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kingdom under the protection of England) resided while on a visit to this country in the reign of George IV. The King died there, September 14, 1824; his Queen the week before. The son and biographer of Crabbe the poet mentions that, in 1813, his father and mother had occupied the same apartments. Isaac D’Israeli stayed at this hotel on his return from his wedding tour, and before settling in King's Road. Dr. Thomas Munro, the early patron of Turner, and other young artists. Rowlandson died here April 22, 1827. Mr. Thomas Hill, the supposed original of Paul Pry, died at No. 2 James Street. The architectural effect of the Adelphi Terrace has been greatly altered by the formation of the Thames Embankment in front of it. In the Adelphi arches a battery of guns was quietly stowed away, ready for use if required, on the memorable tenth of April 1848.

The arches under the Adelphi were open for many years, and formed subterranean streets leading to the wharves on the Thames. About thirty years ago these dark arches had a bad name, on account of the desperate characters who congregated there and hid themselves in the innermost recesses, but now they are mostly enclosed and form extensive cellarage for wine merchants.

Adelphi Chapel, JAMES STREET, was built by a congregation of Particular Baptists about 1777, but the meeting-house was afterwards sold to the Calvinistic Baptists. It was occupied by an Independent congregation until its incorporation into the buildings occupied by Coutts's banking house, when the congregation removed to the Hackney Road and gave the old name to their new chapel. The windows show the use to which the house was originally put, and it is still called the chapel by Messrs. Coutts.

Adelphi Theatre, over against Adam Street, Adelphi, in the STRAND, originally called The SANS PAREIL, was built by Mr. John Scott, a colour maker, and first opened November 27, 1806. The entertainments consisted of a mechanical and optical exhibition, with songs, recitations, and imitations; and the talents of Miss Scott, the daughter of the proprietor, gave a profitable turn to the undertaking. When Tom and Jerry, by Pierce Egan, appeared for the first time (November 26, 1821), Wrench as “Tom” and Reeve as “Jerry,” the little Adelphi, as it was then called, became a favourite with the public. In July 1825 Daniel Terry and Frederick Henry Yates became the joint lessees and managers. Terry was backed by Sir Walter Scott and his friend Ballantyne the printer, but Scott in the sequel had to pay for both Ballantyne and himself to the amount of £1750. Terry retired in 1828, and Yates was joined by Charles Mathews (the elder), and gave here his series of inimitable “At Homes.” Mr. Benjamin Webster succeeded Mr. Yates as manager; purchased the property; rebuilt the house on a somewhat larger scale (1858, Mr. Thomas H. Wyatt, architect), and both as actor and manager long maintained the high character of the establishment.


Or in the Adelphi sitting, half in rapture, half in tears,
Saw the glorious melodrama conjure up the shades of years.

Bon Gaultier's Ballads.
The Strand front was widened and entirely altered in 1887-1888.

Adjutant General's Office, WAR OFFICE, PALL MALL. [See Horse Guards. ]

Admiralty (The), at WHITEHALL, occupies the site of Wallingford House, whither, in the reign of William III., the business of the Admiralty was removed from Duke Street, Westminster. The front, towards the street, of brick and stone, a centre with a tetrastyle Ionic portico and projecting wings, was built in the reign of George I. (1722-1726). The estimated cost was £22,400, the architect Thomas Ripley, the designer of Houghton Hall in Norfolk, the “Ripley with a rule" commemorated by Pope:

See under Ripley rise a new Whitehall,
While Jones's and Boyle's united labours fall.

The Dunciad, B. iii. “The Admiralty,” says Horace Walpole, the son of the owner of Houghton Hall, "is a most ugly edifice, and deservedly veiled by Mr. (Robert] Adam's handsome screen,” I built about 1760.

In the room to the left (as you enter from the Hall) the body of Lord Nelson lay in state. There is a characteristic portrait of Lord Nelson, painted at Palermo, in 1799, for Sir William Hamilton, by Leonardo Guzzardi ; he wears the diamond plume given to him by the Sultan.

The Admiralty Board consists of a First Lord,—who is now usually a member of the Cabinet, is responsible for the conduct of the department, answers for it in Parliament, and, if a member of the House of Commons, moves the estimates for it,-four Naval Lords, a Civil Lord, and a Parliamentary and permanent Secretary. The superior permanent officers are a Comptroller of the Navy, Director of Victualling, Director of Works, Director of Transports, Hydrographer, Accountant General, and Medical Director General. The office of Lord High Admiral, since the Revolution of 1688, has, with three exceptions, been held in commission. The exceptions are, Prince George of Denmark, the husband of Queen Anne, 1702-1708 ; Thomas, Earl of Pembroke, for a short time in 1709; and the Duke of Clarence, afterwards King William IV., in 1827-1828. Among the First Lords Commissioners we may find the names of Anson, Hawke, Howe, Keppel, and St. Vincent.

Adjoining to, and communicating with the Admiralty, is a spacious house for the residence of the First Lord, designed about 1796 by Mr. S. P. Cockerell, architect. The salary of the First Lord is £4500 a year, and he has the entire patronage of the Navy. The civil department of the Admiralty has been removed from Somerset House to Spring Gardens.

1 Of the Admiralty, as built by Ripley, there as it appeared in the days of Nelson and Jervis, is a view by Wale, in London and its Environs there is a good view in the Microcosm of Lon. Described, 6 vols. 8vo, 1761 ; of the Board-room


Admiralty (The Court of) was held formerly in Southwark (on St. Margaret's Hill, in part of the old church of St. Margaret), and was removed circ. 1675 to Doctors' Commons. It is now included in the Probate, Divorce, and Admiralty Divisions of the High Court of Justice. The Admiralty Court Registry is kept at Somerset House.

Adult Orphan Institution, ST. ANDREW'S PLACE, REGENT'S PARK. Instituted 1818, for the education and maintenance of unprovided orphan daughters of clergymen of the Established Church, and of military and naval officers, whom it receives at an age when they would be discharged from other institutions, and trains for governesses. No girl is admitted under 14 or above 17, and none remain after 19. It was originally proposed to make the institution a memorial of the Princess Charlotte of Wales, but this idea was soon dropped. The asylum was opened in Mornington Place (Nos. 32 and 33), and removed in 1824 to the Regent's Park; the house there being built on a plan gratuitously furnished by John Nash, the architect, and on ground granted to the institution by the Government. In 1879 the scheme was enlarged to admit orphan daughters of civil servants of the first class, and at the same time the title was changed to the Princess Helena College for Young Ladies. The college was removed in 1882 from the Regent's Park to Ealing.

African House, LEADENHALL STREET, was the office of the Royal African Company, a trading company established by Act 23 Geo. II., c. 31 (1754). In 1821 the Charter of Incorporation was recalled by Parliament i and 2 Geo. IV. c. 28, and the possessions of the Company on the west coast of Africa were by the same Act annexed to and made dependencies upon the colony of Sierra Leone. An African Company was formed in London as early as 1588.

Agar Town, a poor district near St. Pancras Workhouse, almost entirely covered by the warehouses of the Midland Railway Company, to whom the fee-simple was transferred by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. The locality was named after William Agar, a lawyer, popularly called Counsellor Agar, on whose property a large number of small houses were built about the year 1841. The poverty and wretchedness exhibited here caused Dickens to style it in 1851 a Suburban Connemara. Tom Sayers the pugilist lived in Agar Town for many years.

Agnes (St.), ALDERSGATE. Among the manuscripts of the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's is a “Grant by Herbert de Sancto Albano to Garin, son of Garner le Turner, of a piece of ground before the Church of St. Agnes, de Aldredes gate.”— Report by H. C. Maxwell Lyte (Ninth Report, Historical MSS. Comm., Appendix, p. 2).

Agnes Le Clair (St.) A celebrated well near Old Street Road. It was situated at the Old Street end of Paul Street, the northern extension of Wilson Street, Finsbury Square. On June 15, 1381, after Sir William Walworth had slain Wat Tyler in “Smethefelde," he pursued the rebels to "the spring that is called Whitewellbeche,” which Mr. Riley thinks must be the same that was called Dame Annis the clear;1 but this is certainly a mistake. Whitewellbeche was a close or meadow, belonging to the priory of St. John of Jerusalem, at the opposite end of Old Street, where is now Wilderness Row, or Clerkenwell Road.2

1 Hatton's New View of London, 2 vols. 8vo, 1708, vol. ii. p. 639.

Somewhat north from Holywell is one other well, curved square with stone, and is called Dame Annis the clear, and not far from it, but somewhat west, is also one other clear water called Perillous pond [Peerless Pool], because divers youths by swimming therein have been drowned.–Stow, p. 7.

Gent. But, sir, here is stones set upright ; what is the meaning of them?

Citisen. Marry where they stand, runs . . . from a spring called Dame Annis de Cleare, called by the name of a rich London widow, called Annis Cları, who, matching herself with a riotous courtier, in the time of Edward I., who vainely consumed all her wealth, and leaving her much in povertie, there she drowned herself, being then but a shallow ditch or running water. --- The Pleasant Walks of Moore Fields, a Dialogue between a Country Gentleman and a Citizen, 1607.

When we got into Moorfields : : : away he had me through Long Alley, and cross Hog Lane and Holloway [Holywell] Lane into the middle of the great fields which, since that, has been called the Farthing-Pie-House-Fields. There we would have sat down, but it was full of water ; so we went on, crossed the road at Anniseed Cleer, and went into the field where now the great hospital (Haberdashers' Almshouses) stands.--De Foe's Colonel Jack, p. 45.

As recently as the early years of the present century the district south of Old Street—the Tabernacle Walk and Paul Street-was known as St. Agnes-le-Clair Fields; but the fields have long been built over. The northern end of Tabernacle Walk is still called St. Agnes Terrace, but St. Agnes Crescent and St. Agnes Street have disappeared or received other names.

Agricultural Hall, ISLINGTON, —entrances Liverpool Road and Islington Green, was erected 1861-1862, Mr. Fred. Peck, architect, for the Christmas Cattle Shows of the Smithfield Club. The building covers an area of nearly three acres, and cost about £40,000. The hall was opened on June 24, 1862, with a Dog Show, and the first Cattle Show took place on December 6 of the same year. The Great Hall is 384 feet long and 217 wide, has galleries 34 feet wide, borne on iron columns, and is covered with an arched roof of iron and glass. There are besides subsidiary exhibition courts, refreshment rooms, etc. The principal front in the Liverpool Road is of brick, but is little more than a great entrance flanked by towers. The Christmas Cattle Show, for which it is well adapted, is still the main purpose of the building; but in summer and autumn great horse and other shows are held in it, and at other times it is let for circus and other performances and exhibitions—for walking, running, and wrestling matches; and on Sundays it has been used as a place of worship. A large number of special exhibitions, such as Building, Sanitary, Furniture, and Dairy Exhibitions have been held in successive years.

1 Riley, Memorials, p. 451.

2 Cotton. MSS. Claud, E. vi. 19.

Air Street, PICCADILLY (crosses Regent Quadrant to Brewer Street), was in existence in 1659, and was then the most westerly street in London. In 1671 Colonel Panton applied for licence to “build and finish certain houses in the continuation of a street, named Windmill Street, from the upper end of the Haymarket to the highway leading from Soho Square to Ayre Street and Paddington."2 When Lauder in 1750 published his disgraceful “Essay" on Milton, he wrote from “the corner house, the bottom of Ayre Street, Piccadilly.” Thomas Phillips, R.A. (d. 1845), was living at No. 20 in 1796.

Alban's (St.), between BROOK STREET, Holborn, and Baldwin's GARDENS, Gray's Inn Road, a church noteworthy architecturally, and from the notoriety acquired by the extreme ritualistic ceremonial, vestments, processions, decorations, and practices of its services. It was erected 1860-1863 on the site of a training school for young pickpockets, known as the “Thieves Kitchen,” in the midst of a wretched district, and was for many years the scene of the devoted labours of the vicar, the late Rev. Alex. Heriot Mackonochie. Mr. William Butterfield was the architect; the cost, £35,000, was defrayed by Mr. J. G. Hubbard, M.P., now Lord Addington. The building is of brick, Gothic; spacious, unusually lofty, and well lighted, the dimensions being 120 feet long, 50 wide, and go high. There is no east window, the whole east end being covered with quaint paintings by L'Estrange and Preedy, and elaborate symbolical decorations in alabaster and coloured marbles.

Alban's (St.), WooD STREET. A church in Cripplegate Ward; a piece of well-proportioned quasi-Gothic, built in the years 1684-1685 by Sir Christopher Wren. There is a curious old hour-glass attached to the pulpit. The church described by Stow was taken down in 1632, and the new one built in its stead (by Inigo Jones, it is thought) was burnt in the Great Fire. It serves as well for St. Olave's, Silver Street. The living is a rectory in the gift alternately of Eton College and the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's, valued at £530. Sir John Cheke (d. 1557), who taught "Cambridge and King Edward Greek,” was buried in the old church.

Alban's (St.) Street, Pall Mall, a small street removed, in 1815, to make way for Waterloo Place and Regent Street, so called after Henry Jermyn, Earl of St. Alban, from whom Jermyn Street also derives its name. Its name is preserved in St. Alban's Place, a paved passage running from Charles Street to Jermyn Street, parallel to the Haymarket. St. Evremond, after being driven from France, writes, on his second visit to England, “November 23, 1678 : . Je suis logé dans St. Alban's Street au loin."

December 28, 1710.-I came home to my new lodging, in St. Alban Street, where I pay the same rent (eight shillings a week) for an apartment, two pair of

1 Rate - books of St. Martin's - in - the. Fields.

: Elmes, Life of Sir Christopher Wrex, 4to

ed. p. 305.

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