

NATIVE ANIMALS.
Mastodon. Moose. Bear.

Moose. Bear. Wolf. Cougar,
Wolverene. Catamount. Wildcat. Raccoon.
Martin. Deer. Fox.

Deer Fox. Hare. Rabbit. Porcupine. Woodchuck. Skunk. Weasel. Squirrel. Mouse. Ermine. Beaver.

Beaver. Muşk-Rat. Mink. Otter. Fish. Birds. Insects. Serpents, and Reptiles.

Sec. 1. The uncultivated state of the country, previous to its settlement by Europeans, was highly favorable to the increase of animals. The immense forests which extended over every part of the state, formed the residence of a great variety, and number of animals. In disposition, they were more mild and temperate, and in magnitude, strength, and vital energy, they were far superior* to the same

* 'The following table gives the weight of several kinds of animals in America and Europe : In Europe.

In America. The Bear 153 lb. 7 oz.

456 lb. Wolf,

92
1. Deér, 288

308
Fox, red,
Porcupine,
Martio,
Beaver,
Otter,
Hare,
Rabbit,
Weasel,

Ermine,
1. To what was the state of the country, previous to its settlement,
favorable ? How did the animals of this country compare with
those of Europe ?

69

8
8

2

13
2
1
18

20 16 5 63 29 8

4 oz. 8

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12
14

8

kinds of animals in Europe. Fed by the luxuriant productions of a fertile soil, and unmolested, but by a few, and unarmed men, they increased, and multiplied with astonishing rapidity.

Sec. il. Of Quadrupeds, there were about forty kinds. Most of these have, at present, either entirely disappeared, or are found only in the northern, and more mountainous regions.

The principal quadrupeds were the mastodon, or mammoth, moose, bear, wolf, wolverene, cougar, catamount, raccoon, martin, deer, fox, hare, rabbit, porcupine, woodchuck, skunk, weasel, ermine, squirrel, and mouse. The beaver, otter, musk-rat and mink are amphibious. Some of the most interesting of these will be described.

Sec. III. The Mastodon, or Mammoth, first excites our attention. This name has been applied to an animal, now extinct, the remains of which are found in the counties of Ulster, Orange, and Rockland in this state, and in various other parts of America. It in some respects resembled the elephant, but was of a distinct species from that animal, and of five or six times its magnitude. It has been supposed by some, from the form of the teeth, to be carnivorous, but from other indications, we are compelled to adopt the contrary opinion. An almost entire skeleton has been collected, which weighs about one thousand pounds.

The height of this skeleton, over the shoulders, is 11 feet ; the hip 9. Length, from the chin to the rump 15

What is said of their increase ?

11. How many kinds of Quadrupeds were there? What is said of these at present.

Mention the principal Quadrupeds.
III. Give some account of the Mastodon ?- Its magnitude.

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feet ; from the point of the tusks to the end of the tail, following the exterior curve, 31 feet; in a straight line 17 feet 6 inches. Length of the under jaw, 2 feet 10 inches. It weighs 63 1-2 lbs. The tusks are 10 feet 7 inches long, and a single tooth weighs 4 lb. 10 ounces.

The emotions experienced, when for the first time, we behold the giant relics of this great animal, are those of unmingled awe. We cannot avoid reflecting on the time, when this huge frame was clothed with its peculiar integuments, and moved by appropriate muscles; when the mighty heart dashed forth its torrents of blood through vessels of enormous caliber, and the mastodon strode along in supreme dominion over every tenant of the wilderness."

“ However we examine what is left to us, we cannot help feeling, that this animal must have been endowed with a strength exceeding that of other quadrupeds, as much as it exceeded them in size; and, looking at its ponderous jaws, armed with teeth peculiarly for the most effectual crushing of the firmest substances, we are assured, that its life could only be supported by the destruction of vast quantities of food.”

“ Enormous as were these creatures during life, and endowed with faculties proportioned to the bulk of their frames, the whole race has been extinct for tradition, nor human record has been saved, and, but for the accidental preservation of a comparatively few bones, we should never have dreamed that a creature of such vast size and strength once existed,- nor could we have believed that such a race had been extinguished forever.”

“ Such, however, is the fact-ages after ages have rolled away-empires and nations have arisen, flourished, and sunk into irretrievable oblivion, while the bones of the mastodon, which perished long before the periods of their origin, have been discovered, scarcely changed in color, and exhibiting all the marks of perfection and durability.* SEC. IV.

The largest living animal found

ages. No thick,

* Godman.

Iv. What was the largest living animal ?

within the limits of the state was the Moose; They were of two kinds, and belong to the same species, with the elk. The black are said to have been from eight to twelve feet high.* The grey are, generally as tall as a horse, and some much taller. Both have spreading palmated horns, which are shed annually, and weigh from thirty to forty pounds. The largest of these animals were estimated by the hunters to weigh from thirteen to fourteen hundred pounds. It has long ceased to be an inhabitant of our forests. The head of the Moose is large, the neck short, with a

nort and upright mane ; the eyes are small, the ears long, very broad, and thick; the nostrils are large, the upper lip square, and hangs over the lower. The hoofs are cloven, his gait, a long shambling trot, and his course very swift and straight. The food of this animal is grass, shrubs, the boughs, and bark of trees. In summer they go in families, and in winter herd together in droves of from thirty to forty. Their defence is chiefly with their fore feet, with which, they strike with great force. The female is smaller than the male, and generally without horns.

Sec. V. The Bear was one of the most common animals, and always of a black color. It was carnivorous, but less fierce and sanguinary, than has been generally supposed. Its greatest weight is about four hundred and fifty pounds. It has disappeared in most parts of the state, but is occasionally found in the northern, and mountainous regions.

The bear has short legs, with thick clumsy body, is generally fat, and is very fond of vegetable food, such as sweet apples, corn, berries, grapes, &c. He frequently

* Morse. Describe it. v. What is said of the Bear How does he pass the winter.

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