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can be found, doubtless a college graduate as well as a graduate of a library school, who would have, by reason of her professional training, a broad outlook. Handling the books through every process of accessioning, classifying, and cataloguing she would acquire a knowledge of the books themselves very valuable in future reference work. Such a librarian could, we think, be found who would be willing to start in at $600 a year.

At any rate, adopt which plan you will, there should be some person whose first duty is to the library, who will make this collection of the value that it should be to the community and to the whole state, a person who will watch the book catalogues for desirable purchases, who will build up the library systematically along its special lines, who will keep up a live mailing list of good exchanges, who will take care of these accessions intelligently when they come and make them avail. able to the public at large.

It is very desirable to get the library into good shape now before it is any larger. Every year makes the task more difficult and more expensive.

It seems to us that in the apportionment of funds there should be a definite sum, however small, set aside for the library outside the salary of the person in charge, who, as she would do other work for the Society, could be put on the general salary list. Unless there is such a sum, we fear that the money will all be absorbed by the other activities of the Society. The library committee will gladly serve as an advisory board in the book purchases, although they believe that it is more important just now to get into good order the books already in the library than to add more.

These suggestions are respectfully submitted by your library committee.

Ерітн ТовІТТ, ,

February 1, 1907.


Lincoln, Nebraska, January 17, 1907. To the Board of Directors of the Nebraska State Historical

Society, Lincoln, Nebraska: SIRS-As chairman of the committee on landmarks I am not able to report much that is tangible in the way of marking locations having a local or general history sufficient to be perpetuated by an expenditure of time and money on the part of the Society.

The fiftieth anniversary of the council held by Gen. John M. Thayer for the territory with the Pawnee Indians occurred on the 25th day of May, 1905.

The event was celebrated by General Thayer in person pointing out the location, and the erection of a granite monument about 312 feet high to mark the site, on the farm of Robert McLean in S. 2, T. 16 N., R. S E. On the monument is inscribed "Pawnee Council, May 25, 1855."

In the early part of November last I visited the site of old Ft. McPherson on the south bank of the Platte river in T. 12 N., R. 28 W., Lincoln county, near Maxwell on the Union Pacific R. R.

The row of cottonwood trees planted in front of the officers' quarters is still standing and in fine growing condition, and the old street in front is now the county road, although it does not conform to the section line.

Cottonwood Springs, situated in a bend of Cottonwood canyon, a short distance east of the fort, was famous in the days of overland travel. It is now smothered or choked up by the sloughing off and washing down of the clay bank of the canyon. The large cottonwood tree which shaded the spring, I was told, was ordered cut down, during the occupation of the fort, by order of Colonel (General) Emery, to prevent the soldiers lounging around the spring.

The old flagstaff was of red cedar and stood in the center of the parade ground. It was the initial point of the survey of the original boundary lines of the military reserve. This was of special interest to me, for around it is clustered the recollections of my first experience in government surveying in 1869 when I assisted in the original survey of the boundary lines of the reserve.

The interest in the “locus” of the old flagstaff has been increased by reason of the disputes and contests before the department at Washington and in the courts over the conditions of the survey of the reserve into sections in 1897, one of the points of the dispute being the “locus” of the flagstaff, which it was claimed was not found by the surveyor.

The whole matter in dispute was of such importance that the government was induced to send a special examiner of surveys to investigate, who spent considerable time in his search. From verbal statements of the examiner, Mr. N. B. Sweitzer, corroborated by eye witnesses, I am satisfied the original site of the staff in 1869 was found by Mr. Sweitzer.

In the middle of a field I found a marble monument, 6 inches square and extending about 8 inches above ground, erected by Mr. Sweitzer to mark the site of the flagstaff. There was no inscription on top, and I did not see any on the sides, although I did not clear away the grass for a close examination.

To obtain further information I wrote to Mr. Sweitzer requesting particular data. On the 10th inst. I received from him an answer to my request, which I make a part of this report and mark as exhibit A.

The parade ground was part of a magnificent field of corn, the owner claiming a yield of fifty bushels per acre.

During the latter part of November I visited Wauneta, Chase county, and was informed that the last great battle fought by the Pawnee and Sioux Indians took place in a canyon tributary to Frenchman creek in Hayes county. Wherever the battle was fought I suggest that its location be authentically settled and commemorated. Also the battle fought between the United States forces under command of General Harney and the Sioux Indians on the Blue Water, more generally known as the battle of Ash Hollow in Keith county.

I also suggest the proper marking of the grave of Black Bird, chief of the Omaha Indians, which I am informed has been definitely located.

With members of the committee there has been discussed the matter of marking the intersection of the Overland trails, military roads, and the old Mormon trail, with the section lines, and in a few instances the matter has been discussed with the residents of counties through which the trails passed, with the object of obtaining the cooperation of the people of the several counties in the way of looking up the old landmarks and bearing a large portion of the expense of placing suitable markers at convenient and important locations along the different lines of travel. Respectfully submitted,



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Niobrara, Nebraska, January 13, 1905. MY DEAR HARVEY-I received your letter of the 10th inst. last night.

In regard to the old flagstaff, it is so long ago and I have been on so many other pieces of work so similar that I have nearly forgotten the details in regard to it.

The “locus” of the old flagstaff was the origin of the adja. cent surveys, and hence important. The position of mile post No. 1 was plain, and hence the south boundary could be started from that, but in all of these cases the origin is very important.

I ran several lines from the exterior, focusing on this origin, and they gave me locations which of course were comparatively near to where the corner should be. I then asked for information from all the old people who had seen the flagstaff in its old position. Mr. Murray, an old friend and soldier of General Carr's and father, showed me very close to where he remembered it to have stood, but was somewhat misled by the position of the old gravel walk, Mrs, Murray's memory in regard to its position was a great help to me. I then commenced digging, beginning with my exterior locations and converging on the center. After several days' effort I finally found the hole from which the flagstaff had been taken, which could be plainly seen by the disturbed condition of the earth. Upon digging down six or seven feet and finding considerable brick or pieces of chimney made of cement, I finally found the foundation, consisting of four squared cedar logs mortised together, forming a central hole which was square for the purpose of stepping the flagstaff. Placing a vertical rod in the center of this hole I filled it with the debris taken out, and at the center produced at the ground surface I placed a large white marble shaft given me by the custodian of the near cemetery.

You are in error in regard to there being no inscription, as I carved it in myself with letters one-half inch deep, and the same was finished up by my assistants, Albert G. Hammer, of Chicago, Illinois, and my brother, Lieut. Charles McG. Sweitzer.

This old post was particularly interesting to me, for this was the place where my father, General Sweitzer, took Grand Duke Alexis of Russia on that famous buffalo hunt, he having charge of the cavalry escort; and where Buffalo Bill first made his bow to notoriety, being introduced by Ned Buntline of dime novel fame. Cody taking him out of the fort a few miles dressed à la Sioux, and Buntline, just from the East, with silk hat and broadcloth, took Cody seriously; hence his rise to fame and finance. A Bill Nye would have seen the funny side of it, but would never have seen the Wild West show.

My first report describing the corner is in Washington, and I write the above from memory, but you will find it substantially correct. Yours sincerely,


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