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7. What are the essential materials for glass-making and from what 13 sources are they derived ? What difference is there in the composition and in the properties of lime-glass and lead-glass ? Give a general description of the process of glass-making.
8. Give the formulæ and colours of all the different compounds of lead 12 which are used as pigments. Explain the preparation of a yellow and a red pigment of lead from litharge.
WEDNESDAY, 6TH NOVEMBER.
[10 A.M. TO 1 P.M.]
N.B.-Answers to be illustrated as far as possible by sketches. 1. Describe the construction of hollow walls in a building. What is the object of using them? Give sketches of 2 methods of bonding together such hollow walls.
2. You are required to build a masonry bridge of 3 spans of 40 feet 15 over a river. Height of abutments and piers to springing 20 feet. Rise of arch 8 feet. Make a sketch of a longitudinal section of one span, calculating the dimensions of the various parts by empirical rules. Scale 10 feet to an inch.
3. What do you mean by “shoring"?
(a) in a lofty building with inclined shores ;
4. Explain the following terms with sketches :Extrados, intrados, rebate, putlog, skewback, dowel, waling, bond, blocking course, lintel,
5. How would you proteet wooden piles which are to be driven by a failing weight ? What is a “dolly”? What loads are usually placed on wooden piles
(a) driven till they reach firm ground ;
6. Describe the sinking of masonry wells for foundations in sandy soil, 15 giving sketches of the various appliances used. Suppose a well sinks out of the perpendicular, how may it be straightened ?
7. What methods are you acquainted with for use in constructing brick 13 arches of more than 1 brick in thickness? Give sketches showing the various kinds of bond used and state in what particulars and in what situations each is most suitable.
8. Describe the preparation of Lime Concrete, giving a specification 15 suitable f r ordinary work in dry situations. Sketch one type of Concrete Mixing Macı ine. How may the proper proportion of Moria to any given kind of agregate be ascertained ? What are the relative advantages of Stone Masonry and Concrete as regards strength, cheapness, facility of isying ?
THURSDAY, 7TH NOVEMBER.
(10 A. M. TO 1 P.M.]
WATER-SUPPLY, IRRIGATION AND HARBOURS.
N.B.—The answers to be illustrated by sketches as far as possible. 1. Make a sketch of the joint of two Cast Iron 9" spigot and socket 10 pipes, showing approximate dimensions. Describe tbe process of laying such pipes. Sketch the joints of two 9" Steel pipes and of two 13" Wrought Iron pipes.
2. What are the advantages of the constant system of water-supply as 13 compared with the inter mittent. If the former is used what special precantions are necessary to prevent waste ? Describe any method you know of which is employed for the detection of waste.
3. What is the object of a service reservoir ? Suppose the mean supply 12 passing through such a reservoir to be 2000 gallons per minute, of what capacity should the reservoir be made? Give your reasons for not making the reservoir sufficiently large to hold 2 or 3 days' supply.
Sketch a roof covering for such a reservoir.
4. A canal is required to discharge 1,000 cubic feet per second. Draw 12 type sections for such a canal in the following cases :
(a) In cutting in soft earth...
Bedfall 6 inches per mile. (6) In cutting in rock
Bedfall 2 feet per mile (c) Of an aqueduct plastered with cement... Bedfall 1 in 500, A suitable depth should be assumed.
5. Make a sketch of an earthen reservoir dam 60 feet high. The 15 puddle trench to be 15 feet deep. The sketch to show drainage of dam seating. Describe the construction of the dain in detail.
6. In designing a canal, where the natural fall of the land is greater than 13 the bedfall of the canal, what arrangements would you make to prevent the canal coming into heavy embankment
(a) in navigation canals ;
(6) in irrigation canals. Give sketches of the masonry works required.
7. In designing harbours what are the principal points of importance to 12 be considered ?
In this connection discuss the advantages and disadvantages of Parallel and Converging Jetties,
8. What is the difference between a Jetty and a Breakwater? Discuss 15 the advantages of the several kinds of breakwaters, giving type sketches.
THURSDAY, 7T1 NOVEMBER.
[2 P.M. TO 5 P.M.]
EARTH-WORK AND ROADS. N.B.-The answers must be illustrated by sketches as far as possible. 1. On what does the permanent stability of earth depend and what is g angle of repose, and give angles of repose for dry sand, wet clay and shingle and gravel.
2. The following levels were taken at distances of 200 feet apart for a road 1,000 feet in length. The reduced levels at the several points being as shown below. The width of the formation surface is 24 feet with side slopes of 11 to 1. Calculate, by the Prismoidal Formula, the amount of earth-work required :Distances, Reduced levels.
Reduced level of the for. 200
mation surface is 5.50. 400
4 06 1000
1:50 3. Briefly describe the method of setting out earth-work for a road in 15 embankment, in cutting, and partly in embankment and partly in cutting, and the several instruments used for the purpose.
4. What do you understand by the terms settlement and made earth, and state the principal matter to be guarded against in forming new embankments for long lines of roads passing through different classes of soils.
5. What do you mean by road gradients and ruling gradient, and briefly 10 explain the difference it inakes in the draught power of the animals and compare the loss of power on different lengths of roads, one having a gradient of 1 in 20 and the other 1 in 50.
6. Describe the considerations that should guide an Engineer in select- 12 ing a line of road betwern two important towns and the several points to be attended to in designing a road.
7. Describe metaling and its object as well as the several materials 15 used in this Presidency for the purpose and their relative merits. What difference does the use of these several materials make in the tractive force required to draw a load of a given weight.
8. What do you understand by the expression “Formation Surface of : & Road”? How it is generally determined and state the precautions usually taken to guard against breaches in embankment in a country subject to occasional rainfalls and inundation.
9. Briefly describe the process of tracing hill roads and the several 12 instruments used for the purpose.
FRIDAY, 8TH NOVEMBER.
[11 A.M, TO 3 P.M.]
DRAWING FROM DATA. Draw to a scale of 6 feet to an inch
(a) Plan at 4 foet above ground wall, (6) Cross section,
(c) Front elevation, of a building the sketch plan of which is given below.
[See the sketch plan facing this page.]
1. Foundations to be carried down to a depth of 3' 6" below ground level and to be 3' in breadth filled in with concrete for a height of 3.
2 All masonry to be of brick and lime.
3. Plinth of main walls to be 3' above ground level and 2' 3" in breadth, of verandah walls to be 2' 6" high and 1' 101" wide.
4. Rooms to be 16' x 16' clear with a verandah s' in width to the outside.
5 Walls to be 1' 6" in thickness and to be 14' 6" below bottom of tie beams,
6. Verandah posts to be 4" x 4" and to be 6' high to the underside of post plates.
7. Projection of main roof 1'6" beyond the walls and of verandah roof 2'0" beyond the outside faces of the posts.
8. Clear story openings 3' 1' 6" to be provided below wall plates over openings in main walls.
9. Position of doors and windows marked x in sketch.
10. D, D represent doors 4' x 7' clear and W, W windows 3 x 5 clear placed 2' 6" above the level of the floor.
11. Dotted lines in sketch show position of eaves, hips, ridges, valley rafters and trusses pitch of roof 30°.
12. Treads of steps to be 12".