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„5 London remits to Ireland 651l. 145. ud. sterling ; how much Irish, must London be credited, exchange at 12 per cent?

answer 7291 195 2d.

Philadelphia, 2cth amo. 1820. Exchange for 4521 ros 6d, sterling. is Thirty days after sight of this my first of exchange, see 4 cond and third of like tenor and date not paid, pay to Sa muel Simms, or order, four hundred fifty-two pounds, ten; shillings and six pence sterling, value received; and place the same to account, as per advice from,

Peter Simpson. Samuel Pimm, Merchant,

London. si : What is the value of this bill in Pennsylvania currency, ex. change at 771 per cent ?

answer 803l fis gd, 7 In a settlement between C of Philadelphia, and D of London, C. is indebted 7501 25 4d. sterling; what sum Pennsylvania currency is equivalent ; exchange at 78 per cent?

answer 13351 45 2d. 8 How much sterling is equal to 13411 93 4d. Pennsyla vania currency, exchange at 671 per cent ?

answer fool 17s 6d. What sum sterling will be equal to 2601 8s 6d. Virginia currency, exchange at 44 per cent ? answer 1801. 175.

10 Purchased in Ireland effects to the value of 4001 19soda of that place ; what sum Pennsylvania currency, will dige charge the debt, exchange at siž per cent?

answer 6071 6s rodiny:

Philadelphia: 2d zmo. 1820, :: Exchange for 4.226 livres, 12 sols, 8 deniers.. : Thirty days after sight of this my second of Exchange, first of the same tenor and date not paid, pay to Thomas Broker, or order, four thousand two hundred and twentye , six livres, twelve sols, and eight deniers, value received ; and place the same to account as per advice from,

Silas Stroud. To Thomas Lamott, i .' Merchant, London.

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• How much sterling is the above bill, at 10d. per, livre! And what eum in Pennsylvania currency, at 17d. į per livre? . . .

. Leo S. d. . answer

184 18 31 Sterling.

more, s 308 3 10 Currency. 12 A Connecticut merchant imported goods from France, amounting per invoice, to 49008 livres ; how much currency of that state, at 15d. per livre, will they amount to ; and how much sterling will discharge the debt, exchange being at par?

:: L Si di answer 1.30630 o Currency.

72297 50 Sterling. 13 A merchant in Holland being desirous to turn-4376 florinis currency into banco, the agio at 4 per cent, how many pounds Flemish banco must he receive?

answer 701l. iflo. Izsti. 13pen. '14 P, of Philadelphia, receives of A, of Amsterdam, an , invoice *of goods amounting to 10235 flo. 17sti, Spen. how much Pennsylvania currency, must be remitted to discharge the bill, at 350.per florin? And what is the sumin sterling, exchange at 38s 6d. Flemish per £. sterling?

i L. s. d. i answer 3

er $ 1503 7 10f Currency.

2 886 4 5 Sterling 15 A bill for 2524 pezos, 7ria. 33marv. being remitted to Cadiz; what sum, Pennsylvania currency, is equal thereto, at 7s 6d. per pezo?

answer 9461 173 5d.s 16 A Virginia merchant sent goods to Norway, worth. 17431 16s. Virginia currency; how many rix dollars, at os. each, must he receive?

answer $812dols. 48. :-17 A merchant of North Carolina shipped a quantity of four, which; when disposed of, amounted to 1186 millreas, 500 reas; and received in return 17 pipes of wine , what was it per pipe, a millrea reckoned at 75. 6d. in ... ,

:: answer 261 33 sd 1.. 18 In 2714 guilders, 15 stivers, how many pounds sterling ; exchange at 35s 6d. Flemish per ke sterling?

answer 2541 18s id. 19 In 2901 115 10d. sterling, how many pounds Flemish; exchange at 336 jod. Flemish per k. sterling, and agio at 41 per cent?

answer 5131. 145 id.

.20 London

20 London is indebted to Genoa in 17101 168 4d.; for how many pezos may Genoa draw on London, the exchange at 47d.. per pezo ?

answer 8644+ • 21 How many millreas will 1566/ 6s 8d. amount to, exchange at 64d. per millrea? answer 5873 millreas, 750 reas.

· 22 A merchant in Rotterdam remits 5641 ios 6d. Fle..? mish, to be paid in London ; how much sterling money must he draw for, exchange at 345 4d. per pound sterling?

answer 3281 16s id. 23 Amsterdam changes on London 345 3d. per ki sterling, and on Lisbon, 52d. Flemish, for 400 reas ; how then ought the exchange to go between London and Lisbon ? ..

answer 750. sterling, nearly, per millrea. 24 A, at Paris, drrws on B, of London, for 1200 crowns, at 55d. sterling per crown ; for the value whereof, B draws · again on A, at 56d. sterling per crown; besides commission. per cent. what did A gain or lose by this transaction ?

answer A gained 151 +crowns.

VULGAR FRACTIONS. A VULGAR FRACTION is a part, or parts of an : 11'integer, and is noted thus, i one-eighth ; í, seven

eighths. The upper number is called the numerator, and i shews the party or parts, expressed by the fraction the

lower number is called the denominator, and denotes the

Bumber of such parts contained in a unit. · Vulgar fractions are either propery improper, compound, or mixt.

A proper fraction is one çf which the numerator is less, ... than the denominator ; thus, the

An improper fraction is one of which the numerator is, · equal to, or greater than, the denominator ; thus, S L

A compound fraction is, a fraction of a fraction; as, . of of , &c. in

A mixt number consists of a whole number and a fraction; as, 75

A mixt fraction has a fraction annexed either to its nu. merator or denominator ; as, 43, or, or it .

*

; REDUCTION

4. REDUCTION OF VULGAR FRACTIONS.

CASE 1.
To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms,

RULE. Divide the greater term by the less, and that divisor by. the remainder, till nothing be left : the last divisor will be the common measure ; by which divide both terms, for the fraction required : or, :

Take the aliquot parts of both terms continually, till in. their lowest terms. Note. If the common measure be I, the fraction is already in its lowest terms. Ciphers to the right hand of both terms may be rejected, thus, on=

E x A M P L Bs. I Reduce to its lowest terms. .: : Or, y

eri 28_42. 48)56(1 8)*:( = 4 facit.

Take required: urg; by which divthe last diviso di visor by

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CASE 2. To reduce several fra&tions to others, retaining the same value, and to have one common denominator;

RULE. Reduce the given fractions to their lowest terms: then multiply each numerator into all the denominators but its own, for its respective numerator ; and all the denominators into each other, for a common denominator.

"? Nots. This case, and case I, prove cach other.

EXAMP L & S.

D . EXAMPLES. I Reduce zo on to a common denominator. 7 X10X125840) 9x 8X12=864 Numerators. » MIX 8X10=880);

8X10 X 12=960 Denominator. Sed, and lito | 2 Reduce is $ $ and ġ to a common denominator.

facit 378 16, 71and 446 3 Reduce si tra , and į to a common denominator.

facit mense , 110 and more 4 Reduce , 1, 1 and 3, to a common denominator.

facit 7, 149, and 5 Reduce , to and f, to a common denominator.

facit 145, 46, 25 and 2

- CASE 3. : : To reduce a mixt number to an improper fraction;

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- To the product of the whole number, with the denominator, • add the numerator, for a new numerator, under which place

the given denominator.

facit.

EXAMPLES."
1 Reduce 12}} to an improper fraction.

12X17*15=
2 Reduce 1915 to an improper fraction."
3 Reduce 1670 to an imdroper fraction.
4 Reduce 100% to an improper fraction.
5 Reduce 51447 to an improper fraction.

Reduce 471495 to an improper fraction.

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CASE 4.
To reduce an improper fraction to a whole of mixt nun-

ber.

RULE

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