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Arithmetic in Whole Numbers.

THE INTRODUCTION.
A

is comprised in the five following fundamental Rules, viz: NUMERATION, ADDITION, SUBTRACTION, MULTIPLICATION and DIVISION.

NUMERATION Teacheth to read or write any number by these ten characters, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 0, and their values differ ac. ording to the place they stand in, as may be seen by the folwing tc

TABLE.

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One

Twenty-one
21 Three hundred and 21
4 3 2 1 Four thousand 321

4 3 2 1 Fifty-four thousand 321
the

4 3 2 1 Six hundred and 54321 6 5 4 3 2 1 Seven million 654321

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Eighty-seven milllion 654321 9 87,6 5 4 3 2 1 Nine hundred and 87654321

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Eight thousand 987654321 7 8 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Seventy-eight thous. 987654321

78087654321 41. 9.87 6 5 4 3 2 1 six hundred and, ? 42. M

Rerior Pertake

137486 314859607182. 43

-000000000 99999999999.

QUESTIONS FOR EXERCISE. at number added to 858791, will re ke the sum o 12

of thousands of millions.
fr Tens of thousands of millions.

Hundreds of thousands.
60.60 Hundreds of millions.
Who Co Co Thousands of millions.

et Tens of thousands.
coco Tens of millions.

Millions.

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4789

TO WRITE NUMBERS. RULE. Write down the figures as their values are expressed and supply every deficiency in the order with ciphers.

EXAMPLES. Write down in proper figures the following numbers. 1. Twenty-three. Ans. 23 / 3. One hundred and six. Ans. 2. Fifty-seven.

4. Seven hundred and eighty-nine. 5. Nine thousand three hundred and ten.

Äns. 6. Six hundred and thirty thousand five hundred and eightytwo.

Ans. 7. Three million two hundred and sixty thousand, one hun. dred and five.

Ans. To express in words at length any number proposed in figures.

RULE. To the value of each figure, write the name of its place, beginning at the left and reading towards the right.

EXAMPLES. Write in words the following numbers. 1. 9 Ans. Nine. 6.

35284

Ans. 2 17

7. 471805 3. 84

8. 9178436 4. 103

9. 12300654 5. 4381

10. 625847931

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SIMPLE ADDITION Teachteth to add two or more sums together, to make on whole or total sum.

EXAMPLES.
(1.) (2.) (3.)

(4.)
69
876

6768973524
78
697

8976254307
83
968

6276942578
52
543

9757893461
87
307

310941375
75
219

235483219
192

4849675261
28
374

6975134208

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34

udred.

53742 ; 6042 , 174; 59 and 3 into

Ang und

QUESTIONS FOR EXERCISE. 8. A merehant is indebted to A. $1205; to B. $738 to C. $71; to D. $19; and to E. $3874. I demand the amount of his debts?

Ans. 9. A merchant has received the following sums, 8111. 5171. 2431. 131. 1851. and 35181. I demand the whole sum. Ans.

10. Bought 6 pipes of brandy containing as follows, viz. No. 1. 120; No. 2. 118; No. 3. 125; No. 4. 121; No. 5. 127 ; and No. 6. 119 gallons. How many gallons in the whole ? Ano.

11. The difference between two numbers is 307, the lesser is 479. What is the greater number?

Ans. 12. Add together 3 times 48351; 5 times 87004; 4 times 7482 and 6 times 12345.

Ans. 13. In the city of Pekin in China, is a bell weighing 120000lbs. at Nankin in the same empire, another of 50000lbs. and at Erfort in Upper Saxony, the great bell weighs 25400lbs. Quere, the weight of the three?

Ans. 14. The Roman emperor Julius Cæsar, was killed by Brutus, 44 years before Christ, and Louis the XVÍ. King of France was beheaded, Anno Domini 1793'; the distance of time between the events is required ?

Ans. 15. The distance from Portland in the province of Maine to Boston is 125 miles, from Boston to New-York 250, from

New-York to Philadelphia 95, from Philadelphia to Balti. more 102, from Baltimore to Richmond in Virginia 176, from Richmond to Charleston, S. Carolina, 540, and from Charleston, to Savannah, in Georgia 119; what is the distance from Portland to Savannah ?

Ans. 16. Money was first made of gold and silver at Argos 894 years before Christ. How many years has it been in use?

Ans.

a

SIMPLE SUBTRACTION Teacheth to take a less number from a greater, and shews the remainder or difference.

EXAMPLES.
(1.)
(2.)

(3.)
From 8103

97531

5465768792 Take 5731

46802

2312019876

41.
42. MI Fom 65730014

take 24685319. 510079137486 374859607182. 443

100000000000 99999999999.

QUESTIONS FOR EXERCISE. at number added to 858791, will make the sum io 12

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8. What number subtracted from 2745301 will make the remainder to be 1785392 ?

Ans. 9. America was discovered by Columbus in 1492, and its independence declared in 1776. How many years have elap. sed between those æres ?

Ans. 10. In the city of Pekin in China, is a bell weighing, it is said, 120000lbs. and at Nankin, in the same country, is another weighing 50000lbs. the first exceeds the great bell at Erfort, in Upper Saxony, by 94600lbs. How much then is the German bell inferior in weight to the second ? Ans.

11. General George Washington was born in 1732,/and died in 1799 ; what was his age when this event took place and how many years since ? Ans. his age, and since.

12. A merchant has to receive $817, $512, $601, $21 and $1358 ; and has to pay rent $150, and bis note at the bank for $3352 ; whither will he have money to borrow or to spare, and how much?

Ans. 13. You were born 34 years after me ; how old shall I be when you are 17 ? and how old will you be when I am 70 years of age ? Ans. I shall be

years.
SIMPLE MULTIPLICATION
Teacheth how to increase the one of two numbers given as
often as there are units in the other, and compendiously per-**
forms many additions.

The number to be multiplied is called the multiplicand.
The number by which you multiply is called the multiplier.
The number produced by the operation is called the product.
Also, the multiplicand and multiplier are called factors.

MULTIPLICATION TABLE.

and you

I'S

81 ? 10

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2 3 4 5 6 7

10 11 12 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 201 22 24 6 9 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 S 12

16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 10 15 20 25 301 351 401 43 50 55] 60 12 18 24 30 361 42 48 54 60 66 72 14 21 28 35 42 49 561 63 70 77 84 10

48 56 64 72 801 27

43

54 63 721 81
20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
24 33

55 66 77 88 99 110 12
24 36

48

601 721 841.9611081201133

7

24 32 40

9

36

81 2019

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