« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
proceed at once to the verbs. The verb is the life of a language, out the leading errors which Englishmen commit in pronouncand he who knows the verbs thoroughly has mastered the ing Italian. The reason of this is, that men are apt to transfer chief difficulty of his task. The remaining kinds of words will involuntarily the peculiarities of their own language to that be taught and discussed in the same natural order.
which they are studying. The first effort therefore in learning to These lessons will contain, if I may so speak, two grammars. pronounce Italian, should be to forget your native peculiarıies. Presuming that I may find two classes of readers, one anxious In the mastery of the pronunciation of the continental lanfor knowledge by the most easy and rapid manner, the other guages, and particularly of Italian, the Englishman's great diffiwith more preparation, inclination, and leisure for study,--I culty is in the vowels. have so shaped my labour as to combine in a form sufficiently The Englishman, perhaps from childhood, has hcard no vowel marked though not separated, an elementary grammar which sounds but those of his own island-his four sounds of a, his shall give the before-mentioned indispensable foundation and four sounds of o, his three sounds of u, his two sounds of c, and skeleton; and a grammatical treatise which shall, with philo- his two sounds of 1,--sounds little swayed by rule, and changing sophical reasons, satisfactorily explain the ornaments, the continually. He begins Italian, but carrying to the study the delicacies, the accidents, and exceprions of the language. complex vocal habit of his language, it must be some time
As I have said, I shall not divide my grammar into parts of before he can comprehend and practise the simplicity and perspeech, but into paragraphs. In the paragraphs I shall dis- manence of the sound of one Italian Q. one Italian i, one Italian U, tinctly mark the line of separation between the elementary two Italian e's, and two Italian o's. He therefore pronounces no grammar and the grammatical treatise by the title of "ADDI- vowel purely, and wherever he may more in Italy, his insular
The student who only desires to learn the nativity will be instantly recognised by the facchino of any language sufficiently to enable him to read, speak, and write village inn, from his inveterate habit of giving to the Italian a, with tolerahee accuracy, need only attend to the numbered that most comicai of sounds to a 'l'uscan ear, of a in hat and fat. paragraph ; but he who would learn the language thoroughly, Another radical error committed by Englishmen in promust follow me closely and carefully in all I may find occasion nouncing Italia., arises from two opposite principles which to say in the additional remarios.
may be said to be the fundamental rules of the accentuation of Each paragraph will be complete in itself-a decided step in the languages. In English, every word has its leading, marked, knowledge of the language. Every principle of the language or strongly accented syllable--generally speaking the root of will be cleariy illustrated by examples, including vocabularies the word; and it follows that while this syllable is distinctly and exercises,
marked by the voice, the subordinate unaccented fade away I have now only to ask the earnest and patient attention of in the utterance into an airy nothingness that can hardly be my pupil readers.
described. It is quite different with Italian. It has its
accented syllables just as English, but the accent on the one I.
does not destroy the vocal enunciation of the others. On the I shall teach the pronunciation of the Italian language in contrary, full and substantial justice must be done to every more detail than is generally pursued in English tuition. The syllable, each being clearly sounded, full and roundly with profit to be derived from the study of any living language is the vowels, and in a resunant or vibrating tone with the conmuch less if we are unable to pronounce it correctly. We can
The contrast nay be observed in the pronunciation make little practical use of our theoretical acquirements, if in of any of the many words of a kindred sound in both languages communication with those to whom this language is the derived from the same classic stock. Take the following: mother tongue, we can neither make ourselves understood when
Italian. we speak, nor understand when we are spoken to. And besides,
Dif-fi-col-tu. no man, though he may gather the sense, can relish or even
comprehend the beauties or delicacies of great poets, and prose
De-te-sta-bil-men-te. writers too, in any language, and more especially in that
Ge-920-10-50-men-te. of Italy, without an accurate knowledge of the sounds. In
In-dif fe-ren-te-men-te. reading such poets as Ariosto or Tasso, the pleasure does not
Re-pe-ti-zi-u-ne. consist altogether in appreciating the thoughts or even shades of thoughts, but in the faculty to enjoy that divine harmony This peculiarity of the English language, it may be remarked, to which they have attuned the language. One may relish the is the great obstacle which every English poet has elibeauty of the rose, but if he is deprived of the sense of smell, countered in the effort to naturalise the classic measures of he can admire only a lifeless beauty. Such students of the antiquity. Contrasted with the open limpid vocalisation of Italian poets, to use a more homely figure, may read their poetry Italy, the pronunciation of the English is to an Italian so with the satisfaction with which one might admire a Turkey obscure or indistinct, as very frequently not to be even undercarpet, who has seen the reverse side only. There is no insu- stood. It might be presumed that in a word so sonorous as perable or even very considerable difficulty in mastering detestabilmente or rolontariamente it would be impossible to miss Italian pronunciation; but a thoughtful attention to some the true sounds, yet an Englishman will, generally speaking so leading principles, and a student-like diligence, are conditions slur over what he would trom the analogy of his own language essential to success. My thoughtful and industrious pupils conceive to be the subordinate parts of the word, as to be often will very soon find that a prolixity in this the very outset of quite unintelligible to an Italian, my labours which might seem trifling, is really most impor- A third and radical difference between the two languages, as tant--one of the fundamental parts of the language.
regards the principles of pronunciation, proceeds from what I am aware that I am writing for the most part for adult may be termed the vocal mechanism or the physical principles readers; but let them for a little space forzet the dignity of of enunciation. Shortly stated, the physical difference is this, manhood; for every learner of a language, be he as old as Cato in England, they speak from the mouth; in Italy, from the was when he learnt Greek, should be regarded as a child chest. The Englishman whispers his words through the palate, learning to express his thoughts. Indeed the more he is tongue, teeth, or lips; the Italian throws them out with the taught a foreign tongue as the child his mother's speech, the vigour of his lungs. When therefore the Englishman attempts better for him,
the pronunciation of Italian after his accustomed mode, he conA living language can never be accurately and completely fines the open sounds of Italy to the limited mechanism of his expressed by signs. They who profess the contrary only hissing or lisping articulation above the throat, and turns mislead the uninformed. But a tolerable approach to accuracy Italian melody into harmonious discord, now a croak, now a in fixing pronunciation may be made by letter-signs represent hiss. ing analogous sounds familiar to the ear in one's own lan- These are the radical differences and difficulties which my guage. If one has made himself so fanuliar with the imitated readers must strive to overcome. This is only to be accomsounds, as to have acquired a considerable vocal command of plished by a constant recollection of these points of difference the leading ones, he may very soon accurately and perma- in connection with the rules I am about to state and illustrate, nently acquire them, by a few brief communications with an and by reading aloud, and with a clear and distinct voice uttered educated native.
from the chest, every Italian word which I may have occasion Perhaps the most useful beginning I can make, is to point to give in the course of the grammar
NOUNS WHOSE STEM ENDS IN A CONSONANT. .
Of another class under this head, the stem ends in a T sound,
that is, in either 8, T, KT, 0, or ve. The nouns in the ensuing 6. The Nominative appends o to the stem.
table are ή λαμπας (instead of λαμπαδς), α torch και η κορυς (inOf this subdivision the first class has a stem which ends instead of κορυθς), α helmet; o, η ορνις (ορνιθς), α bird; ο αναξ a P sound, or in a K sound; that is, in either β, π, φ, or in (ανακτς), α king ; and η ελμινς (ελμινθς), α ίαρευorm. γΥγ, χ.
Observe that o with a P sound makes y, and with a K sound, makes Ę.
S. Ν. λαμπας κορυς ορνις
λαμη άδ-ος κορύθ-ος ορνίθ-ος ανακτ-ος ελμινθος η storm. o raven. o the gullet (throat). D. λαμπάδ-ι κορύθ-ι ορνίθι
Α. S. Ν. λαιλαν κοραξ λαρυγξ
ορνίν ανακτ-α έλμινθ-α G. λαιλαπ-ος
ν. κοράκ-ος λαρυγγ-ος
λαμπας κορυς ορνίς αναξ έλμινς D. λαιλαπ-ι
Ρ. Ν. κοράκ:-1 λαρυγγι λαμπάδ-ες κορύθ-ες ορνίθ-ες ανακτ-ες ελμινθ.
-ες Α. λαιλαπ-α
λαμπάδ–ων κορύθ-ων ορνίθων ανακτ-ωνιελμινθ-ων
* Σέλμί-σι* Ρ. Ν. λαιλαπ-ες κοράκ-ες
Α. λαμπάδ-ας κορύθ-ας ορνίθ-ας ανακτ-ας ελμινθ-ας G. λαιλαπ-ων κοράκ-ων λαρυγγ-ων
V. λαμπάδες κορύθ-ες ορνίθ-ες ανακτ-ες ελμινθ-ες D, λαιλάψ-ι καραξ-1
D. Ν.Α.V.λαμπάδ-ε κορύθ-ε ορνιθ-ε ανακτ-ε ελμινθ-ε Α. λαιλαπ-ας
λαμπάδ-οιν κορύθ-οινίορνίθ-ων ανακτ-οινέλμινθουν ν. λαιλαπ-ες κοράκ-ες
The noun o, η παις, child, has in the vocative παι. D. N, A.V. λαιλαπ-ε κοράκ-ε
λαρυγγ-ε G, D. λαιλαπ-ον κοράκ-ουν λαρυγγ-οιν Here belong the adjectives in ις and ι, (gen. ίδος, ίτος) as o,
ή ευχαρις, το ευχαρι, (g. έτος), pleasing, graceful; also, those in Here belong the adjectives in ξ (gen. γος, κος, χος) and Ψας, (gen. άδος), as o, η φυγας, (g. φυγάδ-ος), αn exile, or banished (gen. πος), as o, ή, άρπαξ, άγος (Latin χαραα, English ταραολous); person; those, too, in ης, (g. ητος), as o, η αργης, (g. ητος), white; ό, ή ήλιξ, έκος, aequalis, of the same age ; ο, ή μωνυξ, ύχος, one- | those; moreover, in ως, (g. ωτος) as o, η αγνως, (g. αγνωτος), Roofed, having solid hoofs" (μονος, alone, one, and ονυξ, αhoof), κολπου»; and those in ις, (g. ιδος), as o, η αναλκις, (g. αναλand o, η αιγιλιψ, ίπος, lofty.
κίδος), without strength και η πατρις (sc. γη Ιαnd,) g. πατρίδ-ος,
one's native country; finally, those in ūs, (g. ūdos), as o, aj VOCABULARY.
νεηλυς, (g. νεηλύδος), recently come. Οψ, οπος, ή, voice; (Lat. vΟΣ.) Αγων, ωνος, o, a contest in the
VOCABULARY. Ωψ, ωπος, ή, the countenance,
public games. fair. .
Γελως, ωτος, o, laughter.
Φιλοχρημοσυνη, ης, η, Ιove of Μαστιξ, ιγος, ή, whip, ,
money, avarice. αδω, I sing.
erotic, as in erotic poems). Πας, πασα, παν, every; in the scourge. Αθηναιος, o, an Athenian.
Κακοτης, ητος, ή baseness. plural, παντες, all. Ορτυξ, υγος, o, a quail.
“Ιππος, ου, o, a horse. Συριγξ, ιγγος, ή, a shepherd's Oρχηθμος, ου, o,
Νεοτης, ητος, ή, youngness, “Απας, άπασα, άπαν, another dance. youth.
form of πας, πασα, παν, .
the . pipe, Pandean (from the Πολυπονος, ον, laborious. rural divinity, Pan) pipes Ελαυνω, Idrive.
Ομοιοτης, ητος, ή, likeness, å giving the force of togeresemblance.
ther, all together, so of comΤεττιξ, ιγος, o, the grasshopper. Κρωζω, I croak.
Χαρις, ίτος, ή, loveliness, pleaΦορμιγξ, ιγγος, ή, the harp. Και-και, both-and. .
Δε, but, μεν-δε, particles deΚολαξ, ακος, o, a fatterer.
singness, favour, benefit,
benefit, Αδελφος, ου, o, a brother.
gratitude (Lat. gratia, Eng. Αδελφη, ης, ή, a sister. Μυρμηξ, ηκος, o, the ant.
noting a contrast.
Πλουτος, ου, ο, wealth. Φεναξ, ακος, o, a deceiver.
Ερις, ερίδος, ή, strife.
Πλουσιος, α, ον, rich.
Παις, παιδος, ο, ή, a child, sση, awaken.
with Οι κορακες κρωζουσιν. Τους κολακας φευγε. Απεχου του
here acts as an intensive, that φενάκος. Οι ανθρωποι τερπονται φορμιγγι και ορχηθμη και ηδη. Φροντις, ίδος, ή, care.
Νυξ, νυκτος, ή, night.
is, it strengthens the force Οι επποι μαστιξιν ελαυνονται. Αι φορμιγγες τους των ανθρωπων Πενης, πενητος, ο, ή, poor.
of the verb. θυμους τερπουσιν. Τεττιξ μεν τεττιγι φιλος, μυρμηκι δε μυρμηξ Κουφος, η, ον, light, light- Κατακρυπτω, I conceal.
minded, (se.ή εστιν). Οι ποιμενες προς τας συριγγας αδoυσιν. Παρα
Κολαζω, I punish, chastise. τους Αθηναιοις και ορτυγων και αλεκτρυονων αγωνες ησαν.
οι | Απορια, ας, ή, want of means, Μακαριζω, I account happy destitution, aeed.
congratulate. . ποιμενες τας των αιγων αγελας εις τους λειμωνας ελαυνουσιν. μυρμηκων και ορτυγων βιος πολυπονος εστιν. Πολλοι αγαθην
EXERCISES.—GREEK-ENGLISH, μεν ωπα, κακην δε οπα εχουσιν.
Οι ορνιθες αδoυσιν. Χαρις χαριν τικτει, ερις εριν. Μακαριζομεν. ENGLISH-GREEK.
την νεοτητα. Απορια τικτει εριδας. Πλουσιοι πολλακις την I' ανοίd a. Hatterer. Ravens croak. You are delighted by the κακοτητα πλουτω κατακρυπτουσιν. Ω καλε παι,. στεργε τον harp. Dances delight men. They drive the horses with (dat.) αγαθον αδελφον και την καλην αδελφην. Η φιλοχρημοσυνη μητηρ
κακοτητος απασης εστιν. Οι πενητες πολλακις εισιν ευδαιμονες. * The tota, which is subscript with small letters, is written Η σοφια εν τοις των ανθρωπων θυμους θαυμαστους των καλων δε the side of capitals, but not sounded; thus ωδη becomes | ερωτας ενεγειρει. “ο θανατος τους ανθρωπους φροντιδων απολυει. Dion, and adw becomes Aldw.
“Η φιλια δια ομοιοτητος γιγνεται. Oινος εγειρει γελωτα. Εν νυκτι + Note, sc. stands for scilicet (that is, seire licet) and points βουλη τους σοφοις γιγνεται. Οι σοφοι κολαζουσι την κακοτητα. out that a word is understood, that is, left out, and is to be οι ανθρωποι πολλακις κουφαις ελπισι τερπονται supplied: sc. is therefore equivalent to our that is, or supply: 80 here sc. EOTIV means that the verb eoTi, isbeing omicted
* Instead of Λαμπαδσι, κορυθσι, ορνιθσι ανακτσι, and ελμινθσι. by the author, is to be supplied by the reader.
LESSONS IN FRENCH.-No. LXX VIIL. Birds sing. Favour is begotten by favour, strife by strife.
By Professor Louis FASQUELLE, LL.D. By (dat.) wisdom (there) is awakened in men's minds a wonderful love of good things. I am delighted with the song of
και 128.-THE INFINITIVE. birds. The songs of birds delight the shepherd. We delight
(1.) The infinitive represents the being, action, or passion in in (dat.) birds. Men foilow kings. Men obey the king. an indefinite manner, and without number or person :
Vouloir tromper le ciel, c'est folie To wish to deceive heaven, is folly à la terre.
LA FONTAINE. There are neuter nouns which belong to this class. The
L'ardeur de vaincre, cède à la The ardour of conquest (to constem of these neuter nouns ends in 7 and in kt, as yala, milk,
peur de mourir.
CORNEILLE. quer), yields to the fear of death (to γαλακτ-ος, gf milk. As the laws of euphony do not endure a
die). 7 or kt at the end of a word, the 7 and the kt disappear in Hair est un tourment,
To hate is a torment, the nominative, or pass (as in ovs, g. ОUTOS, an ear) into o.
SéGUR, Thuς, το σωμα, σωματος, α body και το γονυ, γονατος, αλλee και το
(2.) The infinitive is often used substantiyely: γαλα, γαλακτος, milk, and το ους, ωτος, απ εαr, are declined as follows.
Ou plutôt, que ne puis-je au Or rather, why can I not at the doux tombcr du jour ?
sweet close of the day? S. Ν. σωμα 10บบ γαλα
LAMARTINE. G. σωμάτ-ος γονάτος γαλακτ-ος ωτ-ος
(3.) The infinitive present is used in French after certain D. σωμάτ-ι γονάτ-ι γαλακτ
verbs, which are, in English, joined to other verbs by the conΑ. σωμα γονυ γαλα
junction and :ν. σωμα γονυ γαλα
Allez chercher mon père. Ρ. Ν. σωμάτ-α γονάτα
Go and fetch my father. γαλακτ-α G. σωμάτων γονάτων γαλακτων
(4.) We might give as a general rule, that a verb immen D. σωμά-σι* γονά-σι* γαλαξ-ι*
diately preceded and governed by another verb (avoir and être Α. σωμάτ-α γονάτ-α γαλακτ-α
excepted), or by a preposition (en excepted), is put in the ν. σωμάτ-α γονάτ-α γαλακτ-α
present of the infinitive: D. Ν. Α.V. σωμάτ-ε γονάr-ε γαλακτ-ε
Tout ce qu'elle s'imaginait tenir, All that she fancied that she held, G.D. σωμάτ-οινί γονάτ- οινί γαλακτ-οινή
lui échappait tout-à-coup.
escaped her suddenly.
FénéLON, Like γονυ (stem γονατ) decline το δορυ, α spear, δοράτος,
Vos raisons sont trop bonnes Your reasons are too good in δοράτι, &c. ; dat. pl. δομάσι.
d'elles-mêmes, sans être appuyées themselves to need that foreign asde ces secours étrangers.
You think that you know every
PIEYRE, thing. . Αμαρτημα, ατος, τo, a failing, Μυθος, ου, o, a speech, word.
Croit-il le pouvoir rompre?
Does he believe Ive can break # a fault, sin, Χωρισμος, ου, o, a separation.
TH. CORNSILLE. Βοηθημα, ατος, τo, help. Μικρος, α, ον, small. Πραγμα, άτος, το, a deed, Ποικιλος, η, ον, various, varie- (5.) The French language preferring the active to the thing.
passive voice, requires the use of the active verb in the Ρημα, ρημάτος, athing spoken, Φαυλος, η, ον, radically bad.
following and similar cases wherein the English use the passive a word .
voice :Χρηστος, η, ον, useful, good.
:Χρημα, ατος,το, a thing for use; Βασταζω, I bear, carry.
Cette dame est bien à plaindre. That lady is much to be pitied. in
Cette maison est à vendre.
This house is to be sold. the plural, goods, pro- Γυμναζω, I exercise.
La chose est de trop pen de con
The matter is of too little conse perty.
Εθιζω, I accustom. . Ιδρως, ιδρωτος, o, sweat. Σπευδω, I hasten.
séquence pour la traiter sérieuse | quence to be treated seriously. ment.
VOLTAIRE. θεραπεια, ας, ή, care, service. Σπενδω, I pour out, make a Ταυτολογια, ας, ή, saying the libation
§ 129.-GOVERNMENT OF VERBS. same thing again, repetition. 'Antouat, I hang on something, Νυμφη, ης, ή, a nymph,
I touch (gen.)
Some verbs are in English governed by prepositions different
from those which connect or govern the same verbs in French. “Ικετης, ου o, an entreater, pe- Γευομαι, I taste (gen.)
Some, again, which are in English joined by prepositions, titioner. , Διαμειβομαι, I exchange.
require none between them in French. We give below lists .--.
of verbs with the appropriate prepositions, according to the EXERCISES.--GREEK-ENGLISH,
best French authorities. Εν χαλεποις πραγμασιν σλιγοι εταιροι πιστοι εισιν. Της | 6 130.-VERBS REQUIRING NO PREPOSITION BEFORE ANOTHER αρετης πλουτον ου διαμειβομεθα τους χρημασιν. Οι εκεται των
VERB IN THE INFINITIVE. γονατων άπτονται. “ο θανατος εστι χωρισμος της ψυχής και του | Accourir, το run
Observer, to notice, to observe
Oser, to dare σωματος. Ο πλουτος παρέχει τους ανθρωπους ποικιλα βοηθηματα. | Aner mieux, to prefa
Aller, to go
Paraître, to seem Μη πειθου κακων ανθρωπων σημασιν. Μη δουλευε, ω παι, τη του Apercevoir, to perceive
Penser, to think, to fancy σωματος θεραπεια. Οι Έλληνες ταις Νυμφαις κρατηρας γαλακτος | Assurer, to assure
Pouvoir, to be able σπενδουσιν. Εθιζε και γυμναζε το σωμα συν πονοις και ιδρωτι. Ανouer, to confess
Prétendre, to pretend Οι αδολεσχαι τειρoυσι τα ωτα ταις ταυτολογιαις. Την ψυχην Confesser, to confess
Compter, to intend
Préférer, to prefer
Protester, to protect εθιζε, ω παι, προς τα χρηστα πραγματα" Οι φαυλοι μυθοι των | Courir, to run
Rappeler (se), to remember «ωτων ουχ άπτονται. Τους ωσιν ακουομεν. Μη εχθαιρε φιλον μικρου Croire, to believe
Rapporter, to report αμαρτηματος ενεκα. Γευου, ω παι, του γαλακτος. Οι στρατιωται Declarer, to declare
Reconnaître, to acknowledge
Regarder, to look at δορατα βασταζουσιν.
Désirer, to desire
Retourner, to return
Revenir, to come back
Ecouter, to hear, to lister
Savoir, to know
Sembler, to seein
Envoyer, to send
Sentir, to feel sweat. We strive after good deeds. Many men delight in gold. Espérer, to hope
Souhaiter, to wish From a good deed arises glory. We admire the good words of the Faire, to make
Soutenir, to maintain wise. The good deeds of good men are admired. The soldiers Falloir, to be necessary
Témoigner, to testify fight with (dat.) spears. I do not exchange the wealth of Imaginer (s'), to imagine
Valoir mieus, to be better virtue for (dat.) kings. Obey ye not the words of the bad. Laisser, to let, to suffer
Venir, to come
Voir, to see
Nier, to deny
Vouloir, to be willing
Je prétends vous traiter comme I intend to treat you as my own beginning and in the middle of the words. 1Velcher Regenschirm habon Sie mon propre fils. RACINE,
cannot be right. It should be Welchen, accusative masculine to agree with Et le Rhin de ses flots ira grossir And the Rhine will go and swell Regenschirm. We have not time or room to point out more mistakes. la Loire, the Loire with its waves, before the
D. D. CAUSALITY: For something of the Art of Photography, see the Avant que tes faveurs sortent de remembrance of thy goodness leaves - Magazine of Art.” For proving your Apothecaries weights, apply to her ma mémoire. BOILEAU.
.-. iny memory.
LISPER (D): We know of no cure for lisping but a strong effort of the § 131. -VERBS REQUIRING THE PREPOSITION à BEFORE AN Dictionary will be completed in two divisions—1, French-English, which
will to speak without lisping.-R. LAMBIE (Glasgow): Cassell's French INFINITIVE.
is now published, price 43. in stiff covers, or 53. in cloth. The English
French Division will be completed in December. The entire work will be The (s') placed after the verb shows it to be reflective.
published, bound, at 8s. 60.-S. GRAHAM (Liverpool): We have had lessons Abaisser (s'), to stoop Etre, être à lire, 1 to be reading,
on Floriculture and Horticulture in view ; and we shall by no means lone Aboutir, to end in
à écrire, &c. writing, &c.
sight of them.--J.M.(Aberdeen): We have seen some American (U. S.) Accorder (s'), to agree Entendre (8'), to be expert in
publications on Book-keeping, and they are so extremely similar to our own,
that it is very evident that brother Jonathan is indebted to us for this as Accoutumer, to accustom Evertuer (s'), to strive
well as many other lessons relating to the business of human life. There Acharner (8'), to strive Exceller, to excel
is one difference which must be carefully looked into, viz., that of Federal Admettre, to admit, to permit Exciter, to excite
Money instead of Sterling Money. When we come to Exchanges in our Aguerrir (s'), to become inured Exhorter, to exhort
Arithinetic, this will be considered; and we shall soon give an inkling of it
under the head of Reduction. As to the conversion of the money of differen Aider, to help in Exposer (8'), to expose one's self
nations, see Kelly's “Universal Cambist,” or Macculloch's " Commercial Aimer, to like Fatiguer (se), to weary one's self
Dictionary.”—JAMES WARDLE (Dean Mills): Right. Appliquer (s”), to endeavour, to Habituer (s), to become used to
APOLLO (Cheltenham) should apply to R. Cocks and Co., New BurlingtonApprendre, to learn [apply Hasarder (se), to venture
street, about Musical Instruments, &c.-T. CHOPE (Hartland): His sug Apprêter (8'), to prepare Hésiter, to hesitote
gestions are good, and will be considered.-J. Houlden, Jr. (Edinr.): The Aspirer, to aspire Instruire, to instruct
Perpetual Almanac extends only froin 1758 to 1830!-INQUISITIVE (LiverAssigner, to summon Intéresser, to interest
pool) must omit the word of in the sentences to which he refers. As to Assujettir (8'), to subject one's self Inviter, to invite
books which are deemed authorities for excellence of style, we say Addison's Attacher (s'), to apply Mettre, to set, to put
papers in the “Spectator," and his writings generally ; Dean Swift's “ Gul
liver's Travels," and his writings generally; and Dr. Samuel Johnson's Attendre (s), to expect Mettre (se), to commence
papers in the Rambler," and his writings generally. Macaulay, our most Attendre, to put off Montrer, to show, to teach
recent historian, is admired for his style, but it is too flippant for us ; those Augmenter (s'), to increase Obstiner (s'), to persist in
of Sir James Macintosh, Dugald Stewart, and Professor Playfair, are vastly Autoriser, to authorise Offrir (s'), to offer
superior.-G, ARCHBOLD (St. Peter's): Right.-H. S.: We can't tell.-A Avilir (8'), to debase one's self Pencher, to incline
LEARNER (Swaffham): The plants referred to, grow from seeds that pre
ceded them. Griffith's" Chemistry of the Seasons" is good and useful. There Avoir, to have Penser, to think, to intend
is a larger edition thau the 4s. one which is greatly improved. Avoir peine, to have difficulty in Persévérer, to persevere
QUINTIN PRINGLE (Glasgow): His solutions of the teak and pine question Balancer, to hesitate Persister, to persist
are correct.-G. S. (Cupar): See p. 223. vol. III., P. E.-J. L. (Duke-st.): Borner (se), to confine one's self Plaire (se), to delight in
Binding 20. vol. Is. 60.-G. J. B. ANVERS had better write to Professor De Chercher, to endeavour Prendre plaisir, to take pleasure Lolme.SAMUEL ESQUIKE YLogierait) will find an explanation of his diffi
culties in a note to the Article Duodecimals of the 1st vol. of Hutton's Complaire, to delight in
Préparer (se), to prepare Concourir, to co-operate Porter, to induce, to excite, strongly advise him to persevere at self-education in the midst of all
Mathematics, at pp. 63 and 64 of the 12th edition.-ZENO (Glasgow): We Condamner (se), to condemn one's Provoquer,
his difficulties and discouragements, as he will be ultimately rewarded. self Pousser, to urge
The errors to which he refers are now corrected. συν becomes συμ Condescendre, to condescend Réduire, to constrain
when combined with Bovan for the sake of euphony.-G. ELTON (BeatConsentir, to consent Réduire (se), to tend, to end
ton): The writing out of the French Exercises is generally considered Consister, to consist Renoncer, to renounce
all that is necessary; and the committing of the rules to memory in Conspirer, to conspire Répugner, to be repugnant
the best way you can; but we may be allowed to remark that the Consumer, to destroy
Résigner (se), to be reconciled writing out of a rule once is equivalent to reading it carefully, at least Contribuer, to contribute Rester, to tarry too long
six or seven times.-W. TAYLOR: The best and the cheapest are seldom
combined; we know of no case where this is certain, but the Bible. Convier, to invite Réussir, to succeed
As to globes, try Smith in the Strand.-S. O. (Camberwell): Right.-T. Coûter, to cost Risquer, to risk
HUNTER should add the study of English to that of Chemistry.-J. RUSSELL Déterminer, to induce Servir, to serve
(Kingscavil): Received. Déterminer (se), to resolve Songer, to think, to intend
ERRATA. Disposer (se), to prepare one's self Suffire, (not unip.), to suffice.
Vol. III., p. 216, col. I, Ans. to Ex. 14, for 96 read 84. Divertir (se), to amuse one's self Tarder, to tarry
2, Ans. to Ex. 38, for ml+? read 1 +-22. Employer, to employ, to devote Tendre, to tend
line 49, insert Xaipw, I rejoice. Encourager, to encourage Tenir, to intend, to aim
55, for βλακευτε read βλακευετε. Engager, to induce
Travailler, to labour
37, for Ouv read ouv. Enseigner, to teach
Vouer, to devote
L'homme n'aime point à s'occu- Man does not like to contemplate
LITERARY NOTICES. per de son néant, et de sa bassesse. his nothingness and his vileness. MASSILLON.
FRENCH. Avez-vous jamais pensé à offrir à Have you ever thought of offering Now ready, price 4s. in stiff Wrapper, or 5s. strongly bound in cloth, Dieu tuutes ces souffrances ? all these sufferings to God?
the First Part complete, consisting of the French and English, of CASSELL'S THE SAME.
FRENCH DICTIONARY: the entire work in two Parts-1. French and Eng. lish : 2. English and French. The French Department carefully. Edited by Professor De Lolme, and the English Department by Professor Wallace and
H. Bridgeman, Esq., will be completed in Twenty-six Threepenny Numbers, ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.
and will form one handsome Volume of eight hundred and thirty-two pages.
Price 8s, 6d. bound in cloth, or the Two Divisions may be had separate. HARRIET STYLE: The German is very correctly translated into English;
CASSELL'S LESSONS IN FRENCH (from the" Popular Educator"), in a neat not so the English into German, as might be expected. All substantives volume, price 2s, in stiff covers, or 23. 6d. neatly bound in cloth. should begin with a capital letter, and the final s should not be used any. where else than at the end of a word. The inverted arrangement, according A KEY TO CASSELL'S LESSONS IN FRENCH, containing Translations of all to which the verb is placed at the end of a sentence, only takes place in rela the Exercises, with numerous references to the Grammatical Kules, price tive and uther subordinate clauses.
Is, paper covers, or ls. 6d, cloth. W. MABRAISON: We cannot, as we have before said, undertake to correct
GERMAN. exercises. Those sent by our correspondent contain a good many errors.
CASSELL'S GERMAN DICTIONARY is now issuing in Weekly Numbers, at In translating from German to English, he appears more anxious to make some sort of sense than to get at the exact meaning of the original. Thus 3d. each; Monthly Parts, ls. each. he renders : Was sonst als was die Nachtigall einst zu der Lerche sagte ? CASSELL'S LESSONS IN GERMAN (from the "Popular Educator"), price by“ Wherefore as the nightingale aald to the lark." The proper transla- | 2s, in stiff covers, or 28. 6d. cloth. tion is: “What else than what the nightingale once said to the lark ?" Again, machte er seinen Gruss unter auen Göttern der Juno muerst, does
MISCELLANEOUS EDUCATIONAL WORKS, not mean “ he made his salutation to all the gods of Juno first,” which is
CASSBLL'S EUCLID.-THE ELEMENTS OF GEOMBTRY. Containing the scarcely sense at all, but he made his obeisance to Juno first of all the First six, and the Eleventh and Twelfth Books of Euclid. Edited by Professor gods (and goddesses).” It is not English to say "those which my brother in his hands has had.” This is carrying literal translation too far. Our | Wallace, A.M., price ls. in stiff covers, or 13. 6d. neat cloth. correspondent seems to have forgotten that in writing German two dis- CASSELL'S ELEMENTS OF ARITHDIBTIC (uniform with Cassell's EUOLID) tinct characters are used for the letter s. He puts the final one at the is now ready, price ls. in stiff covers, or ls. 6d. neat cloth.
INSTRUMENTAL ARITHMETIC.--No. II.
mark it; you can then take 5.5 inches from the scale and
mark it in a straight line with the former ; then the whole THE PLANE SCALE; ITS CONSTRUCTION AND USE. length will be that of the line of 11.5 inches required. Under
the line or rule thus described, there is another consisting of In our first lesson on Instrumental Arithmetic, we explained six inches divided into 5 equal parts, and having these parts the nature and use of an apparatus called the Neperian Abacus. ! in like manner subdivided into tenth parts. These parts are In this lesson, we propose to explain the construction and use i marked at every large division, thus : 10, 20, 30, &c., which of the Plane Scale. This scale is usually found in a case or means 10 hundredths, 20 hundredths, 30 hundredths, &c., of a box of Mathematical Instruments, and is one of the most foot, or 1 tenth, 2 tenths, 3 tenths, &c., of a foot. This, then, useful inventions we know for the purpose of the practical is a decimal scale of a foot, containing tenths and hundredths Mathematician, the Artist, the Mechanical Draughtsman, and of a foot without regard to inches; and from it you may lay the Designer and Drawer of Plans, whether relating to Archi-down or measure lengths of lines very accurately to hundredths tecture, Machinery, or Civil Engineering. In our illustrations, of a foot, as far as it goes, and it may be extended to the laying fig. 1 and 2, we have given an example of a Plane Scale of the down or the measurement of a line longer than the scale itself most useful construction, for there are several varieties in this by doing it by parts as shown above. Thus, if you wished to respect, which we shall have occasion to explain. This example lay down a line of 2.37 feet, that is, 2 feet 3 tenths of a foot is a fac simile of an ivory Plane Scale which has been in our own and 7 hundredths of a foot; you would draw an indefinite possession for more than thirty years, and a more useful instru- straight line, and repeat the length os the scale four times in ment in the solution of practical problems in Mathematics is succession on that line, this would give the length of the 2 not easy to be found. This instrument, although only six feet, then stretch the legs of your compasses so that the disinches long, contains the same Lines as those which are put | tance between the two points of the legs may extend from the
upon one side of the Gunter s Scale, called the Common Gunter ! extremity a to the 7th rertical division beyond that marked 30, by sailors who use this instrument, and who solve their problems and this will give the length of the •37 of a foot; next place in Navigation by its means. The Common Gunter is 24 inches this length on the straight line above mentioned, in continualong, and contains on the other side of it, Lines representing tion of the 2 feet already laid down, and you will have a line of the the Logarithms of the numbers which are represented by the whole length of 2.37 feet as required. By comparing the two Lines on the one side just alluded to. In esplaining the scales extending from A to B, just explained, at the points where nature and use of the Plane Scale, therefore, we are explaining their divisions coincide, you will see that 5 hundredths of a the nature and use of one side of Gunter's Scale, so useful in foot is 6 tenths of an inch; 10 hundredths or 1 tenth of a foot the study and practice of Navigation,
is 1 inch and 2 tenths of an inch; 15 hundredths of a foot is 1 In fig. 1, from A to B there is a common six inch rue, with inch and 8 tenths of an inch ; 20 hundredths or 2 tenths of a the inches marked on it from 1 to 6 each inch being sub- foot is 2 inches and 4 ténths of an inch; 30 hundredths or divided into tenths of an inch; this, then, is a decimal inch- 3 tenths of a foot is 3 inches and 6 tenths of an inch; 35
scale, and you may mrasure or lay down the lengths of lines by, hundredths of a foot is 4 inches and 2 tenths of an inch ; 40
means very accurately to tenths of an inch, as far as it hundredths or 4 tenths of a foot is 4 inches and 8 tenths of an extends. Thus, if you stretch the legs of a pair of compasses, inch; 45 hundredths of a foot is 5 inches and 4 tenths of an so that the distance between the two points of the legs may inch; and so on, according to the length of the scale. extend from the extremity A to the fourth vertical division We come now to the most useful and accurate Scale drawn beyond that marked 3, you have in this distance the measure on this Instrument, fig. 1, we mean the Diagonal Scale of Equal or the length of 3•4 inches or 316 inches. If you wish to Parts. The larger Divisions of this scale are sometimes an measure or lay down a longer line, you can do it from the same inch, as on the Common Gunter, which is 2 feet long; and scale by parts ; thus, to ineasure or lay down a line of 11.5 sometimes half an inch as on the Plane Scale, which is only inches, you can first take 6 inches complete from the scale and half a foot long. In fig. 1 the larger divisions from c to D are