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Ocheidir in Babylonia have also been visited and studied by German archaeologists.

The French have resumed their excavations at Tello, which were interrupted by the death of de Sarzec in 1901. Capt. Gaston Cros, his successor, reached Tello in 1903 and the work of excavation has been carried on with very considerable success.

At Susa where excavation was commenced in 1897 and where the code of Hammurapi, the obelisk of Manishtusu and a number of other very valuable finds were made, the work of the Délégation en Perse has been continued and some work has also been done in other parts of Persia. At Oheimir, the site of the ancient city of northern Babylonia, Kish, excavations have recently been carried on by Genouillac and they are reported to be successful.7

Of the work of the English excavators little has been heard. King conducted excavations at Nineveh nearly ten years ago, and he, with the assistance of Thompson, made a new copy of the trilingual inscription of Darius the Great at Behistûn. 8

Only two American expeditions have been at work in this region during the decade. The expedition of the Uni

'Cf. Gaston Cros, Nouvelles Fouilles de Tello (de Sarzec's monumental work Découvertes en Chaldée which was begun about 30 years ago and which gives an account of the excavations of this distinguished archaeologist at Tello, was completed last year by Heuzey and ThureauDangin, eleven years after the death of de Sarzec); also L. Heuzey in Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, 1910. Heuzey reports that Cros has discovered a part of a wall built by Gudea. For the excavations at Susa compare the Memoires de la Délégation en Perse and the other publications of the Délégation. It is worthy of note that according to Scheil (Comptes Rendus, 1910) it is now possible to trace the old Elamitic language, or as he has named it Anzanite, as far back as Naram-Sin. For a reference to the excavations at Oheimir cf. OLZ, XV, 426. The French have also been working at Samara cf. Viollet, Fouilles d Samara en Mésopotamie.

* The Sculptures and Inscription of Darius the Great on the Rock of Behistûn in Persia. A new collection of the Persian, Susian and Babylonian Texts, with English translation, plates, etc. 1907.

• The excavations of the University of Pennsylvania at Nippur have not been continued since 1900.


versity of Chicago under the direction of Dr. Banks excavated the site of Bismaya, 10 the ancient Adab, in 1903-4 and the Cornell expedition under Olmstead, Charles and Wrench, which has thus far only published the results of its excavation in the Hittite country of Asia Minor, will also work in Mesopotamia, if it has not already done so.11

Besides these expeditions the natives have done considerable excavating on their own account, notably at Sippar (Abu Habba), Drehem, Warka and Dailem, and many hundreds of tablets found by them have been bought by European and American collectors.

Through the excavations just enumerated the material for our study of ancient Babylonia and Assyria has been greatly increased. The inventory-lists of objects excavated at Assur passed the 20,000 mark during the past year. At Babylon No. 30,130 was found on Feb. 20, 1905. At that point the inventory ceases, at least as far as all reference to it in the “Reports” is concerned; but the latter indicate that the number must have grown very considerably since then. The inventory numbers at Susa have passed the 15,000 mark, and judging from the registry-numbers of the British Museum that collection has been increased through excavation or purchase by at least 10,000 objects. 12 The other excavations referred to have yielded less.

It is difficult, if not impossible, to form anything approaching an accurate estimate of the extent of the material which has been recovered. A conservative estimate would probably place the total at about 300,000 objects, of which perhaps one-fourth have been recovered during the past decade. 13 The collection of the British Museum, which

10 Cf. Edgar J. Banks, Bismaya, 1913.

1 Cf. A. T. Olmstead, B. B. Charles, J. E. Wrench, Travels and Studies in the Nearer East (Cornell expedition to Asia Minor and the Assyro-Babylonian Orient).

”The figures for the Susa excavations and also for the British Museum are based on the inventory or registry numbers of the tablets of these collections in official publications and they may be considerably too low.

* The Kuyundjik Collection of the British Museum numbers, as has


is by far the largest single collection, has passed the 100,000 mark by several thousand. The Imperial Ottoman Museum at Constantinople probably comes next,14 then the Louvre and then Berlin, for the European collections. The largest collection in this country is that of the University of Pennsylvania, which has about 17,000 tablets.

An estimate of this kind is also very unsatisfactory because of the heterogeneous character of the collections. A single number may represent a large cylinder, or tablet, or a small tablet or even a fragment of a tablet. It may stand for an uninscribed terracotta figurine_according to Koldewey some 6,000 often fragmentary have been found at Babylon -or for a basalt or diorite stele or statue. Of course the small tablets and the fragments are in the majority.

Still these figures give some idea at least of the extent of the material. And it can consequently occasion no surprise that although the work of publishing and copying the inscriptions was entered upon immediately, the pen of the copyist and the varied labors of the decipherer have never been able to catch up or to keep up with the spade of the excavator. In 1850 Botta and Flandin completed their Monument de Ninive. In 1851 Layard published his Inscriptions in the Cuneiform Character. The first volume of Rawlinson's Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia appeared in 1861 and the fifth volume was published nineteen years later. Other texts and series appeared from time to

been said, over 20,000 tablets or fragments. Rassam estimated that 50,000 were found at Sippar. During the years 1893-5 about 30,000 were excavated according to de Sarzec at Tello. Hilprecht has estimated the Nippur yield at over 50,000. These are the most noteworthy finds of previous decades, as far as numbers are concerned.

"Under the present regulations of the Turkish government all antiquities are its property and are to be handed over to the Imperial Ottoman Museum. What percentage of these inscriptions, excavated by European and American archaeologists, will eventually reach the Museums which they represent and what percent of the recently excavated material has already been transferred to Constantinople it is difficult or impossible to say. According to report most of the antiquities found at Babylon are still there, and have not been removed to Constantinople.

time; but Rawlinson was, until about twenty years ago, the great corpus inscriptionum of the Assyriologist. About thirty years ago Strassmaier, who himself during the eighties and early nineties published several thousand tablets (contracts), complained of the reluctance of scholars to undertake the publication of new inscriptions. And no one who knows the difficulty involved in this work can wonder at this. The texts are often very hard to read, being usually more or less mutilated and often quite fragmentary and the writing is sometimes very difficult to decipher. But yet probably no decade has a better record in text publications than this one. Over ten thousand inscriptions of various kinds have been published. Clay, Ungnad, Thureau-Dangin, Scheil, Genouillac, King, Thompson, Harper and Virolleaud have published a great many inscriptions and a number of others have made more or less extensive contributions.15 Most of these are texts not previously published. Many of these inscriptions are small and a large proportion of them are contracts or other documents of a business character. A large part of these latter are in Sumerian, the non-Semitic language spoken by the early inhabitants of Southern Babylonia, from whom the Semitic Babylonians borrowed the cuneiform script.

This record for a single decade is quite noteworthy and shows the great interest which is being taken in this field of investigation. With so many new texts constantly appearing, so much new material to be studied, it is no easy task to keep abreast of the work which is being done in Assyriology alone, not to mention the discoveries in other fields, especially Egyptian, Hittite, Cretan and the Greek papyri, which claim attention. And yet despite this great output it is probable that only a comparatively small part, perhaps not over ten to twenty per cent of the excavated material has been published thus far. There are doubtless in many of our

* de la Fuye, Messerschmidt, Hilprecht, Barton, Myhrmann, Radau, Langdon, Klauber, Le Gac, Pinches, Poebel, Weissbach, Peiser, Friedrich, Waterman, Lau, Macmillan, Hincke, Hussey, Delaporte and some others.

museums tablets of the greatest value, which are as unknown as if still covered by the dust of ages. The publication by King, in 1907, of a chronicle containing a valuable synchronism between Babylonian and Assyrian history, a tablet which had seemingly lain in the British Museum for some years before its value was discovered, occasioned the humorous comment by Winckler that "excavations in the British Museum seem more successful than those which are conducted on the site of many a capital city of Babylonia”.

This witticism was aimed perhaps more at those responsible for the rather unproductive excavations at Babylon than at the Trustees of the British Museum who have shown very commendable zeal in the publication of texts and in the opening up of their treasures to scholars from all parts of the world. And it is to be hoped that future "excavations” will prove even more successful. This great collection has not yet been even fully catalogued. Bezold took over ten years to catalogue the Kuyundjik Collection alone, which is only about a fifth of the whole, and years must elapse before all its treasures shall have been published. And the same is true in a lesser degree of the other large collections. And in the meantime the work of excavation is being pushed.


Considerable progress has been made along the line of linguistic and philological study. Delitzsch and Sayce have published new editions of their Assyrian grammars. Ungnad and Meissner have published short grammars. The first of these latter is especially valuable because of the prominence which it gives to ‘old Babylonian'. Prince has published a new chrestomathy for beginners and Delitzsch's well known Lesestücke has appeared in a fifth edition. Special problems of grammar have been studied by Ungnad, Bezold, Thompson, Böhl, Ebeling, Ylvisaker, and others. Brockelmann has made use of Assyrian very extensively in his comparative semitic grammar. The first Sumerian

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