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New Revised Edition.

JUVENILE

MENTAL ARITHMETIC;

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE

“AMERICAN INTELLECTUAL ARITHMETIC.”

BY JOHN F. STODDARD, A.M.,
AUTHOR OF TEE "NORMAL MATUEMATICAL SBRIES," na

NEW YORK:
SHELDON & COMPANY.

OLIVELAND: INGHAM & BRAGG.

DETROIT: E. B. SMITH & 00.

CINCINNATI: APPLEGATE doo
CHICAGO: W. B, KEXX .co.

THE NORMAL MATHEMATICAL SERIES.

STODDARD'S JUVENILE MENTAL ARITHMETIC.

25 cents.

STODDARD'S INTELLECTUAL ARITHMETIC. Price 40 cents. STODDARD'S RUDIMENTS OF ARITHMETIC. Price 50 cents, STODDARD'S NEW PRACTICAL ARITHMETIC. Price $1 00. STODDARD & HENKLE'S ELEMENTARYALGEBRA. $1 25. STODDARD & HENKLE'S UNIVERSITY ALGEBRA. $200. METHODS OF TEACHING AND KEY TO STODDARD'S

INTELLECTUAL ARITHMETIC. Price 50 cents, KEY TO STODDARD'S PRACTICAL ARITHMETIC. Price $1 00. KEY TO S. & H.'S ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA. Price $1 25. KEY TO S. & H.'S UNIVERSITY ALGEBRA. Price $2 00.

673-43

Entered, according to Act of Congress in the year 1857, by

SHELDON, BLAKEMAN & CO., In the Clerk's Office, of the District Court of the United States for

the Southern District of New York,

Re-entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1865, by

SHELDON & COMPANY, In the Clerk's Office, of the District Court of the United States for

the Southern District of New York,

Electrotyped by SMITH & MODOUGAL, 82 & 84 Beekman St., N. Y.

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The foundation for a thorough education is laid in youth. The habits of thought, and modes of reasoning then acquired will exert an influence favorable or unfavorable to intellectual development in after years. It is hoped that this little book, in its scope

and

arrangement, and in the discussion of the subjects of which it treats, is adapted to the capacity of young pupils; and that by proper instruction and careful study, it will produce the desired effect upon the mind, and afford the information it is designed to impart.

Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Division, the Tables of Weights and Measures, and the elementary parts of Common Fractions have been introduced and illustrated by appropriate examples.

SUGGESTIONS TO TEACHERS.

For the benefit of those whose experience is limited, I make the following suggestions in regard to the most approved methods of teaching this important branch of study :

The lesson should be assigned previous to recitation, to afford the pupils an opportunity for its examination: the use of the book, by the pupil, during class exercise, should be prohibited.

A question should be read slowly and distinctly, and the pupil required to repeat and analyze it without interruption, unless it be to make a necessary criticism or correction.

The pupils should be called upon promiscuously and not in rotation, to take part in the recitation.

Care should be taken that the language they use be strictly correct as to construction and articulation.

If not carefully guarded, pupils, in their hurried solutions, pronounce many simple words incorrectly. For instance, the words : and, of, if, for, with, what, which, where, when, costs, quarts, etc., are not unirequently pro. nounced: an, off, ef, fur, withe, wat, witch, are, wen, coss, quats, etc.

By careful attention to these particulars, a lesson in Mental Arithmetic is a practical lesson in elocution, grammar, rhetoric and logic, as well as a lesson in the science of numbers.

It is respectfully suggested that the particular forms given for the analysis of questions be adhered to, unless better ones should be devised by the teacher. J. F. S.

Those wishing to become thoroughly acquainted with Frac. tions and arithmetical questions of almost every kind, are referred to Stoddard's " American Intellectual Arithmetic."

ARITHMETIC.

A Number expresses how many. Numbers are expressed in three ways: 1. By words; as, one, two, three, four, etc. 2. By figures ; as, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 0. 3. By letters; as, I, V, X, L, C, D, and M.

The method of expressing numbers by figures is called the ARABIC METHOD.

The method of expressing numbers by letters is called the ROMAN METHOD.

Count the number of stars in each row, also, the number in each column, and express the number in each by the different methods : One.

1. Two.

2. Three.

3. Four.

4. Five.

5. Six.

* 6. Seven.

7. Eight.

8. Nine.

9. Ten.

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* 10.

1, 2, 8, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, L II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X.

10.

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